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Full text of "Ocean magnetic and electric observations, 1915-1921"

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in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 






http://archive.org/details/oceanmagneticeleOOcarn 



PLATE 1 





<atj.^»-„ 






VIEWS OF THE CARNEGIE IN VARIOUS HARBORS OF THE WORLD. 



1. At Lyttelton, dressed in honor of 4. Off Old Point Comfort, with port 2. At Buenos Aires, alongside Yacht 

Anzac Day. signals flying, at the conclusion of Club. 

3. In dry-dock, Balboa, Canal Zone. Cruise VI. 5. At Honolulu. 

6. In King Edward Cove, South 7. Off Lyttelton, starting on circumpolar 

Georgia. cruise. 



RESEARCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

VOLUME V 



OCEAN MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC 
OBSERVATIONS, 1915-1921 



MAGNETIC RESULTS 

BY 

J. P. AULT 

ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC RESULTS 

BY 
J. P. AULT AND S. J. MAUCHLY 

SPECIAL REPORTS 

W. J. Peters: The Hudson Bay Expedition, 1914 

J. P. Ault: Navigation of Aircraft by Astronomical Methods 

Louis A. Bauer, W. J. Peters, and J. A. Fleming : The Compass- Variometer 

Louis A. Bauer: The Sunspot and Annual Variations of Atmospheric Electricity with Special 
Reference to the Carnegie Observations, 1915-1921 

S. J. Mauchly: Studies in Atmospheric Electricity Based on Observations Made on the 

Carnegie, 1915-1921 




Washington, D. C. 

Published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington 

January 1926 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

Publication No. 175 (Vol. V) 



JUDD & DETWEILER, INC. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

OCEAN MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC OB- 
SERVATIONS, 1915-1921. 

Introduction 1 

Acknowledgment 2 

Magnetic Results Obtained Aboard the 

Carnegie, 1915-1921, by J. P. Ault ... 3 

General remarks 5 

Synopses of the Carnegie's cruises IV, V, and VI, 

1915-1921 6 

Cruise IV, March 1915 to March 1917 6 

Cruise V, December 1917 to June 1918 12 

Cruise VI, October 1919 to November 1921 .... 13 
Magnetic instruments used in the Carnegie work 22 
Marine collimating-compass for magnetic de- 
clination 22 

Sea deflector for magnetic horizontal intensity 

and declination 24 

Declination observations 24 

Scheme of horizontal-intensity observations 24 

Sea dip-circle for inclination and total intensity 24 

Marine earth-inductor for inclination 24 

String galvanometer 25 

Method of observation 26 

Instrumental outfit for the Carnegie work 30 

Cruises IV and V, March 1915 to June 1918. ... 30 

Magnetic instruments 30 

Atmospheric-electric instruments 31 

Sextants, chronometers, watches, and dip-of- 

horizon measurers 31 

Meteorological instruments and miscellane- 
ous equipment 32 

Cruise VI, October 1919 to November 1921 .... 33 

Magnetic instruments 33 

Atmospheric-electric instruments 33 

Sextants, chronometers, watches, and dip-of- 

horizon measurers 34 

Meteorological instruments and miscellane- 
ous equipment 34 

Specimens of observations and computations .... 34 

Geographic positions at sea 35 

Reduction formulae and determination of con- 
stants 35 

Magnetic standards adopted 35 

Constants and corrections for sea instruments . 35 

Declination observations 36 

Horizontal-intensity observations with sea 

deflector 37 

Inclination corrections 41 

Total-intensity observations 43 

Constants and corrections for land instruments 46 
Descriptions of magnetometers, magnetom- 
eter-inductors, and earth inductors 46 

Magnetometer corrections 47 

Earth-inductor corrections 47 

Ocean magnetic observations on the Carnegie, 

1915-1921 48 

Explanatory remarks for final results, 1915-1921 48 
Combining weights assigned to different in- 
struments and methods 50 

Distribution of stations 50 

Observers and computers 51 

Final results of ocean magnetic observations on 

the Carnegie, 1915-1921 52 

Cruise IV, Atlantic Ocean, 1915 52 

Cruise IV, Pacific Ocean, 1915 53 

Cruise IV, Southern Ocean, 1915-1916 60 

Cruise IV, Pacific Ocean, 1916-1917 67 

Cruise IV, Atlantic Ocean, 1917 76 



Magnetic Results Obtained Aboard the 
Carnegie, 1915-1921, by J. P. Ault— 
Continued. 
Final results of ocean magnetic observations on 
the Carnegie, 1915-1921— Concluded. 

Cruise V, Atlantic Ocean, 1917 77 

Cruise V, Pacific Ocean, 1917-1918 78 

Cruise V, Atlantic Ocean, 1918 82 

Cruise VI, Atlantic Ocean, 1919-1920 84 

Cruise VI, Indian Ocean, 1920 91 

Cruise VI, Pacific Ocean, 1920-1921 96 

Cruise VI, Atlantic Ocean, 1921 107 

Shore magnetic observations for the Carnegie 

work, 1915-1921 108 

Explanatory remarks 108 

Results of shore magnetic observations, 1915- 

1921 109 

Distribution of shore stations, 1905-1921... 121 

Descriptions of shore stations, 1915-1921 122 

Extracts from instructions for cruises and ob- 
servational work on the Carnegie 127 

Cruise IV of the Carnegie, 1915-1917 127 

Cruise V of the Carnegie, 1917-1918 129 

Cruise VI of the Carnegie, 1919-1921 133 

Extracts from field reports and abstracts of logs 

of the Carnegie 139 

Extracts from field reports 139 

J. P. Ault: On the sub-Antarctic voyage of 
the Carnegie, from Lyttelton to Lyttelton 
via South Georgia, December 6, 1915, to 

April 1, 1916 139 

Abstracts of logs of the Carnegie 144 

J. P. Ault: Abstract of log, Cruise IV, 1915- 

1917 144 

Summary of passages for Cruise IV of the 

Carnegie 154 

H. M. W. Edmonds: Abstract of log, Cruise 

V, 1917-1918 154 

Summary of passages for Cruise V of the 

Carnegie 157 

J. P. Ault: Abstract of log, Cruise VI, 1919- 

1921 158 

Summary of passages for Cruise VI of the 

Carnegie 170 

Final summary for cruises of the Carnegie, 

1915-1921 170 

Auxiliary observations on the Carnegie 171 

Special investigations 171 

Report on icebergs seen during the sub-Ant- 
arctic voyage, 1915-1916 ' 171 

Sea surface-temperature and meteorological 
observations during the sub-Antarctic 

voyage, 1915-1916 174 

Some discussions of the ocean magnetic work .... 179 
Absence of magnetic deviations on the Carnegie 179 
Magnetic chart differences as shown by the 

Carnegie results, 1915-1921 183 

Preliminary values of the annual changes of the 
magnetic elements as determined from 
the Galilee and Carnegie results, 1905-1921 185 
Status of the general magnetic survey of ocean 

areas 191 

Maps showing distribution of ocean magnetic 

stations, 1905 to 1921 193 

Requirements for future ocean work 193 



111 



[V 



Contents 



Atmospheric - Electric Results Obtained 
Aboard the Carnegie, 1915-1921, by J. 

P. Ault and S. J. Mauchly 195 

Introduction 197 

Outline of observations on Carnegie cruises, 1915- 

1921 198 

Observations on Cruise IV, 1915-1917 198 

Observations on Cruise V, 1917-1918 199 

Observations on Cruise VI, 1919-1921 200 

Instruments, observational procedure, and con- 
stants, 1915-1921 201 

Instrument improvements for Cruise VI 202 

Concerning the method of applying the poten- 
tial difference between the plates of the 

Einthoven electrometer 204 

Instrumental constants and standardizations . . 205 
Ocean atmospheric-electric observations on the 

Carnegie, 1915-1921 210 

Explanatory remarks for final results, 1915-1 921 
Final results of ocean atmospheric-electric ob- 
servations on the Carnegie, 1915-1921 .... 212 

Cruise IV, Atlantic Ocean, 1915 212 

Cruise IV, Pacific Ocean, 1915 212 

Cruise IV, Southern Ocean, 1915-1916 219 

Cruise IV, Pacific Ocean, 1916-1917 225 

Cruise IV, Atlantic Ocean, 1917 235 

Cruise V, Atlantic Ocean, 1917 235 

Cruise V, Pacific Ocean, 1917-1918 236 

Cruise V, Atlantic Ocean, 1918 240 

Cruise VI, Atlantic Ocean, 1919-1920 241 

Cruise VI, Indian Ocean, 1920 247 

Cruise VI, Pacific Ocean, 1920-1921 252 

Cruise VI, Atlantic Ocean, 1921 265 

Extracts from instructions for atmospheric-elec- 
tric work, 1915-1921 266 

General instructions, cruises IV, V, and VI, 

1915-1921 266 

Supplementary instructions, July 28, 1920 274 

Supplementary instructions, August 19, 1920 . . 275 
Supplementary instructions, March 15, 1921 . . 275 
Extracts from observers' reports on atmospheric- 
electric matters, 1915-1921 277 

S. J. Mauchly: From report of May 13, 1915, 

at Balboa 277 

H. F. Johnston: From report of June 7, 1915, at 

Honolulu 280 

H. F. Johnston: From report of August 2, 1915, 

at Dutch Harbor 282 

H. F. Johnston: From report of April 15, 1916, 

at Lyttelton 282 

A. Thomson: From report of November 24, 

1919, at Dakar 283 

A. Thomson: From report of February 11, 

1920, at Buenos Aires 284 

A. Thomson: From report of April 1, 1920, at 

St. Helena : 284 

A. Thomson: From report of April 30, 1920, 

at Cape Town 284 

A. Thomson: From report of April 15, 1921, at 

Honolulu 285 

A. Thomson: From report of July 12, 1921, at 

Apia 285 



page 
SPECIAL REPORTS BY W. J. PETERS, J. P. 
AULT, LOUISA. BAUER, J. A. FLEMING, 
AND S. J. MAUCHLY. 

The Hudson Bay Expedition, 1914, by W. J. 

Peters 287 

Introduction and vessel description 291 

Methods of work and magnetic instruments 

used 293 

Ship constants and deviation coefficients 294 

Ocean magnetic observations on the George 

B. Cluett, 1914 297 

Explanatory remarks 297 

Final results of ocean magnetic observations. . 299 

Land magnetic observations 299 

Results . . . .- 300 

Descriptions of stations 301 

Extracts from instructions for the observa- 
tional work and narrative report 304 

Program of magnetic work 304 

Extracts from reports on the expedition 305 

Abstracts of log of the George B. Cluett 310 

Notes on the northern lights 312 

Navigation of Aircraft by Astronomical 

Methods, by J. P. Ault 315 

Introduction 317 

The problem 317 

Reports of work done and discussion of results . . 317 

Summary and conclusions 335 

The Compass-Variometer, by Louis A. Bauer, 

W. J. Peters, and J. A. Fleming 339 

General description and formulae 341 

Detailed descriptions 344 

Applications 353 

Sunspot and Annual Variations of At- 
mospheric Electricity with Special 
Reference to the Carnegie Observa- 
tions, 1915-1921, by Louis A. Bauer 359 

Sunspot variation of atmospheric electricity 361 

Sunspottedness and atmospheric potential- 
gradient 362 

Sunspottedness and diurnal variation of at- 
mospheric potential-gradient 368 

Sunspottedness and annual variation of 

atmospheric potential-gradient 372 

Sunspot variation of atmospheric potential- 
gradient observed on the Carnegie, 1915- 

1921 372 

Sunspot variation of diurnal variation of 
atmospheric potential-gradient observed on 

the Carnegie, 1915-1921 373 

Regarding secular variation of the atmos- 
pheric potential-gradient 378 

Sunspottedness, conductivity, and air-currents 379 
General conclusions regarding sunspottedness 
and atmospheric potential-gradient for 1913- 

1922 380 

Annual variation of atmospheric potential- 
gradient 382 

Land observations 382 

Ocean observations 383 



Contents 



PAGE 

Studies in Atmospheric Electricity Based 
on Observations Made on the Car- 
negie, 1915-1921, by S. J. Mauchly 385 

Introduction 387 

The diurnal variation of the potential gradient 
with special reference to its universal-time 
component 388 

On the distribution of potential gradient over 
the oceans, especially as regards variation 
with latitude 403 

Annual change of potential gradient as indi- 
cated by ocean observations 404 

Variations and distribution of ionic content, 
conductivity, and air-earth current-density 
over the oceans 407 



page 
Studies in Atmospheric Electricity Based 
on Observations Made on the Car- 
negie, 1915-1921, by S. J. Mauchly — 
Concluded. 

The radioactive content of sea air 416 

Penetrating radiation over the oceans 421 

Some general considerations on atmospheric 
electricity from the work of the Carnegie, 

1915-1921 423 

Index, Magnetic Results 425 

Index, Atmospheric-Electric Results 429 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate 1, 



Plate 2. 



Plate 3, 



Plate 4. 



Plate 5. 



Plate 6. 
Plate 7. 
Plate 8. 
Plate 9. 
Plate 10. 
Plate 11. 
Plate 12. 



Plate 13. 



Plate 14. 



Plate 15. 



PLATES. 

Views of the Carnegie in Various Harbors of the World Frontispiece 

1, At Lyttelton, dressed in honor of Anzac Day. 2, At Buenos Aires, alongside Yacht Club. 3, 
In drydock, Balboa, Canal Zone. 4, Off Old Point Comfort, with port signals flying, at the 
conclusion of Cruise VI. 5, At Honolulu. 6, In King Edward Cove, South Georgia. 7, 
Off Lyttelton, starting on circurapolar cruise. 

opposite 
page 

Views at Baltimore during Repairs of the Carnegie, 1919 6 

1, Carnegie on marine railway. 2, Copper gasoline tank, capacity 2,100 gallons. 3, Trying to 
launch the vessel. 4, Bronze engine, modified to use gasoline. 

New Instruments used on Cruise VI * 26 

1, C. I. W. marine earth-inductor 7. 2, String galvanometer showing fiber mounting. 3, Slip- 
ring coil for earth inductor and improved D'Arsonval balance for galvanometer. 4, String 
galvanometer assembled. 5, Sperry automatic roll-and-pitch recorder. 

Views of Land Stations, Cruises IV and V, and of Passage through the Panama Canal 46 

1, Honolulu Magnetic Observatory, Honolulu, T. H. 2, Guam, Ladrone Islands. 3, Meeting 
steamer near Gaillard Cut, Panama Canal. 4, Approaching Gatun Locks, Panama Canal. 
5, Hipodromo, Lima, Peru. 6, Magnetic observatory, Pilar, Argentina. 7, Magnetic 
station and the Carnegie, from Ballyhoo Mountain, Dutch Harbor, Alaska. 8, Magnetic 
observatory, Apia, Samoa. 

General Views, Cruises IV and VI 174 

1, Images on Rano Raraku, Easter Island. 2, Image platform and graveyard, Easter Island. 

3, Images on crater slope, Easter Island. 4, Ancient cave dwellings, Easter Island. 5, 
Village and harbor, Penrhyn Island. 6, Typical view of monolithic images, Easter Island. 
7, One of many table-topped icebergs, Sub-Antarctic Cruise (height, 500 feet, distance 1 mile). 

Magnetic Survey Work of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism during the Period 1905-1924. 192 

Magnetic Stations of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the North Pacific Ocean In pocket 

Magnetic Stations of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the South Pacific Ocean In pocket 

Magnetic Stations of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the North Atlantic Ocean ... In pocket 

Magnetic Stations of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the South Atlantic Ocean ... In pocket 

Magnetic Stations of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the Indian Ocean In pocket 

Atmospheric-Electric Instruments used on the Carnegie, Cruise VI 202 

1, Potential-gradient electrometer, showing handle for raising prime conductor. 2, Potential- 
gradient electrometer with cover removed and showing insulated mountings for prime- 
conductor handle. 3, Improved type of bifilar electrometer with appurtenances. 4, Observer 
using potential-gradient apparatus, mounted on stern rail, with prime conductor raised. 

Atmospheric-Electric Instruments used on the Carnegie, Cruise VI 208 

1, Conductivity apparatus, side view. 2, Radioactive-content apparatus, collecting system. 3, 
Penetrating-radiation apparatus. 4, Ion counter, microscope removed. 5, Radioactive- 
content apparatus, ionizing chamber. 

New Instruments for Aerial Navigation 326 

1, Artificial horizon, with mounting block, cover, and azimuth circle. 2, Artificial horizon with 
azimuth circle in place. 3, Top view of artificial horizon, showing speculum-metal mirror. 

4, Patrol-boat-type sextant, with 5-inch arc. 5, Navigating board and chart case closed, 
showing chart. 6, New protractor for plotting Sumner lines, with extra azimuth and alti- 
tude-intercept arm. 7, Navigating board and chart case in position on observer's knees. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington Compass- Variometers . 350 

1, Model 1 type. 2, Model 4 as mounted in inertia-gimbal support on ship. 3, Model 1 side 
removed, showing lower magnet damping-box, knee-lever slow-motion system, and magnet 
arrester. 4, Lens support and slow-motion system with double-pivoted magnets of model 3. 

5, Model 2 as mounted on ship. 6, Model 1 as viewed in use showing quartz-fiber indices, 
mirror, and graduated circle. 7, Complete inner supporting-system of model 2 showing mag- 
nets, scales, bumpers, and speculum mirrors and reflectors. 8, Model 2 as mounted in carry- 
ing-case for observations at land stations. 

vi 



Illustrations vii 

TEXT-FIGURES. 

PAGE 

Fig. 1. Track of the Carnegie's Sub-Antarctic Cruise, December 6, 1915 to April 1, 1916 9 

Fig. 2. Details of String Galvanometer for Ship Use 25 

Fig. 3. Record of Ship's Motion as obtained with Sperry Gyroscopic Roll-and-Pitch Recorder aboard the 

Carnegie, November 2, 1921 137 

Fig. 4. Cruises IV and V of the Carnegie, 1915-1918 198 

Fig. 5. Cruise VI of the Carnegie, 1919-1921 200 

Fig. 6. Battery Circuit in Atmospheric-Electric Observing-House 204 

Fig. 7. Sail Plan of Auxiliary Schooner George B. Cluett 291 

Fig. 8. Profile and Deck Plan of the George B. Cluett 293 

Fig. 9. Revised Position-Lines, Airplane Flight from Langley Field to Washington and Return, September 

23, 1918 323 

Fig. 10. Compass Deviation-Curves for Airplane, on the Ground and in Flight 333 

Fig. 11. Compass Deviation-Curve for Airplane in Flight 334 

Fig. 12. Helmholtz-Gaugain Testing-Coils for calibrating Compass- Variometers 342 

Fig. 13. Calibration Curve for Compass- Variometer, Model 1 343 

Fig. 14. Sensitivity Graph for Compass- Variometer, Model 2 343 

Fig. 15. Compass- Variometer, Model 1 345 

Fig. 16. Compass- Variometer, Model 4, and Inertia-Gimbal System for Mounting on Ship 349 

Fig. 17. Optical System, Compass- Variometer, Model 4 351 

Fig. 18. Location of Magnetic Stations for Magnetic-Disturbance Survey in Dry-Dock 1 353 

Fig. 19. Curves of Equal Horizontal-Intensity for Sandy's Parish, Bermuda 355 

Fig. 20. Horizontal-Intensity-Survey Results in Neighborhood of Station A, Paget West, Bermuda 356 

Fig. 21. Distribution of Atmospheric Potential-Gradient stations of the Carnegie, 1910-1921 374 

Fig. 22. Variation of Atmospheric Potential-Gradient during Solar Cycle, 1913-1922 379 

Fig. 23. Comparison of Diurnal Variation of Potential Gradient at Ocean Stations with Longitude-Differences 

of 180° on L. M. T. and on G. M. T 389 

Fig. 24. Mean Value of the Potential Gradient for the Different Oceans from Observations on the Carnegie, 

1915-1921 393 

Fig. 25. Comparison of Diurnal Variation of Potential Gradient for Same Time of Year in Different Oceans and 

in Different Latitudes 394 

Fig. 26. Mean Diurnal- Variation of Potential Gradient for Three-Month Periods from Diurnal- Variation 

Series on the Carnegie, Cruises IV, V, and VI, 1915-1921 396 

Fig. 27. Mean Values of Potential Gradient of the Atmosphere observed on the Carnegie, 1915-1921, grouped 

for Greenwich Hours from (a) Daily Determinations — Heavy Lines, and (6) Diurnal- Varia- 
tion Series — Light Lines 400 

Fig. 28. Diurnal Variation of Positive-Ion Content of the Atmosphere from Observations on the Carnegie, 1915- 

1921 408 

Fig. 29. Diurnal Variation of the Air-Earth Current-Density from Observations on the Carnegie, 1918-1921 . . 410 

Fig. 30. Collecting System of Radioactive-Content Apparatus used on the Carnegie 416 

Fig. 31. Radium-Emanation Content of the Air from Observations on the Carnegie, 1915-1921, showing 

Number of Observations and Mean Values obtained for Different Sections of the Cruises . . . 418 



OCEAN MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS, 

1915-1921. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This publication is the fifth of the series by the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, bearing the general title " Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism," and is the second volume containing results of ocean magnetic and electric 
observations. Volume I is entitled "Land Magnetic Observations, 1905-1910." 
Volume II, "Land Magnetic Observations, 1911-1913, and Reports on Special 
Researches," contains besides the magnetic results the following reports: Research 
Buildings of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, by L. A. Bauer and J. A. 
Fleming; Magnetic Inspection Trip and Observations during Total Solar Eclipse 
of April 28, 1911, at Manua, Samoa, by L. A. Bauer; Results of Comparisons of 
Magnetic Standards, 1905-1914, by L. A. Bauer and J. A. Fleming. Volume III, 
"Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on Special Researches," 
is the first volume of ocean results and includes also reports as follows: Results of 
Atmospheric-Electric Observations made aboard the Galilee (1907-1908), and the 
Carnegie (1909-1916), by L. A. Bauer and W. F. G. Swann; Some Discussions of 
the Ocean Magnetic Work, by L. A. Bauer and W. J. Peters. Volume IV, "Land 
Magnetic Observations, 1914-1920, and Special Reports," contains the magnetic 
results and reports entitled: Construction of Non-Magnetic Experiment Building 
of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, by J. A. Fleming; Dip-Needle Errors 
Arising from Minute Pivot-Defects, by H. W. Fisk; A Sine Galvanometer for 
Determining in Absolute Measure the Horizontal Intensity of the Earth's Mag- 
netic Field, by S. J. Barnett; Results of Comparisons of Magnetic Standards, 1915— 
1921, by J. A. Fleming. 

The present volume (V) is devoted to the final results of ocean magnetic and 
electric observations made aboard the Carnegie in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and 
Southern oceans during 1915-1921. The appended reports relate to auxiliary ob- 
servations made aboard the Carnegie or to special investigations. 

The Director (Louis A. Bauer) and the Assistant Director (J. A. Fleming) of the 
Department desire to emphasize the successful manner in which the commanders 
of the Carnegie and the members of their scientific staffs have performed their 
respective responsibilities. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 

The members of the Carnegie's scientific staffs, whose devotion and unflagging 
interest have made possible the accummulation and reduction of the data presented 
in this volume, were: 

CRUISE IV, MARCH 1915 TO MARCH 1917. 

J. P. Ault, master of the vessel and in charge of scientific work. 

H. M. W. Edmonds, second-in-command, chief magnetic observer and navigating officer, and 
surgeon. 

H. F. Johnston (to April 1916), observer in charge of atmospheric-electric work. 

I. A. Luke (to October 1916), magnetic observer and assistant atmospheric-electric observer and 
navigating officer. 

B. Jones (April 1916 to March 1917), observer in charge of atmospheric-electric work. 

F. C. Loring (November 1915 to October 1916), magnetic observer and computer. 

A. D. Power (from October 1916), magnetic observer and assistant atmospheric-electric observer 
and navigating officer. 

H. E. Sawyer (to November 1916), magnetic observer and computer. 

L. L. Tanguy (from October 1916), magnetic observer and computer. 

N. Meisenhelter, stenographer-recorder, meteorological observer, computer, and assistant 
navigating officer. 

S. J. Mauchly (March and April 1915), completing installation of new atmospheric-electric equip- 
ment. 

CRUISE V. DECEMBER 1917 TO JUNE 1918. 

H. M. W. Edmonds, master of the vessel and in charge of scientific work. 

A. D. Power, second-in-command, chief magnetic observer and navigating officer. 

B. Jones, observer in charge of atmospheric-electric work. 

L. L. Tanguy, magnetic observer and assistant navigating officer. 

J. M. McFadden, magnetic observer and assistant atmospheric-electric observer. 

W. E. Scott, stenographer-recorder, meteorological observer, and computer. 

CRUISE VI, OCTOBER 1919 TO NOVEMBER 1921. 

J. P. Ault, master of the vessel and in charge of scientific work. 

H. F. Johnston, second-in-command, chief magnetic observer and navigating officer. 

R. R. Mills (to October 1921), magnetic observer, assistant navigating officer, and stenographer. 

A. Thomson, observer in charge of atmospheric-electric work. 

H. R. Grummann, magnetic observer, assistant atmospheric-electric observer, and assistant navigat- 
ing officer. 

R. Pemberton (to August 1921), surgeon, recorder, computer, and meteorological observer. 

F. A. Franke (October and November 1921), surgeon and recorder. 

Louis A. Bauer, director of the Department, accompanied the party during October and November 
1921, taking active part in the magnetic observations and computations. 

2 



MAGNETIC RESULTS 
OBTAINED ABOARD THE CARNEGIE 

1915 - 1921 



By J. P. Ault 



MAGNETIC RESULTS OBTAINED ABOARD THE CARNEGIE, 1915-1921. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

During cruises IV, V, and VI, 1915-1921, the ocean magnetic work on board the 
Carnegie has been continued successfully. A steady improvement in instrumental 
appliances and methods and in the skill of the observers has resulted in a marked increase 
in the amount and in the accuracy of the results obtained. 

Owing to the increased attention given to atmospheric-electric observations, it was 
necessary to assign one observer entirely to this work, thus increasing the scientific person- 
nel from 5 to 6. Before the beginning of Cruise IV in 1915 a special observing house was 
built on the trunk abaft the after dome, where the electric instruments could be mounted 
permanently. An additional stateroom on the starboard side of the cabin was provided 
for the accommodation of an extra observer. 

On account of the war it was considered best to terminate Cruise IV at Buenos Aires 
upon the arrival of the Carnegie at that port on March 2, 1917. The vessel remained at 
Buenos Aires (see Plate 1, Fig. 2) until December 4, 1917, when Cruise V was begun and 
during which the Carnegie returned to Washington by way of Cape Horn, the Pacific 
Ocean, and the Panama Canal, arriving at Washington on June 10, 1918. 

During the remainder of 1918 and the early part of 1919 the Carnegie was out of 
commission at Washington pending the termination of the war and the return to normal 
activities of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Early in 1919 plans were made 
for another cruise of world-wide extent and the vessel was taken to Baltimore for a com- 
plete overhauling and repairing (see PL 2.) 

While these repairs were being made the Carnegie's engine was converted to operate 
on gasoline instead of on producer gas. This change seemed desirable because gasoline 
can now be secured in all frequented ports of the world and because of the increase in 
efficiency and reliability of operation resulting from the use of gasoline instead of producer 
gas. The wisdom of this change was fully proved by the experiences with the engine 
during Cruise VI. 

Another important change was the installation of electric-light fixtures, generator, 
and storage-battery. This added greatly to the comfort and convenience of living con- 
ditions on board, and furnished power for operating the atmospheric-electric instruments 
and a Sperry automatic roll-and-pitch recorder. (For view of this instrument, reproduced 
through the courtesy of the Sperry Gyroscope Company, see PL 3, Fig. 5.) 

Other changes include installation of kerosene burners in the two galley stoves, 
rearrangement of entrance to room used by the cooks and boys to exclude the heat from 
the galley stove, and removal of sail locker and substitution of a settee and of library 
shelves in the wardroom for the use of the watch officers and crew. For the storage of 
the gasoline two copper tanks (see PL 2, Fig. 2), each 6 feet in diameter and 10 feet long, 
with a capacity of 2,100 gallons, were installed in the former producer room. An extra 
kerosene tank was built in the forward part of the starboard coal-bunker, the after part 
of the coal-bunker being partitioned off for use as a storage-battery and engine storeroom. 
The port coal-bunker was converted into a sail locker. 

The refrigeration machine had not proved successful for the Carnegie's use and was 
removed. An ice-box for use in port was installed in the former refrigerator tank-room. 
The remaining space in this room was used for the construction of a small photographic 
dark-room and of a locker for slop-chest supplies. 

The 6-horsepower bronze kerosene engine was not suitable for operating the genera- 
tor of the electric-light plant and was removed. A standard commercial 6-horsepower 
gasoline engine was installed in its place and has given entire satisfaction. 

5 



6 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Temporary, removable desks were placed in the chart-room for use of the observers 
for the computation and reduction work. 

Specially constructed non-magnetic heating stoves, built of sheet-copper, brick-lined, 
with bronze castings for top and base, were used in the forecastle and in the cabin during 
the cruises in cold weather. 

SYNOPSES OF THE CARNEGIE'S CRUISES IV, V, AND VI. 1915-1921. 

CRUISE IV. MARCH 1915 TO MARCH 1917. 

After the completion of Cruise III, the Carnegie was out of commission for a few 
months, during which time an observatory was built, just abaft the after dome, for the 
housing of the new instruments used in the measurements of the electrical state of the 
atmosphere. An additional stateroom on the starboard side of the cabin was provided 
for the accommodation of an extra observer. The bottom of the vessel was sheathed with 
a copper alloy, for tropical waters, and a belt, 4 feet wide, consisting of brass plates, 
one-quarter inch thick, was added along the water-line to afford some protection against 
the ice conditions likely to be encountered on the forthcoming cruise. The alterations 
were made at Hoboken by Tietjen and Lang, according to plans and specifications of the 
naval architect, H. J. Gielow, of New York, under the immediate supervision of J. P. 
Ault, as representative of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. These improve- 
ments were satisfactorily completed by February 17, 1915, on which day the Carnegie 
returned to her berth in Beard's Yacht Basin, at Brooklyn, to be put in commission. 
While the above work was being done the magnetic instruments were examined, repaired, 
or altered in the Department shop as required for Cruise IV, and their constants were 
redetermined. 

After a final inspection of the vessel by the Director and W. J. Peters, the Carnegie, on 
March 6, left Brooklyn, under J. P. Ault's command, for Gardiners Bay, where she was 
successfully swung on March 7 and 8, preparatory to putting to sea. This was the Car- 
negie's fifth visit to Gardiners Bay for the purpose of swinging ship. The result of these 
swings, made in 1909, 1910, 1913, 1914, and 1915, confirm the existence of local magnetic 
disturbance in Gardiners Bay and furnish the desired control on the accuracy of the 
magnetic work aboard the Carnegie. W. F. G. Swann remained on board to the last 
moment to complete the installations and tests of the new atmospheric-electric instru- 
ments which had been constructed in the Department shop for this cruise, in accordance 
with his suggestions. In this work he was assisted by S. J. Mauchly and H. F. Johnston. 

The Carnegie sailed from Gardiners Bay on March 9, bound for Colon, Panama. 
The passage to Colon was made in about 16 days, during which observations of at least 
one magnetic element, and usually of all three, were made on every day of the stormy 
passage. Two deaths from sickness occurred during this passage, namely, A. H. Soren- 
sen, cook, March 11, and W. Stevens, cabin boy, March 24. At Colon the ship instru- 
ments were compared with the land instruments, and a new repeat station was estab- 
lished. "Unfortunately the previously occupied stations in the vicinity of Colon are now 
magnetically affected by the large construction operations. On April 4 the Carnegie 
dragged both anchors in a fierce nortlier, but finally the anchors held. She was sub- 
sequently towed to a pier by the tug Porto Bello and the dredge Caribbean. 

The Carnegie was next taken through the canal (see PI. 4, Figs. 3 and 4) and then she 
set sail in the Pacific Ocean on April 12 from Balboa, bound for Honolulu. After 39 days 
at sea, during which 73 determinations were made of the magnetic declination and 39 
each of inclination and intensity, including a swing of the ship, the Carnegie reported her 
arrival at Honolulu on May 21. A complete scheme of comparisons was carried out 
between the ship's magnetic instruments and those of the Honolulu Magnetic Observa- 
tory (see PI. 4, Fig. 1), operated by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, by 



PLATE 2 




O S 

o o 



•3 3 
a o 






OW 



1 * 



S § 



3 C 



O H 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 7 

which a correlation with other magnetic observatories and standards was effected. Every 
facility for carrying out these comparisons at the observatory was rendered by the observer- 
in-charge, W. W. Merrymon. On June 29 and July 3 the Carnegie was swung off Pearl 
Harbor, in about the same locality as that of the Galilee's swing of 1907. The results 
confirm the large differences which had been indicated by the Galilee swing, between the 
values of the magnetic elements at the place of swing and at the observatory, and they 
also give a means of supplying an additional determination of the constant A of the 
deviation formula for the Galilee at Honolulu. The place of swing can not be sur- 
rounded by land stations and hence can not be controlled by land observations. This 
shows another advantage of a non-magnetic vessel over a vessel with deviations in a 
magnetic survey of the oceans. After all the labor of planning, observing, and swinging 
ship, and the tedious computations of the deviation parameters for a vessel having devia- 
tions, one is confronted with the fact that hardly one of the few values of A which can be 
observed during a cruise is wholly above the suspicion of being affected by local dis- 
turbance. One can only hope that the effect is neutralized in the mean of a number of 
observations at the ports available. 

On July 20, 1915, the Carnegie reached Dutch Harbor (see PL 4, Fig. 7), having 
sighted the Bogosloff Islands. The commander's report on the sighting of these islands 
reads : 

"The Bogosloff Islands were seen at a distance of 3 miles at 2 a. m., July 20. There are two 
islands at present, the eastern one terminating in two high twin peaks with sharp points at the top, 
the western one having one high mountain with a broad top." 

When the Carnegie arrived at Dutch Harbor she had already covered 10,158 nautical 
miles of her present cruise, in 73 days of sailing, at an average of 139 miles per day. 
During this period 101 values of the magnetic declination and 56 each of inclination and 
intensity were observed at sea; besides an elaborate program of observations in atmos- 
pheric electricity was carried out. Observations for determination of the amount of 
atmospheric refraction have been continued, as also the usual meteorological observa- 
tions. 

The magnetic declinations observed on the Carnegie from Brooklyn to Dutch Harbor, 
March-July 1915, showed that there had been a steady improvement in the nautical 
charts since the data obtained during the previous cruises of the Galilee and Carnegie had 
become available to hydrographic bureaus. The chart corrections reached a maximum 
value of about 1?5 in the region of the Pacific, between Panama and Honolulu, not pre- 
viously covered by these vessels. 

August 5, 1915, the Carnegie started on her long continuous passage to Lyttelton, 
New Zealand. Heavy weather was encountered immediately, and it was impossible to 
swing ship until August 15, just before leaving the Bering Sea. The farthest north was 
59° 33'. The 180th meridian was crossed on August 13, the date August 14, 1915, being 
omitted. After clearing the Aleutian Islands, the course followed was south practically 
along the 165th meridian to New Zealand. On September 6 a terrific hurricane from the 
southwest was encountered. It was necessary to take in all sail and run before the 
storm, and for 17 hours a speed of 9 knots was made under bare poles. The vessel stood 
the strain well, but everything was wet on board, the hurricane driving the rain into every 
crack and opening. Wake Island was passed in the morning of September 12. After 
passing the first of the Marshall Islands, it was deemed best to keep well to the east on 
account of prevailing easterly winds and westerly set of the currents. It was necessary 
to pass considerably to the westward of the Santa Cruz-Solomon Islands passage while 
near the equator, but favorable conditions made it possible to weather the Solomon 
Islands, the engine operating during calms. 



8 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

After passing the Solomon Islands the Carnegie was driven to the westward by the 
prevailing southeast winds and had to tack twice to avoid the Indispensable Reefs. These 
reefs were passed October 12, and all the islands and reefs in the Coral Sea were safely 
cleared. As the Coral Sea was entered, the winds drew somewhat more to the southward, 
making it necessary to near the Australian Coast off Brisbane. Good winds were blow- 
ing across the Tasman Sea, and the light on South Island, New Zealand, east entrance to 
Foveaux Strait, was made early in the morning of October 31. On account of the slow 
trip, it was decided to pass through the strait; just before clearing the east end of the 
strait at sunset, the wind shifted to the southeast, making it necessary to use the auxiliary 
power. Fortunately, the engine was in good condition and enough coal was reserved for 
such an emergency. Again, in trying to round Banks Peninsula to enter Port Lyttelton, 
the wind shifted ahead. With the engine and fore-and-aft sails, however, it was possible 
to tack to advantage against the wind, thus saving a delay of a day or more in entering 
port. On November 3 the Carnegie entered the harbor at Lyttelton. 

Upon only one occasion during the trip did the engine fail to operate, and the cause 
for this failure was definitely placed. It has proved its value on several occasions and has 
run well. During the cruise, various and unusual currents were noted. The winds en- 
countered were light and baffling; very rarely were the yards braced square for a fair 
wind. The total number of miles on the passage, Dutch Harbor to Lyttelton, was 8,865, 
giving an average of 100 miles per day for 89 days. 

Local magnetic disturbances were noted on September 18 near Marshall Islands, 
October 15 west of Chesterfield Reefs and Islets, October 20 and 21 near the coast of 
Australia, and October 31 in Foveaux Strait. The aurora australis was seen on the 
nights of November 1 and 2, consisting of long beams of white light projected vertically 
from the southern half of the horizon. 

Lyttelton was reached with over 6 tons of coal remaining in the bunkers, 40 gallons of 
kerosene, and 600 gallons of water. It was not necessary to issue a restricted quantity 
of water per day to each man, as all did their best to economize in the use of fresh water. 
A salt-water shower bath, connected with the deck pump, was in position ready for use 
at all times. The health of the party was good during the entire trip. 

A stay of 33 days at Lyttelton was necessary for the completion of the observational 
work and comparisons at the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory and for the over- 
hauling and outfitting of the vessel. During this stay at Lyttelton, as also during 
the subsequent one, the work of the Carnegie was facilitated by certain officials, and by 
Professors Farr and Chilton, of Canterbury College, and Director Skey, of Christchurch 
Observatory. 

December 6 the Carnegie left Lyttelton for a sub- Antarctic circumnavigation cruise 
(see PI. 1, Fig. 7). The 180th meridian was crossed on December 9, so that date was 
repeated as December 9 (2). The vessel arrived at King Edward Cove, South Georgia, 
on January 12, 1916, going the last 24 hours under her own auxiliary power. She again 
sailed on the 14th, being towed out of harbor against a heavy head wind by the steam 
whaler Fortuna. Icebergs (see PI. 5, Fig. 7) became more numerous and fog was almost 
continuous. However, January 18 was the only day on the entire trip in southern 
waters on which it was impossible to obtain observations for the magnetic declination. 
On January 22 the vessel passed along the north coast of Lindsay Island about 3 miles 
offshore. The Carnegie's track of 1911 to the westward of Australia was twice inter- 
sected for the determination of secular change (see PI. 11). Lyttelton was reached on 
April 1, 1916. This sub- Antarctic cruise, accomplished as far as known for the first 
time in a single season, was made practically between the parallels of 50° and 60° south 
until the neighborhood of Australia was approached, when it became necessary, on two 
occasions, to cross somewhat north of the 50th parallel. Its aggregate length was 17,084 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 



9 



nautical miles, the time of passage 118 days, and the average day's run 145 miles. For 
a more complete account of this passage, see J. P. Ault's report, pages 139 to 143; also 
view on Plate 1, Figure 6. 

After a stay of nearly 7 weeks, the Carnegie again left Lyttelton for the last time on 
this cruise, being towed out to sea on May 17 by the tugboat Lyttelton. Light head winds 
and calms were encountered, so the engine was started to gain an offing, running all 
night. For five days the wind held northeast, forcing the vessel well toward the Chat- 




Fig. 1. — Track of the Carnegie's Sub-Antarctic Cruise, December 6, 1915 to April 1, 1916. 

ham Islands. May 22 was repeated, on crossing the 180th meridian. On May 23 
favorable winds were encountered for the first time, and for three days fair winds were 
enjoyed. Then northerly winds and calms made it necessary for the course to be taken 
westward near the Kermadec Islands. On June 1 the wind was again favorable, but 
thereafter, until arrival at Pago Pago, it was necessary to sail close-hauled, with north- 
east to northwest winds. Landfall was made with some difficulty on account of the 



10 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

heavy clouds and squalls hanging over the island. Observations were carried out as 
usual during the passage. No magnetic-declination observations were obtained on 
May 30 and June 4 on account of clouds. Considerable lightning and thunder at- 
tended the squally weather. The new gooseneck on the upper topsail yard carried away 
on May 27, and was replaced with the extra one ordered at Lyttelton. The engine 
was operated to get offshore when leaving Lyttelton, to clear Savage Island during a 
calm on June 4, and to enter the harbor of Pago Pago on June 7. The time of pas- 
sage was 22 days, with a daily run of 118 miles, for a total of 2,595 miles. 

The shore observations having been completed, the Carnegie left Pago Pago on 
June 19, under her own power. The engine operated well, taking the vessel out against 
a stiff head trade-wind. The wind was too strong outside to allow making to wind- 
ward of Tutuila, so the Carnegie went around the west end. The Union Group was 
weathered, but the wind broke off to the north of east, compelling the vessel to go to 
leeward of the main Phoenix Group. The wind held north of east, forcing the Carnegie 
considerably to the westward of the route planned; however, the crossings with previ- 
ous tracks were made at the points desired. No storms or calms were encountered. 
The hot weather was very trying, but the party, with two or three exceptions, kept 
well. Magnetic declinations were obtained twice daily, with two exceptions. The 
average difference, without regard to sign, between the results obtained by the two 
observers at the collimating compass was 3' for the 51 determinations. This affords some 
evidence as to the character of the weather and conditions encountered. Port Apra, 
Guam, was reached on Monday, July 17, 1916. The total run from Pago Pago was 
3,987 miles, giving a daily average of 147 miles for the 27-day trip. 

At Port Apra connection was made with the Galilee observations of 1907 and 
extensive intercomparisons of all instruments were made (see PL 4, Fig. 2). The 
Carnegie sailed from Port Apra on August 7, bound for San Francisco. The track 
followed was arranged to cross as frequently as possible the previous tracks of the Galilee 
and the Carnegie, and to obtain additional magnetic data in regions where most needed. 
For 7 days continuous heavy gales were encountered from the southwest, making it 
necessary to heave to for 2 days in succession, August 9 and 10. The vessel was thus 
driven northward and compelled to follow very closely the track of the Galilee from 
Guam to Japan, up to the point where the many tracks intersect (see PI. 7). This was 
the worst spell of bad weather the Carnegie had thus far encountered. After August 17, 
moderate weather was experienced. There was considerable fog and cloudiness, but, 
with 4 exceptions, observations for declination were obtained daily. The engine was 
operated frequently, for a total of 90 hours, during calms and for swinging ship. On 
August 26, the vessel was swung for intensity and inclination observations, both helms. 
On August 27, a declination swing was started, but after 5 headings had been completed 
clouds prevented further observations. Fog was recorded on 12 days and rain or mist 
on 34 days. 

On September 20, the Carnegie was becalmed off the coast of California, so the 
engine was operated, and after a 24-hour run San Francisco was reached on September 
21. Fortunately, Point Reyes was sighted at 1 o'clock in the morning before the fog closed 
down. Creeping through the fog until the light vessel was heard, a pilot was taken 
aboard, and the Carnegie made the entrance into the harbor through the fog under 
her own power. The total distance run from Guam was 5,937 miles, the time of passage 
being 46 days, and the average daily run 129 miles. The chronometers were found in 
error only 8?7. 

After a stay at San Francisco of 5 weeks, during which shore observations and 
instrumental comparisons were made and the vessel was overhauled and outfitted, the 
Carnegie left this port November 1, 1916, bound for Easter Island. Light and variable 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 11 

winds were encountered until the vessel reached the northeast trade-wind region. In 
the calm belt near the equator, between the northeast and the southeast trades, con- 
tinuous light airs from the south to southwest caused a delay of over 2 weeks and 
forced the vessel far to eastward of her intended route. The remainder of the voyage 
was made under good conditions and Easter Island was reached December 24, 1916. 

The stop at Easter Island was made in order to obtain magnetic data regarding 
secular changes, to secure a supply of fresh water, and to break the monotony of the 
long voyage from San Francisco to Buenos Aires. A magnetic station was established 
and a 24-hour series of declination readings was obtained. The party visited various 
points of interest on the island and obtained some valuable photographs of the large 
statues (see PI. 5, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) for which the island is particularly noted. 

After taking on board a small supply of fresh water and provisions, the vessel 
sailed January 2, 1917, for Buenos Aires. After leaving Easter Island adverse winds 
prevented the vessel from entering, as had been planned, the unsurveyed area to the 
northeast. On January 19, 1917, Gambier Islands were passed. As no stop was con- 
templated a small barrel, containing an abstract of all scientific results to date, was 
set adrift about one-half mile off the southeast entrance to Manga Reva Harbor. 

Between January 22 and January 27 long and severe gales from the east to south- 
east were encountered. They were followed by 2 weeks of variable winds and weather, 
head-winds alternating with calms. When the vessel finally entered the region of the 
strong westerly winds, rapid progress was made toward Cape Horn. 

On February 16 the Diego Ramirez Islands were sighted as expected and Cape 
Horn was passed the next morning. In the vicinity of Cape Horn the weather varied 
rapidly from one extreme to the other. The afternoon of February 16 was rainy and 
stormy, with a heavy gale from the northwest, but the evening was beautifully clear 
and almost calm. February 17 saw a repetition of the same change, the stormy weather 
ending early in the forenoon and the remainder of the day being clear and affording a 
fine view of Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego. Owing to variable and adverse winds 
some difficulty was experienced in weathering Staten Island and also the Falkland 
Islands later. The vessel passed to the westward of the latter group in order to avoid 
the icebergs and rough seas to the eastward. 

On March 1, 1917, the Recalada lightship at the mouth of the River Plate was 
passed. After taking on the pilot the engine was started and the Carnegie went up 
the river under her own power, reaching Buenos Aires next morning, March 2, 1917. 

As usual, observations for magnetic intensity and inclination at sea were made 
daily, regardless of conditions of sea or weather. Magnetic-declination results were 
obtained every day but 4, which were too cloudy for these observations. 

Tracks of the Galilee were crossed 11 times and the Carnegie's tracks of former 
cruises were crossed 7 times, thus affording several opportunities for the determination 
of the annual changes in the magnetic elements for the regions covered. The total 
distance sailed was 14,774 miles and the daily average for the 112 days at sea was 132 miles. 

Shore observations and instrumental comparisons were made at the Argentine 
Magnetic Observatory located at Pilar (see PI. 4, Fig. 6). Comparisons had previously 
been made at Pilar in 1911 during the first visit of the Carnegie and again by Observer 
H. F. Johnston in 1913, so that the correlation of the Argentine magnetic work with 
that of the Department has now been controlled 3 times. 

On account of the war it was considered best to detain the Carnegie at Buenos Aires 
(see PI. 1, Fig. 2). The ocean work of Cruise IV was brought to a conclusion and mem- 
bers of the party were assigned to other duties. Observer Jones was instructed to proceed 
to Lima, Peru, where he joined Mr. Fleming's party and was assigned to land work. 
Observers A. D. Power and L. L. Tanguy were assigned to land work in Argentina, viz, 



12 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

to reoccupy certain magnetic stations established by the Argentine Government. Mr. 
George O. Wiggin, director of the Argentine Meteorological Service, assisted the Carnegie 
party in many ways and greatly facilitated the work in Argentina. Through his efforts 
passes over all the railway and steamship lines were given to each member of the party, 
and free entry for all the scientific instruments was granted by the customs department. 
At the solicitation of the American ambassador at Buenos Aires, the Argentine govern- 
ment extended port facilities and wharfage without charge to the Carnegie during her 
stay in port. The Department takes this opportunity to express its thanks to the gov- 
ernment and people of Argentina for the many courtesies extended. 

On May 29, 1917, Captain J. P. Ault, having been in command of the Carnegie for 
3 years, was instructed by cable to return to Washington via Valparaiso for confer- 
ence and assignment to shore duty. After completing all arrangements for turning over 
the command of the Carnegie to Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds,* who had been second-in-com- 
mand for 3 years, Captain Ault left Buenos Aires June 10 for Washington, where he 
arrived July 25. 

The ship's personnel during Cruise IV was as follows: J. P. Ault, magnetician and 
master of the vessel; H. M. W. Edmonds, magnetician and surgeon, and second-in- 
command; H. F. Johnston (until April 1916, when he was assigned to land work), I. A. 
Luke (until October 1916, when he resigned), H. E. Sawyer (from April 1915 to December 

1915, when he was assigned to land work), F. C. Loring (from December 1915 to October 

1916, when he resigned), Bradley Jones (from April 1916), A. D. Power (from October 
1916), L. L. Tanguy (from October 1916), observers; N. Meisenhelter, meteorological 
observer and clerk; R. P. Doran (until April 1916, when he resigned), and A. Beech 
(from April 1916), first watch-officers; M. G. R. Savary, engineer; Charles Heckendorn, 
mechanic; second and third watch-officers, 2 cooks, 8 seamen, and 2 cabin-boys; the 
ship's company always totaled 23 men. In addition, S. J. Mauchly remained with the 
vessel from Brooklyn to Panama to perfect the installation and operation of the newly- 
constructed atmospheric-electric instruments. 

CRUISE V, DECEMBER 1917 TO JUNE 1918. 

After the completion of Cruise IV the Carnegie was detained at Buenos Aires for over 
9 months on account of the war. In October 1917 preparations were made to start 
the vessel on her homeward cruise from Buenos Aires to an Atlantic port by way of Cape 
Horn, the Pacific Ocean, and the Panama Canal. This cruise; designated Cruise V, began 
at Buenos Aires December 4, 1917. 

The passage around Cape Horn to Talcahuano, Chile, was made in the short time 
of 38 days, arrival at the latter port occurring January 11, 1918. Although the usual 
stormy weather and heavy seas were encountered off Cape Horn, the winds usually 
drew from favorable directions. The daily average for the 38 days at sea was 102 
nautical miles, the total run having been 3,863 miles, and the usual daily program of 
magnetic and other work was carried out without serious interruption. 

After a stay of 12 days at Talcahuano, during which time the C. I. W. magnetic 
stations at Coronel and at Concepcion were reoccupied, the Carnegie sailed again on 
January 23, 1918, for Callao, Peru. After a large detour to the westward to fill in unsur- 
veyed areas, the vessel arrived at Callao February 22, 1918, having made a highly success- 
ful trip of 30 days. 

During the stay of over one month at Callao, a complete program of intercompari- 
sons of instruments was carried out at a former C. I. W. station at Lima (see PL 4, Fig. 5). 
On March 29, 1918, the vessel set sail for Balboa, Canal Zone, arriving there April 24, 
1918, after another detour to the westward to cover unsurveyed regions. On May 2, 
1918, the Carnegie for the second time passed through the Panama Canal, this time from 
the Pacific to the Atlantic. 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 13 

After a stay of 9 days at Cristobal, during which an intercomparison of instruments 
was again made, the Carnegie started out on the final part of her journey homeward on 
May 11, 1918. Owing to light winds and adverse currents some difficulty was experi- 
enced in clearing the coast of Panama. Conditions were also unfavorable for making 
the route called for to the eastward through the Caribbean Sea, so that it was necessary 
to set the course westward and return through the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of 
Florida. On June 4, 1918, the vessel arrived at Newport News. 

On June 8, 1918, the Carnegie left Newport News for Washington, where she arrived 
June 10, 1918, after spending a day in swinging-ship observations in Chesapeake Bay. 
Declination observations were also made in the bay and in the Potomac River. The trip 
from Old Point Comfort to Washington was made under the vessel's own power. Thus, 
after an absence of nearly three and one-half years, the Carnegie was once more in a 
home port on the Atlantic coast. 

During Cruise V, the Carnegie traveled over 13,195 miles of ocean, and the daily 
average for the 122 days at sea was 108 miles. Tracks of former cruises by this same 
vessel were crossed 10 times and Galilee tracks were crossed 3 times, thus furnishing 
further valuable information regarding secular variation. 

As usual, observations for magnetic intensity and inclination at sea were made 
daily, regardless of sea and weather. Magnetic-declination results were obtained every 
day but 4, which were too cloudy for these observations. The atmospheric-electric 
observations were continued throughout the cruise. 

The ship's personnel during November 1917 to the close of Cruise V in June 1918 was 
as follows: Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds, magnetician and surgeon, and master of the vessel; 
A. D. Power, magnetician and second-in-command; B. Jones, L. L. Tanguy, and J. M. 
McFadden, observers; W. E. Scott, stenographer-recorder (N. Meisenhelter resigned 
as stenographer-recorder in September, having been continuously on board the Carnegie 
for five and one-half years); A. Beech, first watch-officer; M. G. R. Savary, engineer; L. 
Larsen and A. Erickson, second and third watch-officers, respectively; C. Heckendorn, 
mechanic; 8 seamen, 2 cooks, and 2 cabin-boys; the complete personnel at any one time 
thus consisted of 23 persons. 

CRUISE VI. OCTOBER 1919 TO NOVEMBER 1921. 

At the conclusion of Cruise V, June 30, 1918, the ocean-survey work was discon- 
tinued for the remaining period of the war. Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds continued in com- 
mand of the Carnegie in Washington through December 1918 and had general supervision 
of the overhauling and dismantling of equipment and instruments. On December 31 he 
was relieved of command to take charge of and to prepare for the important work of 
acquiring a site and constructing the proposed observatory in Peru. 

Mr. J. P. Ault resumed command of the Carnegie on January 1, 1919, and took 
up the general overhauling, repairing, and outfitting of the vessel for the resumption of 
the ocean-survey work. A cruise of 2 years was planned to start in August 1919, as it 
was expected that the repairs and alterations would then be completed. The unsurveyed 
regions in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans were to be covered and the return made 
through the Pacific Ocean and Panama Canal to Washington. The route was planned 
to obtain a large number of secular-variation observations, and included, as finally 
arranged, calls at the following ports: Dakar, West Africa; Buenos Aires, Argentina; 
Jamestown, St. Helena Island; Cape Town, South Africa; Colombo, Ceylon; Fremantle, 
Australia; Lyttelton, New Zealand; Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands; San Francisco; 
Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii; Pago Pago and Apia, Samoa; Rarotonga, Cook Islands; 
Balboa, Canal Zone; and return to Washington. Short stops were made also at Fanning 
Island and at Penrhyn and Manihiki islands, Cook Islands. 



14 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Early in 1919 it was decided to convert the Carnegie's engine to operate on gasoline 
instead of on producer gas. This change seemed desirable because gasoline can now be 
secured in all frequented ports of the world and because of the increase in efficiency and 
reliability of operation resulting from the use of gasoline instead of producer gas. In 
accordance with this plan, early in March 1919, the engine was shipped to Jersey City, 
where the remodeling was carried out by the James Craig Engine and Machine Works, 
the builders of the engine. 

On April 18, 1919, the Carnegie left Washington under tow and arrived at Baltimore 
the following day. The vessel was overhauled and extensive repairs and alterations 
were undertaken under the direction of the Spedden Shipbuilding Company of Balti- 
more. The vessel was hauled out on Booz Brothers' marine railway May 13, 1919, 
and was resheathed with yellow metal and copper. This work was completed May 22, 
but upon attempting to haul the vessel down into the water again the cradle of the 
marine railway left the track and could not be moved (see PI. 2, Figs. 1 and 3). Special 
launching ways were constructed, the careful planning and building of which extended 
over a period of 3 months, as practically all the work had to be done by divers. 
Every precaution was taken to insure the safety of the vessel during these operations. 
After numerous delays, the vessel was finally afloat again on August 21. 

The Carnegie then returned to the Spedden Shipbuilding Company, where the 
remodeled engine was installed. For the storage of the gasoline, two copper tanks, 
each 6 feet in diameter and 10 feet long, were installed in the former producer room. 
Each tank carries 2,100 gallons of gasoline. Every care was taken in the construction 
of the tanks and in the installation of the entire power plant to insure safety in the stor- 
age and use of this fuel. 

The installation of electric storage-battery for lighting and low power uses was 
an important addition. All fittings and fixtures were made of nonmagnetic material 
wherever possible, and twisted cable was used for the circuits. The 1-kilowatt, 40-volt 
generator, which was used to charge the storage-battery, was mounted in the after end 
of the engine-room, as far as possible from the positions of the observing instruments. 
This generator was operated by the 6-horsepower gasoline engine at times when mag- 
netic work was not in progress. The 1-kilowatt generator proved too small for the work 
required and was replaced in March 1921 by a 2-kilowatt generator when the vessel 
was in San Francisco. 

The delays in the completion of the gasoline tanks and in getting the Carnegie off 
the marine railway compelled a postponement of the sailing date from Washington 
until October 9. 

Sailing from Washington October 9, 1919, the Carnegie proceeded down the Potomac 
to Chesapeake Bay, where the usual "swinging-ship" operations were carried out Oc- 
tober 11. The vessel then proceeded to Solomons Island, where simultaneous observa- 
tions of the potential gradient of atmospheric electricty were carried out on board and 
on shore with the vessel's sails in the various positions occupied during observations 
at sea. Here the Director of the Department joined the vessel for a final inspection. 
Upon the completion of the atmospheric-electric work, the Carnegie sailed for Old Point 
Comfort, where the Director bade farewell to the party. Mr. J. A. Fleming, then 
chief of the Magnetic Survey Division, and Dr. S. J. Mauchly, chief of the Section of 
Terrestrial Electricity, left the vessel to return to Washington after all matters in their 
respective charges had been arranged. 

After a few days' delay at Old Point Comfort, during which a steward was signed 
on and 7 seamen were replaced, the Carnegie finally sailed from Hampton Roads, bound 
for Dakar, Senegal, October 19, 1919. 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 15 

Soon after leaving Old Point Comfort the vessel encountered the usual Gulf-Stream 
weather, consisting of heavy winds from various quarters, accompanied by rain-squalls 
and wet weather. Similar weather continued all the way to Dakar with only a few 
pleasant days intervening. Two heavy storms were encountered but no damage was 
done to the vessel. Upon approach to the African coast, the usual northeast trade- 
wind was replaced by winds from the southwest to southeast, making it necessary to 
keep well to the eastward in making the approach to Dakar. During the 4 days before 
arrival at Dakar heavy easterly winds, the harmattan, blew fine sand from the African 
desert, and moisture forming about the dust-particles developed into a fog which ob- 
scured the sun while below 10° to 15° of altitude. At the same time the horizon was 
nowhere more than one-half mile distant, which made navigation extremely uncertain 
and the approach to land particularly hazardous. Altitudes of the sun were measured 
from a position as near the sea-surface as possible and were then corrected for an esti- 
mated distance of the horizon. In spite of these uncertain conditions, the landfall 
was made as expected, and after standing off and on for 36 hours the Carnegie entered 
the harbor of Dakar under her own power when the haze lifted for a few hours Novem- 
ber 22, 1919. 

On account of the presence of bubonic plague in Dakar, the Carnegie remained 
in that port only long enough to take on water and supplies, sailing for Buenos Aires 
November 26, 1919. 

Fair winds for the first 3 days were followed by 10 days of calms and light variable 
winds, during which time it was necessary to operate the engine. After safely round- 
ing Cape Palmas, Liberia, the southwest monsoon was encountered, and it continued 
to blow from December 9 to December 18 as the Carnegie sailed southeastward into 
the Gulf of Guinea. Two days later the vessel entered the region of the southeast 
trade-wind, and for 11 days the daily run averaged from 125 to 188 nautical miles 
with fine weather and under good sailing conditions. 

After leaving the trade- wind region, about 10 days were spent in crossing the belt 
of calms, variable winds, and storms before the vessel entered the River Plate. On 
each of the two nights before reaching the river a heavy storm or "tempestura," from 
the westward occurred, with heavy rain and strong and shifting wind. Landfall was 
made with the aid of star observations during lightning flashes of the receding storm as 
they illuminated the horizon. Buenos Aires was reached January 19, 1920. 

During the stay of 33 days at Buenos Aires the work and equipment of the vessel 
was inspected by Mr. Fleming for the Director, whose contemplated visit had to be 
abandoned because of pressing matters at Washington. 

Various repairs were also carried out and the different magnetic instruments were 
intercompared on shore. Through the efforts of the American ambassador, the Argen- 
tine Government, as during previous visits of the Carnegie, extended various courtesies 
and privileges to the vessel during her stay at Buenos Aires. These courtesies and the 
facilities afforded by the Argentine customs officials were very much appreciated. Two 
watch-officers, 1 cook, the mechanic, 7 seamen, and the 2 mess-boys were replaced here. 
On February 21, 1920, the vessel left for St. Helena. 

A week of moderate winds was followed by a heavy gale on February 28 as the 
vessel entered the region of the "roaring forties." For 48 hours the vessel ran before 
the storm at the rate of 10 knots with only the goose-winged lower topsail set. She 
scudded in the heavy cross-sea, shipping wave after wave from stem to stern. As 
the vessel proceeded southward, the cold and disagreeable weather gave warning of 
the presence of ice. On March 3 and 4 four large icebergs were passed. 

Gough Island was sighted March 8 and several very interesting hours were spent 
passing this lonely, uninhabited island of the South Atlantic. Large numbers of the 



16 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

wandering and sooty albatross were present around the island, indicating this as one 
of their homes. Several specimens were caught and examined. 

, The latitude as given for Gough Island seems to be in error by 3 '.4, our observations 
giving 40° 15 '.8 S., instead of 40°19'.2 S., as shown on British Admiralty chart No. 2228, 
for Penguin Islet. 

St. Helena was reached March 27 after a remarkable trip of 35 days, during which 
the daily run averaged 151 miles. During the 7 days at St. Helena the Department's 
magnetic station at Longwood was reoccupied. Several trips over the island were 
taken by the party, during which the various places of historic interest were visited. After 
fresh water and supplies were taken on board, the Carnegie sailed for Cape Town April 3. 

After 3 days of sailing in the southeast trade-wind, the region of variable winds 
and calms was entered. Considerable lightning accompanied by heavy thunder was noted 
during some of the heavy squalls encountered in the middle of the South Atlantic far from 
land. The region of the westerly winds and storms was reached April 11. Tristan da 
Cunha Island was sighted April 15. 

The usual cycle of atmospheric-pressure changes with their corresponding storms 
and changes in the direction of the wind for these regions was experienced. With 
high pressure northerly winds blow, shifting to northwest and west as the pressure 
decreases. The more rapid the decrease the stronger the wind blows. At the lowest 
pressure-point the wind shifts to southwest and blows hard if the pressure increases 
rapidly, shifting to south and southeast as the pressure rises, finally jumping to north- 
east and north as the highest pressure-point is reached. 

Cape Town Harbor was entered April 24 after 21 days at sea, during which the 
high average of 152 miles per day was made. Here the usual intercomparisons of in- 
struments was made at the Department's former station near the Royal Observatory. 
Considerable repair work to the vessel was undertaken. The decks and outside of 
the vessel were recaulked, the two ranges were overhauled and rebuilt, and various 
repairs were made to the plumbing. 

The people of Cape Town made the stay of the party very pleasant by their gener- 
ous hospitality and by the many courtesies extended. The port authorities granted 
all privileges to the Carnegie during her stay, and various exemptions were made by the 
government officials in the matter of payment of towboat charges, customs dues, and 
immigration regulations. Opportunity is here taken to make grateful acknowledg- 
ment of these many courtesies. 

On May 20 the Carnegie sailed for Colombo, this port having been substituted for 
Aden in the revised route instructions. During this trip 4 strong gales were en- 
countered and heavy winds prevailed in general. The vessel spent 19 days in the 
region of the "westerlies," after which the southeast trade- wind was picked up with 
a few hours of calm intervening. After one week in the southeast trades, the south- 
west monsoon was encountered, and this wind continued until our arrival at Colombo. 
The route extended up into the Arabian Sea in order to cross the Carnegie's 1911 track and 
and to relocate the agonic line. While crossing this line 6 declination determinations 
were made in 25 hours with perhaps more than the usual accuracy in spite of the gale 
which was blowing. 

At midnight June 26 the light on Minikoi Island was sighted as expected. East- 
ward of Minikoi the monsoon was very light, so that the Carnegie did not reach Colombo 
until the morning of June 30, after being hove to off the port all night. The distance 
covered from Cape Town to Colombo was 6,665 miles, giving a high average run of 
163.4 miles for the trip of 40.8 days. 

The trip from Cape Town was unusual in that declination observations were made 
daily in spite of the unfavorable weather conditions. Rain or precipitation of some 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 17 

kind occurred on 29 out of 40 days. On but 6 days were declination observations made 
only once, on 29 days they were made twice, on 3 days they were made 3 times, 
and on 1 day they were made four times, when relocating the agonic line. The chart 
errors in declination for the southern part of the Indian Ocean averaged over 1 degree, 
sometimes reaching 2.5 degrees. In the northern part they were less than 0.5 degree. 

At Colombo an extended program of intercomparisons of instruments was carried 
out at the Department's station in the grounds of the Colombo Observatory. The 
use of the observatory was freely offered by the surveyor-general and by the director 
of the observatory, Mr. Bamford; the ready cooperation thus received and courtesies 
shown by the various officials greatly facilitated our work. 

The vessel left Colombo July 24, the course being set for a point somewhat south- 
west of Java and thence generally southward to about latitude 33° south and longitude 
85° east. Thence the vessel followed a track generally to the east and arrived at Fre- 
mantle on August 31. For 9 days during this part of the cruise continuous calm was 
experienced and the auxiliary power had to be used for a distance of 800 miles to get 
through the belt. Decimation observations were made at over 50 stations. 

The complete program of intercomparisons of ships' instruments was carried out 
at Cottesloe, near Fremantle. The land instruments aboard the Carnegie were also 
compared with the standards at the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory of the Depart- 
ment. 

Upon the completion of the work at Cottesloe and at Watheroo, the Carnegie left 
Fremantle October 1 and after considerable difficulty in clearing Cape Leeuwin on 
account of heavy storms from the westward, followed a course to the south of Australia, 
reaching 50° south latitude and about 140° east longitude. Thence the course was 
shaped to the eastward for Lyttelton. On October 12 the Carnegie was within 1 mile 
of the charted position of the Royal Company Islands, 50° 20' south and 142° 50' east. 
Nothing was in sight for a radius of 40 miles with very good visibility. The Carnegie 
sailed eastward all day at about 50° 20' south latitude and there were no signs of land. 
These islands have been searched for unsuccessfully by several navigators and have 
been omitted from nearly all the present navigation charts. Heavy northwest winds 
and seas prevented making Cook Strait, and Lyttelton was reached from the south- 
ward October 20. The total distance was 3,157 miles, making the daily average of 
160 miles for the 20 days at sea. 

The series of comparisons between the standard instruments of the Christchurch 
Observatory and those of the Carnegie were satisfactorily completed early in November; 
Mr. H. F. Skey, director of the observatory, extended every courtesy and facility for 
this work and took an active part in the observations. The Carnegie was towed out 
to sea November 19 and proceeded under her own power until after clearing Banks 
Peninsula, when all sails were set. For 3 days the wind blew from the north, then 
shifted to the west and remained westerly for 4 days. The 180th meridian of longitude 
was crossed November 22 and that date was repeated. 

No heavy storms were met, but moderate gales blew on November 22, November 
27, December 1, and December 5. From December 1 to December 10 the wind blew 
steadily from the northwest, driving the vessel about 600 miles east of her course. On 
December 14, on entering the southeast trade-wind, course was set for Papeete, which 
was reached December 23. 

The total distance sailed from Port Lyttelton to Papeete was 4,262 miles, which 
gives a daily average of 122 miles for the 35 days at sea. Magnetic observations were 
obtained at 54 stations for declination and at 33 stations for inclination and horizontal 
intensity. Complete determinations of the 5 atmospheric-electric elements (potential 
gradient, conductivity, ionic numbers, penetrating radiation, and radioactive content) 



18 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

were made on 9 days; 4 elements were observed on 13 days; and three 24-hour series 
of diurnal-variation observations for the first three elements named were made. 

Shore observations to obtain secular-variation data were made at the Depart- 
ment's station of 1916 at Point Fareute. Some special work was also done in connec- 
tion with the atmospheric-electric instruments. 

The Carnegie left Papeete Harbor on the afternoon of January 3, 1921, in the 
midst of a heavy tropical rain squall. Fortunately the wind held more from the east 
than from the north during the entire run from Papeete, so that Fanning Island was 
sighted at 10 o'clock on the morning of January 14 from a good bearing, after being 
hove to 60 miles east of the island during the previous night. The vessel arrived off 
Whaler's Anchorage at l h 25 m p.m., and after tacking back and forth for two and one- 
half hours, during which time cablegrams were dispatched, departure was taken for 
San Francisco. The old Galilee station is no longer available on account of the exten- 
sion of buildings and electric wiring; observations could not be made ashore, owing 
to the necessity of sailing that evening. 

As the vessel was now leaking more than usual, it was considered advisable to 
proceed to San Francisco to dock for examination. The course was kept somewhat 
eastward of the one planned, so that it passed through the western Hawaiian Islands 
at Laysan Island instead of beyond the Midway Islands. From Fanning Island to 
Laysan there was no calm belt and no evidence of a proper northeast trade-wind. The 
easterly wind blowing at Fanning Island continued until after passing Laysan Island, 
often blowing from south of east. Laysan Island was passed at a distance of 1 mile on 
January 25. The position of the landing-place near the group of buildings, from the 
observations made on board the Carnegie, is: latitude, 25° 46 '.1 north; longitude, 171° 42! 7 
west of Greenwich. This position depends upon a latitude observation on Venus 
simultaneously with a longitude observation on the Sun in the afternoon two and 
one-third hours before passing the island, and upon latitude and longitude observations 
from stars 3 hours later, taken 10 minutes after the last bearing was obtained on the 
island, at a distance of about 1 % miles. There was no evidence of a northerly or southerly 
current, and only 0.1 knot westerly set between the two observed positions. 
The longitude has been corrected for chronometer error determined after arrival at 
San Francisco. The position as given on the chart is 25° 42(2 north, 171°44!1 west 
for the lighthouse, which should be near the landing-place as above. This shows the 
island to be 3.9 miles north of its charted position and 1.3 miles east. Soundings of 
8 and 8.5 fathoms were obtained 1 mile off the southern end of the island, where, also 
numerous dark patches were noticed which seemed to indicate shallower water. 

On January 28, in latitude 32° north, a northwesterly gale began which continued 
for 4 days and prevented making the desired northing. From February 1 to Feb- 
ruary 11 southerly winds and gales continued without interruption. Rough seas and 
consequent increase in leaking made it necessary to proceed under greatly reduced 
sail. Fine weather prevailed February 17, 18, and 19. A good landfall was made at 
1 p. m., February 19, by bearings on Point Reyes and the Farallon Islands, and the 
anchorage in San Francisco Bay was reached at 10 o'clock the same evening. 

Declination observations were made daily with the exception of 2 days. Unusually 
good weather was found near the California coast, so that declinations were obtained 
where previous cruises had failed to get them on account of clouds and fog. 

The Carnegie arrived at San Francisco after 47.3 days at sea. The average daily 
run was 128.9 miles for the 6,099 miles traversed. Magnetic observations were obtained 
at 81 stations for declination and at 44 stations for inclination and horizontal intensity. 
Because of instrumental difficulties, the radioactive content was measured on 3 days 
only. The other four atmospheric-electric elements were observed on 21 days, and 



Magnetic Work op the Carnegie 19 

diurnal-variation observations were attempted on 6 days, on 3 of which weather condi- 
tions prevented a complete series. 

At San Francisco the vessel was dry-docked, and such general repairs as found 
necessary on examination were made. Because of the short cruise planned before the 
return to Washington, when the vessel probably would have to be opened up for 
careful examination and possibly might require extensive repairs before going out 
again, it was decided to copper-paint instead of resheathing the hull. The electric 
generator was replaced by a 2-kilowatt generator, in order to make more adequate pro- 
vision for the experimental work. Cylinder 4 of the main engine, because of a seri- 
ous crack that had developed early in 1920, was replaced by a new phosphor-bronze 
cylinder. 

Advantage was taken of the delay occasioned by the repair work to obtain com- 
plete standardizations of the ship's magnetic instruments at a new station, Fort Scott; 
the old station on Goat Island was found no longer suitable. Complete intercompari- 
sons between substandard magnetometer-inductor No. 26, which had been brought 
especially for this work from Washington by Mr. Fleming, and the ship's standard 
land instruments were also made at Fort Scott. The results showed that the correc- 
tions for the ship's equipment had remained nearly constant. 

Dr. J. C. Merriam, President of the Institution, made a personal inspection of 
the Carnegie on March 24. 

The chief of the Magnetic Survey Division (Mr. Fleming), representing the Di- 
rector, made an inspection of the vessel during February 24 to March 7, while she was 
in San Francisco, and took up various urgent matters with Captain Ault relating to 
instruments, equipment, and future work. 

Upon the completion of the other shore work, capacity determinations were made 
for the conductivity apparatus, the radioactive-content apparatus, the ionic-content 
apparatus, and the penetrating-radiation apparatus. 

The repair work and other business matters being completed, the Carnegie left the 
dock at 4 p. m. March 28 and sailed direct for Honolulu. During the entire passage 
observing conditions were good and permitted declination observations twice every day, 
except on April 1, when cloudy weather prevented them. Winds were moderate to fresh 
and favorable all the way. As the Hawaiian Islands were approached, the wind became 
quite strong and a very heavy current from the south was found in Kaiwi Channel 
between Molokai and Oahu Islands. The vessel arrived off Honolulu Harbor early 
April 12 and was alongside the dock at 8 h 40 m a. m. 

The distance traversed was 2,222 miles, giving an average of 151 miles per day for 
the 14.7 days of the trip. Magnetic observations were obtained at 27 stations for dec- 
lination and at 14 stations for inclination and horizontal intensity. Atmospheric- 
electric observations of the five elements were carried out on 3 days and of all elements 
except the radioactive content on 7 other days; 24-hour series diurnal- variation observa- 
tions were made on 3 days. 

The marked changes and improvements in the methods, instruments, and equipment 
provided for ocean observations since the cruise of the Galilee 16 years before were ex- 
tremely gratifying. The Galilee made the passage from San Diego to Honolulu in 12 days 
during the year 1905, covering much the same region as the Carnegie covered in 1921. 
Thirteen stations were occupied then, as contrasted to 41 on the Carnegie's trip. 

During the stay at Honolulu, a complete series of comparisons between the magnetic 
standards aboard the Carnegie and those at the Honolulu Magnetic Observatory of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey was obtained. Additional capacity deter- 
minations were made for the ion counter, the radioactive apparatus, and the conductivity 
apparatus. 



20 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

After completion of the comparisons at the Honolulu Magnetic Observatory, the 
Carnegie sailed April 28 and upon rounding the island of Oahu ran into the northeast 
trade-wind, which held until the parallel of 34° north latitude was reached. Westerly 
and northerly winds generally prevailed as the vessel sailed eastward along this parallel. 
On May 13 the northeast trade- wind was picked up again and then a southeasterly course 
was steered until May 21, when it was changed to a southwesterly one direct for the 
Samoan Islands. The Carnegie entered the region of the "doldrums" May 27 and left 
it May 29 with a light southeast wind which continued with variable force all the way 
to Pago Pago, but grew quite strong two days before the port was reached. 

On June 12 a stop of a few hours was made at Penrhyn Island (see PI. 5, Fig. 5), 
which is a typical coral atoll. The brief visit ashore was a welcome relaxation and 
enabled the party to secure some coconuts and Rarotonga oranges. A stop of a few 
hours was also made at Manihiki Island on June 15, and fresh fish, eggs, and coconuts 
obtained. 

The Manua Islands were sighted early June 20, and by 6 h 20 m on the same evening 
the vessel was moored to the buoy in Pago Pago Harbor. After setting up the rigging 
and replenishing stores, the Carnegie left Pago Pago in the afternoon of June 28 and 
arrived off Apia the following morning. The total distance to Apia was 5,994 miles, 
which makes an average of 111 miles per day for the 54 days of sailing. 

Winds were usually quite favorable throughout the passage, though never very 
strong; no storms were encountered and observing conditions were excellent. Declina- 
tion observations were made on every day but one, usually twice a day. The total 
number of stations was 96; inclination and horizontal-intensity observations were made 
at 48 stations. On May 31 the vessel was swung for declination observations under 
fairly good conditions, the maximum rolling being 5° to starboard and 8° to port, and 
the ranges in the results were no larger than the indicated error of observation, 5' in the 
collimator results and 9' in the deflector results. 

After official calls on the American consul and on the governor, arrangements were 
made for the work to be undertaken at the Samoa Observatory. The comparison of 
standards at the Observatory with those of the Carnegie was begun June 30 after con- 
sultation with Mr. C. J. Westland, then in charge of the observatory, and with the for- 
mer director, Dr. Angenheister, who left Apia July 2 to return to his native country. Plans 
regarding continuance of the work in atmospheric electricity and regarding the past 
work and methods were discussed with Dr. Angenheister and Mr. Westland. Upon 
cabled authority from the office, and since some of the observatory apparatus was in 
poor condition, certain appliances for atmospheric-electric work were transferred from 
the ship to Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds for use at the Apia Observatory. A magnetometer, 
typewriter, and other equipment were also left at the observatory for Dr. Edmonds' use. 

For facilitating the comparisons at the Apia Observatory, two new outside stations 
were established (see PI. 4, Fig. 8), as the outside pier heretofore used for intercomparison 
work was found to be constructed of magnetic material. All ship instruments were also 
standardized. With the cordial and effective cooperation of Mr. Westland and of Dr. 
Edmonds the large amount of observational work was satisfactorily completed and the 
Carnegie sailed for the Canal Zone July 25. 

It was necessary to depart from the track originally planned in order to land Dr. 
Pemberton for medical treatment at Avarua, Rarotonga Island, and allow him to return 
home. The vessel left Rarotonga August 15 and arrived at Balboa October 7. The 
Carnegie tracks of earlier cruises were crossed 12 times and the Galilee track of 1908 was 
crossed once. These intersections (see PI. 8) will yield important secular-variation data. 
A reversal of the usual currents was noted in the Gulf of Panama, the set being toward 
the south instead of to the north. Excellent results were obtained during the frequent 



Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 21 

observations of diurnal variation in atmospheric electricity. The average daily run 
was 124 miles for the 72 days between Apia and Balboa. 

Secular-variation observations were made at Colon and a new magnetic station was 
occupied at Old Panama City. After dry-docking at Balboa the Carnegie proceeded 
through the canal and set sail October 20 for Washington on the last passage of Cruise VI. 

A favorable southeast wind enabled her to make excellent headway towards Wind- 
ward Passage, through which she ran on October 25 and 26 in a calm. Gales, or strong 
winds, then prevailed to November 6, when Cape Henry was sighted early in the morn- 
ing. At 11 a. m., November 6, the Carnegie put in at Old Point Comfort and about an 
hour later proceeded up Chesapeake Bay to "swing ship" the following day at the same 
place as in 1919. "Swing observations" were made for the magnetic elements Novem- 
ber 7 and the reduction-factor for potential gradient was determined off Solomons Island 
the next day. The results of the "swing magnetic observations" verified the absence of 
any appreciable "deviation-corrections" at the observing places aboard the Carnegie. 
On November 9 the Carnegie left for Washington, came up the Potomac with engine 
running, and docked at Smith's wharf at 5 h 30 m p. m., November 10. The total distance 
at sea was 1,975 miles, which was made in 17 days at an average daily speed of 116 miles 

The Director joined the vessel at Balboa on October 12 for inspection of the work, 
and accompanied the party on the return cruise to Washington. Mr. R. R. Mills 
returned to the United States from the Canal Zone to resume his university studies. Dr. 
F. A. Franke was assigned to the ship's personnel at Balboa to take the place made 
vacant because of the illness of Dr. Pemberton. 

The engine was operated very satisfactorily on many occasions throughout Cruise VI. 

The total number of declination stations obtained during Cruise VI was 834, and 
the total number of horizontal-intensity and inclination stations was 439 for each ele- 
ment. The total distance covered from December 9, 1919, to November 11, 1921, was 
64,118 nautical miles in 487 days at sea, making an average daily travel of 132 nautical 
miles. The average distribution of stations along the track of the cruise is very satis- 
factory, namely, one declination station for every 77 nautical miles, and one horizontal- 
intensity and inclination station for every 146 nautical miles. In addition to the 
magnetic work, atmospheric-electric observations were carried out regularly for 4 or 5 
atmospheric-electric elements on each of 333 days, while diurnal-variation observations 
in atmospheric electricity were made on 36 days. In addition, roll-and-pitch records of 
ship's motion have been obtained frequently, and daily meteorological observations and 
various observations for determining geographic position have been made. Consider- 
able time has been devoted to obtaining further data regarding performance of galvanom- 
eter and of earth inductor on board ship, as shown by the inductor observations, using 
the string galvanometer and the marine d'Arsonval galvanometer on alternate days; 
the work with the string galvanometer is not yet altogether satisfactory. Rock speci- 
mens were collected at ports of call for Dr. H. S. Washington's investigations at the Geo- 
physical Laboratory. 

The ship's personnel during Cruise VI was as follows: Dr. Louis A. Bauer, Director 
(October 12 to November 10, 1921); J. P. Ault, chief of the Section of Ocean Work, in 
command; H. F. Johnston, magnetician, second in command; Russell Pemberton, sur- 
geon (until August 14, 1921); A. Thomson, H. R. Grummann, and R. R. Mills (until 
October 12, 1921), observers; F. A. Franke, surgeon (from October 12, 1921); A. Erickson, 
first watch-officer, C. E. Leyer, engineer; L. Larsen, second watch-officer (from February, 
1920); F. Lyngdorf, steward; third watch-officer; 1 cook; 1 mechanic; 8 seamen; 2 cabin- 
boys; in all, 23 men. 

The continued success of the ocean-survey work has been made possible in no small 
measure by the privileges and many courtesies extended the Carnegie and her staff by 
governmental and harbor authorities, as well as by men of science, at every port of call. 



22 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



MAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE CARNEGIE WORK. 

The magnetic instruments used on board the Carnegie during cruises IV, V, and VI 
have been practically the same as those used during cruises III and IV and described 
in Volume III, Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 177-203. 
Some mechanical improvements have been made from time to time and repairs have 
been made as noted under each instrument. 

MARINE COLLIMATING-COMPASS FOR MAGNETIC DECLINATION. 

A detailed description of this instrument and a discussion of the theory and methods 
of observation will be found in Volume III (pp. 177-190). In practice it has been found 
more expeditious and less troublesome, to compute, by the rigorous formula, the value of 
A, the corrected magnetic azimuth of the Sun or star, rather than to use the correction 
tables as given in Volume III (pp. 182 and 183). This was especially true when the Sun 
or star was observed at a high altitude, which was often the case, particularly in stormy 
latitudes. 

The methods of observation have remained the same, except that a "set" consists 
of only 10 readings of the scale and the time is noted only at the beginning and end of 
each set. 

The constants A c , v, and m have been redetermined for cruises IV, V, and VI from a 
discussion of all comparison observations at shore stations during these cruises. 

Table 1. — Observed and Adjusted Values of A c . 



Date 


Station 


Wt. 1 


Observed values of A c for scale 


Adjusted values of A c for scale 


S 


W 


N 


E 


S 


W 


N 


E 


1916 
Feb. 15, 16. . . 

Apr. 6 

June 2, 16, 17. 

July 27 

Nov. 19, 20. . . 

1916 

Apr. 20 

July 29 

Oct. 13 

1917 
Mar. 16, 28. . . 
Nov. 5 

1918 

Mar. 12 

July 2, 3 

1919 
Aug. 15 

1920 
July 15, 19 . . . 
Sept. 21 

1921 

Mar. 15 

Dec. 3, 5 .... 


Washington .... 


3 
2 
4 
1 
3 

2 

2 
2 

2 
3 

3 

2 

2 

2 
2 

2 
2 




359 . 78 
359 . 84 
359.83 
359 . 76 
359 . 84 

359 . 79 
359 . 76 
359.77 

359.80 
359.80 

359 . 76 
359 . 73 

359 . 68 

359 . 77 

359 . 80 

359.76 
359.79 


O 

89.65 
89.72 
89.69 
89 66 
89.71 

89.66 
89.67 
89.70 

89.76 
89.69 

89.70 
89.67 

89.62 

89.67 
89.70 

89.66 
89.68 


O 

179 . 87 
179.91 
179.88 
179.84 
179.88 

179.86 
179.86 
179.85 

179.90 
179.87 

179.87 
179.81 

179.86 

179.88 
179.90 

179.84 
179.87 


O 

269.96 
269.92 
269.96 
269 . 93 
270.00 

269.96 
269.95 
269.96 

269.98 
269.95 

269.96 
269.91 

269 . 98 

269.96 
270.00 

269.96 
269.97 


O 

359.780 
359.812 
359.805 
359 . 762 
359.823 

359.783 
359.775 
359 . 785 

359.825 
359 . 792 

359 . 787 
359.745 

359.750 

359 . 785 
359.815 

359 . 770 
359 . 792 


o 

89 . 680 
89.712 
89 . 705 
89 . 662 
89 . 723 

89 . 683 
89 . 675 
89 . 685 

89 . 725 
89 . 692 

89 . 687 
89 . 645 

89 . 650 

89 . 685 
89.715 

89 . 670 
89 . 692 


O 

179.860 
179.892 
179.885 
179.842 
179.903 

179.863 
179.855 
179.865 

179.905 
179.872 

179.867 
179.825 

179.830 

179.865 
179.895 

179.850 
179.872 


O 

269 . 940 
269 . 972 
269.965 
269.922 
269 . 983 

269 . 943 
269.935 
269.945 

269.985 
269.952 

269.947 
269.905 

269.910 

269.945 
269.975 

269.930 
269.952 


Honolulu 

Dutch Harbor. . 
Christchurch. . . 

Christchurch. . . 


Goat Island. . . . 
Pilar 


Do 


Lima 


Washington. . . . 

Do 

Colombo 

Fremantle 

San Francisco. . 
Washington. . . . 

Weighted means 


359.79 


89.69 


179.87 


269.95 













1 Observed values were weighted according to the number of determinations at each station. 

In Table 1 are tabulated the observed values of A c during cruises IV, V, and VI of 
the Carnegie and the adjusted values resulting from taking R I = 90°0S, R U = 90°A8, R UI = 
89?90, and # IV = 89?84. These values of R 1 , R n , R UI , and R IV are the mean values of 
determinations made, by using two theodolites, at Washington in February 1915, August 
1919, and May 1922. Throughout cruises IV, V, and VI the observers constantly 
drummed the instrument during the observations to overcome the frictional resistance 



Magnetic Instruments and Methods 



23 



of the pivot and the instrument was sheltered from the direct rays of the Sun. Owing 
to the very satisfactory behavior of this instrument and to the small changes in the 
constants, determination of the values of A c was not made so frequently during Cruise VI 
in order to reduce the time used in comparing instruments at the shore stations. 

The value v of one scale-division is obtained from the theodolite pointings on the 
various divisions. The following are the final mean values of v as determined at Wash- 
ington .in February 1915, August 1919, and December 1921, at Honolulu in June 1915, 
and at Christchurch in November 1915, and adopted for cruises IV, V, and VI: 

Scale S 

v 0?97 



W 
1?00 



N 
1?00 



E 

1!02 



These values are so near 1 degree that for the sea calculations they were considered 
as unity, thus saving one step in the preliminary computations. The final values of the 
declination as published in this volume have been corrected for the above divergence 
from unity in the values of v for the south and east scales. 

Table 2. — Values of the scale inclinations, m. 



Date 



Station 



Obs'd Adjusted Comp'd 



A-C 



m w 



Cruise VI 



Date 1 



1915 
Feb. 15, 16. . 

Apr. 6 

June 2, 16, 17 

July 27 

Nov. 19, 20.. 

1916 

Apr. 20 

July 29 

Oct. 13 

1917 
Mar. 16,28... 

Nov. 5 , 

1918 

Mar. 12 

July 2,3 



1919 
Aug. 15. . . 

1920 
July 15; 19, 
Sept. 21... 

1921 
Mar. 15... 
Dec. 3, 5. . 

1922 
May 11. .. 



Washington . . . 

Colon 

Honolulu 

Dutch Harbor. 
Christchurch. . 



Do 

Guam 

Goat Island. 



Pilar. 



+0.72 
+0.33 
+0.32 
+0.65 
-0.67 

-0.66 
+0.12 
+0.61 

-0.11 



+0.72 
+0.33 
+0.33 
+0.63 
-0.70 

-0.69 
+0.11 
+0.61 

-0.14 



+0.71 
+0.31 
+0.32 
+0.62 
-0.69 

-0.69 
+0.12 
+0.61 

-0.14 



+0.01 
+0.02 
+0.01 
+0.01 
-0.01 

0.00 

-0.01 

0.00 

0.00 



+0.14 
+0.10 
+0.17 
+0.14 
+0.14 

+0.11 

+0.09 
+0.10 

+0.12 



Mean for Cruise IV. 



+0.12 



Pilar. 



Lima 

Washington. 



-0.14 

+0.02 
+0.71 



-0.15 

+0.01 
+0.70 



-0.14 

+0.01 
+0.71 



-0.01 

0.00 
-0.01 



+0.10 

+0.06 
+0.06 



Mean for Cruise V. 



+0.07 



1919 


O 


Oct. 9 


+0.06 


Nov. 14 


+0.05 


Dec. 21 


+0.04 


1920 




Jan. 26 


+0.03 


Mar. 3 


+0.02 


Mar. 28 


+0.01 


May 15 


0.00 


June 21 


-0.01 


July 28 


-0.02 


Sept. 2 


-0.03 


Oct. 9 


-0.04 


Nov. 14 


-0.05 


Dec. 21 


-0.06 


1921 




Jan. 26 


-0.07 


Mar. 4 


-0.08 


Mar. 29 


-0.09 


May 16 


-0.10 


June 21 


-0.11 


July 29 


-0.12 


Sept. 2 


-0.13 


Oct. 9 


-0.14 


Nov. 14 


-0.15 



Washington. 



Colombo. . 
Fremantle . 



San Francisco. 
Washington. . . 



+0.72 

-0.03 
-0.60 

+0.60 
+0.67 



+0.73 

-0.04 
-0.63 

+0.60 
+0.67 



+0.71 

-0.02 
-0.65 

+0.61 
+0.71 



+0.02 

-0.02 
+0.02 

-0.01 
-0.04 



Do. 



+0.05 

+0.01 
0.00 

-0.09 
-0.21 

-0.19 



'Value applies up to and including date given. 

From simultaneous measurements made at Washington in 1915, 1918, 1919, 1921, 
and 1922, the following relations were established: 

?n. + ra n = +0?18 m e + m w - 0?00 

The values of m e and m w were constant for cruises IV and V. During Cruise VI the 
value of m e changed gradually from — 0?07 to + 0?16, m w going through a similar change 



24 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

of opposite sign. This probably was due to some inequality in the change of magnetiza- 
tion of the magnets in the magnet system of the instrument. 

The adjustment for cruises IV, V, and VI of the values of m, and m„, which change 
with varying values of the vertical component Z of the Earth's magnetic field, gives 

m. = +0?01 + l?26Z 

and from the relation m e + m n = +0?18 there results 

w„= +0?17- 1?26Z 

The observed values of m sn and the values adjusted and computed from the above 
are given, together with their differences, in Table 2. The values of m w , after having 
been adjusted to the condition of m e + m w = 0?00, are likewise found in the table; the 
mean values indicated were used for cruises IV and V* while for Cruise VI those com- 
puted from a least-square adjustment, given in the last column, were used. The corre- 
sponding values of m e for all three cruises are given by the relation 

m„+ trie = 0?00. 
SEA DEFLECTOR FOR MAGNETIC HORIZONTAL INTENSITY AND DECLINATION. 

Declination Obseevations. 

The sea deflector has continued to be used as a check upon the declination results 
with the marine collimating-compass. A description of sea deflector 4, which was used 
on Cruise IV as far as San Francisco, and of sea deflector 5, which was used during the 
remainder of Cruise IV and throughout cruises V and VI, will be found on pages 192-194, 
Volume III. The "bright-line" method was found to be preferable to the "shadow" 
method and was used exclusively throughout all three cruises. 

Scheme of Horizontal-Intensity Observations. 

The same general scheme previously used has been followed during cruises IV, V, 
and VI. In order to avoid any drag of the magnet card, the time allowed at the begin- 
ning of observation for each magnet (not distance) after the magnet is in position, as 
also between each reversal of sights and bowl, has been increased from 2 full minutes 
to 3 minutes; 1.5 minutes is allowed between all other positions. 

SEA DIP-CIRCLE FOR INCLINATION AND TOTAL INTENSITY. 

Sea dip-circle 189 was used throughout cruises IV, V, and VI, except in March 1915, 
when 204 was used. Considerable difficulty was experienced with 204 in placing and 
removing the needles. One needle was broken at sea and another was broken during 
comparison observations at Colon. Circle 189 was then used and no difficulty was expe- 
rienced until one pivot of needle 3 was broken at sea on November 27, 1920. Up to that 
time the same 4 needles (needles 1 and 2 for regular dip and needles 3 and 4 for deflected 
and loaded dip) had been used since leaving Colon in 1915. Needles 11 and 12 were 
used in place of needles 3 and 4 subsequent to November 27, 1920, to the close of 
Cruise VI. 

MARINE EARTH-INDUCTOR FOR INCLINATION. 

Marine earth-inductor 3 with moving-coil galvanometer as described in Volume III 
(pp. 196-199), continued in use throughout cruises IV and V. The absolute accuracy 
of observed values of inclination using this combination continued to depend largely 
upon the performance of the galvanometer. The balancing nuts on the coil should be 
loose on their screws to permit ready adjustment, and the consequence was that any jar 
on the ship near the galvanometer house, such as knocking of rudder stock in its housing, 
flapping of mainsail, or removing of hatchways, threw the coil out of balance. 



Magnetic Instruments and Methods 



25 



At the beginning of Cruise VI so much difficulty was encountered in balancing 
the coils that observations with the earth-inductor were omitted at sea until the new 
string galvanometer was completed and ready for use in August 1920. A detailed 
description of this instrument is given below. A special slip-ring coil (see PI. 3, Fig. 3) 
was constructed by the Department to be fitted in earth-inductor 3 for use with the 
new string galvanometer. Beginning at San Francisco in March 1921, a new coil, con- 
structed by the Department, was used in the moving-coil galvanometer, earth-inductor 
7 (see PI. 3, Fig. 1) now being used with this galvanometer. On alternate days, obser- 
vations were made with the string galvanometer and earth-inductor 3 and with the 
moving-coil galvanometer and earth-inductor 7, to test the relative accuracy of the two 
methods. 

The string galvanometer required very little attention to keep it in operation, but 
the results obtained were considerably more erratic and less accurate than the results 
obtained with the moving-coil galvanometer. Some of this erratic behavior seems to 
have been due to the poor condition of the bearings of the coil of earth-inductor 3. Con- 
siderable improvement in marine galvanometers is required before the sea dip-circle can 
be entirely supplanted by the marine earth-inductor for the determination of inclination 
at sea. 

String Galvanometer. 

The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, in connection with its ocean work and 
special duties assigned to it in 1917, has had occasion to design, with the assistance of 
Dr. W. F. G. Swann, a special form of string galvanometer (see PI. 3, Figs. 2 and 4), 
which was constructed in the instrument shop of the Department. 




SECTION C-D 



SECTION A-B 



Fig. 2. — Details of String Galvanometer for Ship Use. 



The galvanometer is of the string type originally developed by Professor Einthoven. 
It is of the permanent-magnet, air-damped pattern. The magnetic field is produced 
by a laminated magnet consisting of five permanent horseshoe-magnets. These magnets 
are of the permanent magnet-steel supplied by the Crucible Steel Company of America, 
and were made following the methods used by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
for the manufacture of magnetometer magnets. To insure maximum flux-density in the 
gap, two pole pieces, P, of soft iron are attached, as shown in the section A B of Figure 2; 
the gap for the fiber is 2 ( mm. wide. 



26 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

The string element consists of a fine quartz fiber coated with silver or platinum; 
it is soldered to two cylindrical copper lugs which may be clamped in the standards S 
and S' (see Fig. 2). These standards are mounted on the plate K, which in turn is 
mounted on the plate L by four adjusting sleeves and screws by which the plate K may 
be adjusted to exactly center the fiber in the gap. The tension of the fiber is regulated 
by means of the milled head Q, which may be clamped in the screw sleeve R. The pitch 
of the latter is slightly different from that of the screw E, which is mounted in the second 
standard S'. Because of the slight difference in the two pitches, it is possible to effect 
readily a fine adjustment of the fiber for tension. It should be noted that the standard 
S is fixed with reference to the plate K and that the standard S' is attached to a slide 
mounted between suitable clamps on the plate K. It is possible to alter quickly the 
distance between the two standards S and S' by unclamping the milled head Q and 
sliding the bar G with the standard S' one way or the other in the screw sleeve R. When 
the distance desired between the two standards is secured, the milled head Q is clamped 
and the final adjustment made. It is thus possible to use a fiber of any length between 
93 mm. and 120 mm. In the present instrument the rod G is made of phosphor-bronze 
because invar-steel of proper size could not be obtained. For future instruments it is 
intended to use invar-steel in order to eliminate any possible effects due to the difference 
in temperature coefficients for the bronze rod and for the quartz fiber. Suitable cover 
plates and caps (see PI. 3, Fig. 2) are provided to exclude dust and air currents. 

The small deflection of the fiber produced at right angles to the magnetic field by 
the passage of a current through the galvanometer is observed by projecting the image of 
the fiber on a glass scale by means of a beam of light passing through the microscopes 
and suitably mounted prisms (see Fig. 2 of Plate 3, showing the microscopes but not the 
attachments for the prisms and scale). One of the microscopes serves as the optical 
condenser. The microscopes are mounted on adjustable carriers on either side of the 
central magnet-section, holes of suitable size being drilled through the section to permit 
the necessary adjustments of the objectives by the fine focusing arrangements. The 
diameter of these holes is 2 mm. greater than the diameter of the tube containing the ob- 
jectives, to permit centering of the microscope on the fiber; the free spaces about the 
objective tubes are packed with cotton when the instrument is in use. 

The galvanometer is mounted in a frame (see PI. 3, Figs. 2 and 4) so arranged that it 
may be set up with the fiber either in a horizontal or a vertical position. The bearings 
of the axles supporting the magnets with their appurtenances are provided with two 
clamping screws, so that the instrument may be clamped in any position in its bearings. 

When used aboard ship it was found that vibrations, for example those from the 
engine, could be practically eliminated by suspending the galvanometer from the beams 
in the cabin with strong rubber bands. 

The fibers are coated by the method described by Professor H. B. Williams, and the 
resistances range from 2,000 ohms upward. Fibers of diameter 0.001 to 0.002 mm. are, 
on the whole, the most convenient. 

Method of Observation. 

As the alternating current, generated by the rotating slip-ring coil of the earth- 
inductor, passes through the string galvanometer, the fiber is deflected back and forth 
rapidly at right angles to the magnetic field, the rapidity of the vibrations causing the 
image of the moving fiber to form a continuous band. The width of this band is a 
measure of the amount by which the axis of the earth-inductor coil is out of the line of 
magnetic dip. 

Referring to the specimen observation with this slip-ring coil earth-inductor and 
string-galvanometer combination on pages 27 and 28, if the width of the band is read 



PLATE 3 






NEW INSTRUMENTS USED ON CRUISE VI. 

1. C. I. W. marine earth-inductor 7. 2. String galvanometer showing fiber mounting. 

3. Slip-ring coil for earth inductor and improved D'Arsonval balance for galvanometer. 



4. String galvanometer assembled. 



5. Sperry automatic roll-and-pitch recorder. 



Magnetic Instruments and Methods 



27 



OCEAN MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS: EARTH-INDUCTOR OBSERVATIONS (GALVANOMETER 

READINGS) 



(Form 29a) 



Station: At Sea. 

Date: Fri., June. 17, 1921, P. M. 
Instrument: String Galv. 1 
Obs'r's wt: 5 



Lat: 11° 47' S 
Vessel: Carnegie 
Obs'r: H. R. G. 
Comp'r: H. F. J. 



Long: 164° 24' W 
Com'd'r: J. P. A. 
Rec'd'r: H. F. J. 
Reviser: R. R. M. 





East 


West 




1 


2 


3 


4 




r 


I 


r 


I 


r 


1 


r 


I 






d 
2.0 
1.5 
2.5 
3.0 
2.5 
3.5 
1.5 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 


d 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 
4.0 
3.0 
1.5 
1.0 
2.5 
5.0 
4.0 


d 
2.5 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
1.5 
2.5 
3.0 
5.0 
4.0 
2.0 


d 
2.0 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 
3.5 


d 
2.0 
2.5 
3.5 
4.0 
2.5 
1.5 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
3.5 


d 
2.0 
1.0 
2.5 
5.0 
3.0 
1.0 
1.5 
2.5 
3.0 
2.0 


d 
2.0 
3.0 
4.0 
1.0 
2.5 
3.0 
3.5 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 


d 
2.0 
1.5 
3.5 
3.5 
2.0 
3.0 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
2.5 


a u 2 


" " 3. . 


« « 4 


« " 5 


« " 6 


« By 


■ a 8 


" " 9 


« " 10 




2.45 


2.90 


2.65 


2.70 


2.75 


2.35 


2.50 


2.70 


Means, r and { 


d 
2.68 =di 


( 

2.68 


I 
=dj 


d 
2.55 =d, 


d 

2.60 =d. 




d 
5.36=d,+di 


d 
5.15 =d 2 +dj 




V. C. of inductor 


West 


East 


V. C. setting, n 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Crank turn 


r 


J 


r 


I 


r 


I 


r 


I 




Scale readings' 1 


d 
3.0 
3.5 
2.5 
3.5 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
1.5 
1.5 


d 
3.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
2.0 
4.0 
3.0 
1.5 
2.5 
4.0 


d 
2.0 
1.0 
3.5 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.5 
3.0 
4.0 
2.0 


d 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
4.0 
3.0 
1.5 
1.0 
2.5 


d 
3.0 
1.0 
0.5 
2.5 
4.0 
3.0 
2.5 
2.0 
1.5 
4.0 


d 
2.0 
2.5 
4.0 
3.0 
1.5 
2.0 
2.5 
2.5 
5.0 
2.5 


d 
3.0 
3.5 
3.0 
2.0 
1.5 
3.5 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
3.0 


d 
3.0 
2.0 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.0 
2.0 


" " 2 


" " 3 


« « 4 


" " 5 


" " 6 


a a *j 


u " 8 


" " 9 


" " 10 


Means 


2.65 


2.60 


2.60 


2.55 


2.40 


2.75 


2.85 


2.90 




d 
2.62 «di 


c 

2.58 


I 

=d, 


d 

2.58 =d 7 


( 

2.88 


i 
=d, 


Sums (d n +d n +i) 


d 

5.20 =d,+d, 


d 

5.46 =dv+d. 




Remarks: ' Reading width of 


band made by oscillating fiber c 


>r differenc 


es between extreme oscillations. 





28 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



OCEAN MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS: EARTH-INDUCTOR OBSERVATIONS FOR INCLINATION (I) 

(Form 29) 



Station: At sea Lat: 11° 47' S 

Dale: Fri., June 17, 1921, P. M. Vessel: Carnegie 

Instrument: E. I. 3; Galv'r: String 1 Weather: c 

Chron'r: 50097 Sea: L 

Horizontal circle: 120°; 300° Course: SWJ^W 

Gimbal circle: 231°; 51° Wind: ENE, 5 

Revolutions of crank per minute: 120 Pitching: 3° 



Long: 164° 24' W 
Com'd'r: J. P. A. 
Obs'r: R. R. M. 
Rec'd'r: R. P. 
Comp'r: R. R. M. 
Reviser: H. F. J. 
Roll: 8° S to 4° P 



Gimbal Direct 


Commutator Up 


Commutator Down 


M 

_g 

CD 
CO 


d 

> 


Vertical Circle 


Balance 


Incl'n 


M 

Cj 
CO 


6 

> 


Vertical Circle 


Balance 


Incl'n 


Ver. A 


B 


Mean 


Corr'n 1 


Reads 


Ver. A 


B 


Mean 


Corr'n ' 


Reads 


1 

2 


E 

E 


O t 

206 30 
200 30 


/ 

27 
27 




206.48 
200.48 


o 

-3.00 




203 . 48 


o 

-23.48 
-23.49 


5 
6 


W 
W 


O / 

153 30 
159 30 


27 
27 


o 

153.48 
159.48 


o 

+3.02 


o 

156.50 


o 

-23.50 
-23.31 


3 
4 


W 
W 


339 30 
333 30 


27 
27 


339.48 
333 . 48 


-2.97 


336.51 


7 
8 


E 
E 


20 30 
26 30 


27 
27 


20.48 
26.48 


+2.83 


23.31 


Mean 


-23.48 


Mean 


-23.40 


Gimbal Reversed 


13 

14 

15 
16 


W 
W 

E 

E 


339 30 
333 30 


27 
27 


339.48 
333.48 


-3.27 


336.21 


-23.79 
-23.71 


9 
10 


E 
E 


26 30 
20 30 


27 

27 


26.48 
20.48 


-2.95 


23.53 


-23.53 
-23.58 


200 30 
206 30 


27 
27 


200.48 
206.48 


+3.23 


203.71 


11 
12 


W 

w 


153 30 
159 30 


27 
27 


153.48 
159.48 


+2.94 


156.42 


Mean 


-23.75 


Mean 


-23.56 


Mean Inclination, Commutator Up 


-23.62 


Mean I 


ticlination 


Commutator 


Down 


-23.48 






Mean Inclination, Gimbal Direct: — 23?44; Mean Ii 


iclination, 


Gimbal Reversed: -23°66 




Resulting Mean Inclinatior 


i: -23?55 






Gimba 




Direct 


Reversed 


Chron'r No. 53157 

Cnr-'" •»- fi. A/T T 


h 
2 

+ o 

2 
-10 

15 

4 


m 
29.0 

22.1 

51.1 
57.6 

53.5 
39.0 







Commutator 


Up 


Down 


Down 


Up 


h m 
2 22.0 
25.5 


h m 
2 26.0 
29.5 


h m 
2 30.0 
33.5 


h 


m 
2 34.0 
38.0 


G. 

Loi 


M. T 


Time, ] 


Ending 


ii? 








Mean Chron'r Times. 
Local Mean Times. . . 


2 23.8 
13 38.3 


2 27.8 
13 42 3 


2 31.8 
13 46 3 


1 


2 36.0 

3 50.5 


L. M. T.... 

No. 50097 re 


ads 






Mean Local Mean Tii 


ne 


1 


3 44 


No. 50097 on L. M. T.. 


+ 11 


14.5 






Remarks: Magnetic articles removed: Yes. 



'Correction ■ 



( * ) 



A. See form 29a for values of d. 



Magnetic Instruments and Methods 29 

as 2.55 divisions of the scale for the mean of right-hand and left-hand rotation of the 
crank for setting No. 3 of the vertical circle of the earth-inductor, 339 ?48, and the width of 
the band is read as 2.60 divisions for the vertical-circle setting No. 4, 333 ?48, then 
the line of inclination is found by multiplying the shift of 6° in the vertical-circle setting 

2 55 

by the fraction r-jk, which amounts to 2? 97, to be subtracted from vertical-circle setting 

No. 3. 

Thus, if S„ is the nth vertical-circle setting, the reading of the vertical circle for the 
position of balance, or of no deflection, and, consequently, of the true line of magnetic 
dip, would be 



S n + 



( d » ) 



where d n is the mean width of the band formed by the oscillating fiber for right-hand and 
left-hand rotation of the crank for vertical-circle setting S n , d n+x the corresponding 
quantity for the (n + 1) setting of the vertical circle, and A is the algebraic difference 
between the two settings of the vertical circle, i. e., A = S n +i — S n . 

A shift of 2° in the vertical-circle setting of the earth-inductor gave a deflection of 
the galvanometer fiber too small to be read with sufficient accuracy, so that it was finally 
decided, after experimenting with shifts of 2°, 4°, 6°, and 8°, to use a shift of 6°, or to set 
the vertical circle of the inductor as nearly as was possible 3 degrees each side of the 
true line of magnetic dip. It was first attempted to read the extreme deflections of 
the fiber, but owing to the motion of the vessel this was found to be impracticable. The 
width of the band formed by the moving fiber was not affected by the motion of the ves- 
sel, so that it was possible to estimate this width with considerable accuracy, even when 
the band moved up and down on the scale with the motion of the vessel. Except as 
noted above, the scheme of observation is the same as for the moving-coil galvanometer 
described on page 201, Volume III. 



30 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

INSTRUMENTAL OUTFIT FOR THE CARNEGIE WORK. 
CRUISES IV AND V. MARCH 1915 TO JUNE 1918. 

Magnetic Instruments. 

I. For magnetic declination at sea. — (1) Marine collimating-compass 1, same as for 
Cruise III, designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
provided with brass binnacle-stand and deflector attachment for use on board ship 
and tripod with rotating arm and appurtenances for mounting theodolite for use on 
shore; (2) sea deflector 3, same as for Cruise III, designed and constructed by the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism, was on board for possible emergency use to October 
1916; (3) sea deflector 4, same as for Cruise III, designed and constructed by the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism, provided with brass binnacle-stand by E. S. Ritchie and 
Sons, for use on board ship, with tripod for use on shore, and with a special quick- 
sighting device for navigational purposes, was used to October 1916, after which it was 
retained on board for possible emergency use; (4) sea deflector 5, designed and con- 
structed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, was on board from April to 
October 1916 for reserve and experimental use, and from October 1916 it was used in 
place of deflector 4. The designations adopted, respectively, for these four compasses 
with appurtenances are CI, D3, D4, and D5. (5) Ritchie liquid compass 39670, same as 
for Cruise III, provided with a brass binnacle-stand, by E. S. Ritchie and Sons, was 
mounted in the chart-room and used as the standard compass; (6) Ritchie liquid compass 
29971, same as for Cruise III, provided with a brass binnacle-stand, by E. S. Ritchie and 
Sons, was mounted on the quarter-deck and was used as a steering compass for the vessel; 
(7) Ritchie liquid compass 29499, and (8) Ritchie liquid compass 29497, the latter with 
its card ungraduated except for the four cardinal points, with azimuth circles 418-III 
and 481-III, all by E. S. Ritchie and Sons, were carried for reserve and experimental use. 

II. For magnetic inclination and total intensity at sea. — (1) Sea dip-circle 189, same as 
for Cruise III, used from April 1915, provided with dip needles 1, 2, 5, and 6, and intensity- 
needle pairs 3 and 4, and 11 and 12, provided with reversible gimbal-stand for use on 
board ship and tripod for use on shore; (2) sea dip-circle 204, same as for Cruise III, used 
during March 1915, after which it was a reserve instrument, provided with dip needles 
2, 9, 10, and 11, and intensity-needle pairs 3 and 4, and 7 and 8; 1 (3) marine earth-induc- 
tor 3, 2 same as for Cruise III, with the addition, for use at shore stations, of galvanometer 
28A and tripod, designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
supplemented by moving-coil galvanometers 19498 (tube 19499) and 20696 (tubes 20697 
to July 1917, and 20698). The designations adopted, respectively, for the three instru- 
ments and their appurtenances are 189. 1234, 204.2934, and EI3. For the dip circles 
the intensity-needle numbers are italicized; for cases where both deflection and loaded- 
dip observations were made, the designation for the intensity needles is followed by a 
dagger(f), thus, 189.12341- 

III. For horizontal intensity at sea. — (1) Sea deflector 4, same as for Cruise III, except 
for minor repairs during January 1915, with magnets 45, 2L, and 3, to October 1916, after 
which it was supplanted by deflector 5; (2) sea deflector 5, with magnets 5 and 2L, from 
October 1916; (3) sea deflector 3 was on board from June 1916 to October 1916 for pos- 
sible emergency use, after which deflector 4 was the reserve instrument. 

IV. For magnetic declination and horizontal intensity on land. — (1) Theodolite mag- 
netometer 5, same as for Cruise III; (2) magnetometer-inductor 25, same as for Cruise 

' Intensity needles 7 and 8 and dip needle 9 were returned to the office in April 1915, the pivots of 8 and 9 having been 
broken during observations. 

2 Earth inductor 3 was thoroughly overhauled and repaired in the instrument shop of the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism during October 1916 while the Carnegie was at San Francisco. 



Instrumental Outfit 31 

III, except for overhauling and repairs during January 1915. The designations adopted, 
respectively, for these two magnetometers are 5 and 25. (3) Universal magnetometer 
21, designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, was used at 
one shore station in March 1915. 

V. For magnetic inclination on land. — (1) Magnetometer-inductor 25, same as for 
Cruise III, except that galvanometer 29X was substituted for galvanometer 25 from 
October 1916; (2) land dip-circle 201, provided with dip needles 5 and 6 of 201, 5X, and 
6X, and intensity-needle pair 3 and 4, with tripod 201, all by A. W. Dover, until May 1916; 

(3) land dip-circle 202, provided with dip needles 7X and 8X and intensity-needle pair 
3 and 4 to be used as dip needles, all by A. W. Dover, from September 1916; (4) land dip- 
circle 241, provided with dip needles 1, 2, 5, and 6, and intensity-needle pair 7 and 8, all 
by A. W. Dover, from April 1917. The designations adopted, respectively, for these 
four instruments are EI25, 201.56, 202.7X8X, and 241.12. (5) Marine earth-inductor 3 
was also used for shore observations; (6) universal magnetometer 21, provided with 
needles 1 and 3 of 19 and 3 and 4 of 20, was used at one shore station in March 1915. 

Atmospheric-Electric Instruments. 

VI. Instruments for observations in atmospheric electricity. — (1) Conductivity appara- 
tus 3 (designation CA3), designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, provided with gimbal rings and mounting and direct-current motor; (2) 
ion counter 1(IC1), provided with gimbal rings and mounting, and appurtenances, all 
designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; (3) penetrating- 
radiation apparatus 1(PRA1), provided with gimbal rings and mounting, and appur- 
tenances, all designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; 

(4) potential-gradient apparatus 2(PG2), complete with appurtenances and mounting, 
all designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; (5) radioac- 
tive-content apparatus 4(RCA4), provided with gimbal rings and mounting, water-drop- 
ping apparatus, direct-current motor, ionizing chamber, anemometer, and other appur- 
tenances, designed and constructed for the most part by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism. (6) Accessories: Gerdien condenser 4, until April 1915, and from April 
to October 1916; Gerdien condenser 5, from October 1916; single-fiber electrometers 12, 
14, and 15, all constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; Braun electro- 
scope 1437; Wulf bifilar electrometers 3537, 3995 (repaired in the instrument shop of 
the Department during October 1916), and 4357, all by GuntherandTegetmeyer; Wiech- 
ert electrometer 2 by Spindler and Hoyer; high-resistance rheostats 1716 and 1751, 
April to October 1916; Biddle rheostats 67257 and 78310; batteries of cadmium cells and 
Eveready dry cells; voltmeters; volt-ammeter; potentiometer; gimbal-stand; nonmag- 
netic Gauss table; radium and ionium collectors; miscellaneous equipment, including 
nonmagnetic clamps, special insulators, small tools, etc. 

Sextants, Chronometers, Watches, and Dip-of-horizon Measurers. 

VII. Sextants.— (1) Nos. 2575, 2611, 2617, 2943, 2944, by Ponthus and Therrode 
(the last two instruments are specially designed for use at night); (2) No. 3265 by C. 
Plath; (3) Nos. 10756, 10759, and 22876, all by Keuffel and Esser Company; (4) Nos. 
L809 and M911 (from May 1916), by Heath and Company, London; (5) unnumbered 
sextant by L. Weule; (6) gyroscopic collimator and octant 2679 by Ponthus and Ther- 
rode; (7) pocket sextant 301 by James J. Hicks; (8) extra small sextants 3380 and 3393 by 
Carey, Porter Ltd.; (9) prismatic circle 11717 by Carl Bamberg. 

VIII. Chronometers and watches. — (1) Marine chronometers 254 and 264 by A. Kittel, 
360 by Finer, 2761 by G. E. Wilkins, 52917, 53151, 53157, and 53862, all by E. Dent and 
Company, 1044 by Roskell, with ship and gimbal cases; (2) watches 70 and 71 by the 



32 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Hamilton Watch Company, 92 (sidereal) by the Waltham Watch Company, 106, 110, 
116, 117, all by the Elgin National Watch Company. Watches 70, 71, 106, 110, 116, 
and 117 were returned to the office in October 1916, and the following watches were sub- 
stituted for them: 53 and 137 by the Hamilton Watch Company, 101 and 105 by the 
Elgin National Watch Company, and 316 and 568 by the South Bend Watch Company. 

IX. Dip-of-horizon measurers. — (l)Dip-of-horizon measurer 4048 by Carl Zeiss; (2) 
micrometer dip-of-horizon measurer 4031 by Carl Zeiss, loaned by the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey until July 1915, designated No. 1 of that survey; (3) dip-of- 
horizon measurer 5490 by Carl Zeiss, from July 1915. 

Meteorological Instruments and Miscellaneous Equipment. 

X. Meteorological instruments. — (1) Aneroid barometers 4 and 7 by Ponthus and 
Therrode; (2) unnumbered holosteric aneroid barometer by L. Weule; (3) barograph 
5142 by Richard Freres; (4) marine mercury barometer 3948, English and metric scales 
and verniers, Weather Bureau No. 7272, provided with attached unnumbered Fahrenheit 
thermometer and Bureau of Standards No. 1244 centigrade thermometer by H. J. Green; 
(5) marine mercury barometer 4177, English and metric scales and verniers, Weather 
Bureau No. 7273, provided with attached unnumbered Fahrenheit thermometer and 
centigrade thermometer, Bureau of Standards No. 2072, by H. J. Green; (6) boiling- 
point apparatuses 8 and 9 by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; (7) Marvin sling 
psychrometer 204 by Schneider Brothers, and two sling psychrometers by H. J. Green, 
thermometers 29034, 29035, 29036, and 29037 from October 1916; (8) thermographs 
40034, 40418, and 46032, by Richard Freres; (9) 6-inch thermometers, Bureau of Stand- 
ards Nos. 2666, 4141 (with deflector 5 from April 1916), 4144 (from October 1916), 4149, 
4151, 4160, 4161, 8186 (with magnetometer-inductor 25), 9515 (from April 1917), 9517, 
9520, 9521, 9523 (from October 1916), 9526 (from October 1916), 9530, 9531, and 9532; 
(10) thermometers for hypsometric work at sea, Bureau of Standards Nos. 3553, 3554, 
7828, 7831, 8116, 8117, 8118, 8119, 8728, 8730, 8731, 11071, and 11076; (11) maximum ther- 
mometer 8094 and minimum thermometer 8070, both Fahrenheit scale, by H. J. Green; 
(12) special reading telescope and mounting for boiling-point work at sea, designed and 
constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. The following thermometers 
were broken during cruises IV and V: 9517, 9521, 9532, 7831, 8116, 8117, 8118, 8728, 
and 8730. 

XL Miscellaneous equipment. — (1) Artificial horizon 2, designed and constructed by 
the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; (2) leather chronometer-carrying cases; (3) 
balances; (4) six Edison primary batteries with coil for reversing magnetization of sea 
dip-circle needles; (5) marine clocks; (6) two 3-inch liquid boat-compasses and brass 
binnacles; (7) dating and numbering machines; (8) drawing tools; (9) plate and film 
cameras; (10) leads for sounding; (11) marine glasses; (12) taffrail logs; (13) universal 
levels; (14) inclinometers; (15) instrument trunk-cases; (16) miscellaneous office equip- 
ment; (17) microscope 2 and accessories, by Spencer Lens Company (maker's No. 
10477); (18) medical and surgical supplies and instruments; (19) developing tank for 
photographic work; (20) three-arm protractor 10031, by the Keuffel and Esser Company; 
(21) reading glasses; (22) Tanner nonmagnetic 100-fathom sounding machine 1, by D. 
Ballauf (maker's No. 245); (23) tapes; (24) nonmagnetic observing pyramid tents, regula- 
tion land type, for shore work; (25) special nonmagnetic wall tents 9 feet by 9 feet, for 
shore work; (26) tools; (27) typewriter; (28) small instrumental accessories; (29) water 
filters; (30) telescope 1 by Carey; (31) comptometer; (32) 40 Edison primary batteries for 
supplying current for atmospheric-electric work; (33) fog horn; (34) Lyle nonmagnetic 
life-line gun. 



Instrumental Outfit 33 

cruise vi. october 1919 to november 1921. 
Magnetic Instruments. 

XII. For magnetic declination at sea. — (1) Marine collimating-compass 1, same as for 
cruises IV and V; (2) sea deflector 5, same as for cruises IV and V. The special sighting 
device or azimuth circle constructed for deflector 4 was adapted for use with deflector 5. 
The designations adopted, respectively, for the two compasses with appurtenances are 
CI and D5; (3) Ritchie liquid compass 39670 used as standard, same as for cruises IV 
and V; (4) Ritchie liquid compass 29971 used as steering compass, with Ritchie azimuth 
device 481-III, same as for cruises IV and V; (5) Ritchie liquid compass 29499, and 
(6) Ritchie liquid compass 29497, same as for cruises IV and V; (7) sea deflector 4 was on 
board for possible emergency use. 

XIII. For magnetic inclination and total intensity at sea. — (1) Sea dip-circle 189, same 
as for cruises IV and V, with dip needles 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10, and intensity-needle pairs 3 
and 4, 7 and 8, and 11 and 12. Dip needles 1 and 2 were used throughout Cruise VI and 
intensity-needle pair 3 and 4 were used to November 27, 1920, when they were replaced 
by intensity-needle pair 11 and 12, owing to broken pivot of needle 3; (2) sea dip-circle 
169, with dip needles 5, 6, 9, and 10, and intensity-needle pairs 7 and 8, and 11 and 12, 
was on board as a reserve instrument; (3) marine earth inductor 3, same as for cruises IV 
and V, provided with special slip-ring coil and new string galvanometer 1 from February 
1920, all designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism; (4) 
marine earth-inductor 7, designed and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, supplemented by moving-coil galvanometers 19498 (tubes 19499 and 20698) 
and 20696 (tubes 20697 from February 1920 and tubes 62312 and 62313 from March 1921), 
with the addition, for use at shore stations, of galvanometer 28X and tripod until July 1921. 
The designations adopted, respectively, for these four instruments and their appurtenances 
are 189.1234, 169.5675, EI3, and EI7. For the dip circles the intensity-needle numbers are 
italicized; for cases where both deflection and loaded-dip observations were made, the 
designation for the intensity needles is followed by a dagger (f), thus, 189.12341*- 

XIV. For horizontal intensity at sea. — (1) Sea deflector 5, same as for cruises IV and 
V, with magnets 5, 2L, and 3; (2) sea deflector 4 was on board as a reserve instrument. 

XV. For magnetic declination and horizontal intensity on land. — (1) Theodolite mag- 
netometer 5, same as for cruises IV and V, until July 1921; (2) magnetometer inductor 
25, same as for cruises IV and V. The designations adopted, respectively, for these two 
magnetometers are 5 and 25. 

XVI. For magnetic inclination on land. — (1) Magnetometer-inductor 25, same as for 
cruises IV and V, with galvanometer 25 and extra galvanometer 29X; (2) marine earth- 
inductor 7, with galvanometer 28X until July 1921, was also used for shore observations; 
(3) land dip-circle 202, same as for Cruise V, provided with dip needles 7X and 8X and 
intensity-needle pair 7 and 8, was on board as a reserve instrument. 

Atmospheric-Electric Instruments. 

XVII. Instruments for observations in atmospheric electricity. — (1) Conductivity 
apparatus 3 (designation CA3), same as for cruises IV and V; (2) ion counter 1 (IC1), 
same as for cruises IV and V; (3) penetrating-radiation apparatus 1 (PRA1), same as for 
cruises IV and V; (4) potential-gradient apparatus 2 (PG2), same as for cruises IV and 
V; (5) radioactive-content apparatus 4 (RCA4), same as for cruises IV and V; (6) acces- 
sories: Gerdien condenser 5; single-fiber electrometers 12, 14, and 15, same as for cruises 
IV and V; Wulf bifilar electrometers 3537, 3995, and 4357 (to July 1921), same as for 
cruises IV and V; Braun electroscope 1437; high-resistance rheostats 78311, 68209, and 
26158; Zamboni dry pile from February 1920; ionium collectors 3 and 4; Gambrell 



34 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

megohms 1369 and 1078 (from October 1920); batteries of silver-chloride dry-cells; 
voltmeters; volt-ammeter; potentiometer; miscellaneous equipment, including non- 
magnetic clamps, special insulators, small tools, etc. 

Sextants, Chronometers, Watches, and Dip-of-Horizon Measurers. 

XVIII. Sextants. — Same as for cruises IV and V. 

XIX. Chronometers and watches. — (1) Marine chronometers, same as for cruises IV 
and V, with the exception of Kittel 254, Finer 360, and Roskell 1044, and with the addi- 
tion of pocket chronometers 50110 and 50097 (from April 1920) by Paul Ditisheim, and 
226 by A. Kittel, to February 1920; (2) watches, 51 by the Hamilton Watch Company, 
91 (sidereal) by the Waltham Watch Company, 104 and 111 by the Elgin National 
Watch Company, 568 by the South Bend Watch Company, and 811 and 813 by the How- 
ard Watch Works. 

XX. Dip-of-horizon measurers. — (1) Dip-of-horizon measurers 4048 and 5490, same 
as for cruises IV and V; (2) sextant 2611 was used to determine the atmospheric refrac- 
tion by measuring altitudes of the Sun and of Venus when these objects were near the 
zenith. 

Meteorological Instruments and Miscellaneous Equipment. 

XXI. Meteorological instruments. — (1) Aneroid barometer 3 by Keuffel and Esser; 
(2) unnumbered holosteric aneroid barometer by L. Weule; (3) barograph 5142 by Rich- 
ard Freres; (4) marine barometers, same as for cruises IV and V; (5) boiling-point ap- 
paratuses, same as for cruises IV and V; (6) 5 Marvin sling psychrometers by H. J. Green, 
aluminum frames, thermometers Nos. 34528 and 34529, 34448 and 34449, 29034 and 29035, 
34544 and 34545, 29036 and 29037, 1 psychrometer No. G 108 by J. P. Friez, and 1 brass- 
frame psychrometer, thermometers Nos. 1248 (Bureau of Standards) and 8 (Schneider) ; 
(7) thermographs 39804 (C.I.W. 1), 40418 (C.I.W. 2) and 43032 (C.I.W. 4), by Richard 
Freres; (8) 6-inch thermometers, Bureau of Standards Nos. 2072, 2666 (with magnetom- 
eter 5), 4141 (with deflector 5), 8186 (with magnetometer-inductor 25), 9513 (with dip 
circle 202), 9514, 9530, 9518, 13370, 13377, 6724, 6731, 13365, and from October 1920, 
4160, 9523, 9526, 9531, 13363, 13380; (9) thermometers for hypsometric work at sea, 
Bureau of Standards Nos. 7828, 8119, 8731, 11071, and 11076. « The following thermom- 
eters were broken during Cruise VI: 11076, 34528, 29034, and 29036. 

XXII. Miscellaneous equipment. — Same as for cruises IV and V with the addition of 

(1) Sperry auto roll-and-pitch recorder, mark II, model 6, serial No. 2, 7,000 R.P.M.; 

(2) statoscope 85574, by Richard Freres, from October 1921; (3) line-of-position computer 
by Charles L. Poor; (4) sounding tubes 38 and 39, loaned by the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. 

General property and supplies. — Besides the instrumental equipment listed on 
pages 33 and 34, the general property and supplies on board the Carnegie, 1919-1921, in 
addition to what were necessary for the maintenance of the ship, were the same as for 
cruises IV and V. 

SPECIMENS OF OBSERVATIONS AND COMPUTATIONS. 

The instruments and methods used during Cruise VI remained much the same as 
for cruises IV and V, and reference can be made to Volume III, Researches of the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 212-225, for specimens of observations and 
computations. Specimens of observations and computations illustrating the use of the 
new string galvanometer and earth-inductor 3, provided with special slip-ring coil, will 
be found on pages 27 and 28. 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 35 

geographic positions at sea. 

Methods and instruments similar to those in use during cruises IV and V were used 
during Cruise VI, and reference can be made to Volume III, Researches of the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 225-231, for descriptions and explanation of 
methods. Increased accuracy of positions at sea has resulted from the added experience 
of the observers. Frequent use was made of the planet Venus for daylight observations 
in connection with observations on the Sun. 

REDUCTION FORMULAE AND DETERMINATION OF CONSTANTS. 
MAGNETIC STANDARDS ADOPTED. 

The Department's extensive intercomparisons of magnetic instruments at Wash- 
ington, in the field, and at magnetic observatories in all parts of the Earth have made it 
possible to refer its data to provisional "International Magnetic Standards." Such data 
obtained prior to 1914 were discussed in detail in Volume II, pages 211 to 278; the cor- 
responding data obtained during 1915 to 1921, reported in Volume IV, pages 395 to 
475, bear out the conclusions reached in Volume II. The "International Magnetic 
Standards," as stated, are provisional, particularly for intensity, pending the com- 
pletion and intercomparison of absolute instruments 1 designed to determine mag- 
netic intensity by electric methods. 2 Meanwhile, the numerous comparisons with 
magnetic-observatory standards indicate that these provisional standards approach 
sufficiently close to probable international ones that they may be considered as fulfilling 
all practical requirements of a general magnetic survey of the Earth. 

Accordingly, these provisional "International Magnetic Standards," designated 
I. M.S., have been adopted for the results contained in this volume. The results already 
published in Volumes I, II, and III were reduced to the standards, designated C.I.W., 
adopted before the compilation of intercomparison data made possible the adoption of 
provisional "International Magnetic Standards"; they may be referred to I. M.S. by the 
following relations: 

Declination, D I.M.S. = C.I.W. - Oil 

Inclination, / I.M.S. = C.I.W. + 015 

Horizontal intensity, H I.M.S. = C.I.W. - 0.00015H 

The results published in Volume IV were reduced to I.M.S. 

The instruments used as standards by the Department during 1915 to 1921 were the 
same as those used prior to 1914 for results given in Volumes I and II, viz: In declination, 
C.I.W. magnetometer 3 with correction on I.M.S. of — O'l to observed values; in hori- 
zontal intensity, C.I.W. magnetometer 3 with zero correction on I.M.S. to observed 
values; in inclination, earth inductor 48, made by Schulze, with zero correction on I.M.S. 
to observed values. 

CONSTANTS AND CORRECTIONS FOR SEA INSTRUMENTS. 

The instrumental constants and corrections on standards (above) of the sea instru- 
ments used in the Carnegie work were determined at Washington and at the various 
ports visited, by comparisons with standardized land-instruments. The method adopted 
in the comparisons was generally that of simultaneous observations. In order to refer 

1 The Schuster-Smith magnetometer, constructed at the National Physical Laboratory, and the sine galvanometer, 
designed by Dr. S. J. Barnett and constructed by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, were completed early in 1921. 
It is greatly hoped that the expectations as regards high absolute precision of intensity determinations with these instruments 
may be fully realized and that early intercomparisons may be possible between them and standard magnetometers of different 
countries, in order to assist in determining upon international magnetic standards. 

2 See L. A. Bauer, Terr. Mag., vol. 19, pp. 1-18, 1914; N. E. Dorsey, Terr. Mag., vol. 18, pp. 1-38, 1913; W. A. Jenkins. 
Phil. Mag., vol. 26, pp. 752-774, 1913; E. Mauz, Physic. Zs., vol. 22, pp. 11-15, 1921; A. Schuster, Terr. Mag., vol. 19, pp, 
19-22, 1914; A. Tanakadate, Proc. R. S. Edinburg, vol. 12, 1883 to 1884 and J. Coll. Sci., Tokio, vol. 2, pp. 160-262, 1888; N. 
Watanabe, Proc. Phys.-Math. Soc. Japan, ser 3, vol. 2, pp. 210-223, 1920; W. Watson, Phil. Trans. R. A., ser. A, vol. 198, 
pp. 431-462, 1902. 



36 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



values of the magnetic elements at one observing station to any of the others, station 
differences were carefully determined at each port from observations with the land 
instruments, following the methods described in Volume I (pp. 19, 20). 

Declination Observations. 

Marine collimating-compass 1 (Cl). — Marine collimating-compass 1 was used on the 
Carnegie throughout cruises IV, V, and VI. The instrument was cleaned in January 
1915, but it has not been overhauled or adjusted since May 1914. 

The adopted constants for cruises IV, V, and VI, resulting from least-square adjust- 
ment of all data obtained during the period from February 1915 to December 1921, are 
summarized from Tables 1 and 2 and are given in Table 3. 

Table 3. — Constants of Marine Collimating-Compass Cl. 



For 
Cruise 


Scale 


Magnetic azimuth l 


Scale elevation 2 


Scale 
value 


Desig- 
nation 


Value 


Desig- 
nation 


Value • 


IV 

V 

VI 


[South 

1 West 

[North 

lEast 

[South 

1 West 

[North 

lEast 

[South 

jWest 

] North 

[East 


A cv> 

A m 

A ce 
A c , 

A-cw 
A en 
Ace 
Acs 
A-cw 
A en 
Ace 


359?79 

89.69 

179.87 

269.95 

359 . 79 

89.69 

179.87 

269 . 95 

359 . 79 

89.69 

179.87 

269 . 95 


m, 
m a 
m n 
m e 
m, 
m w 
nin 
m e 
m s 
m w 
m n 
m e 


+0?01+1?262 

+0.12 

+0.17-1.262 

-0.12 

+0.01+1. 262 

+0.07 

+0.17-1.262 

-0.07 

+0.01+1.262 
* +0.07-0? 10 « -1919.62) 

+0.17-1.262 
<-0.07+0.10 (i-1919.62) 


0?97 
1.00 
1.00 
1.02 
0.97 
1.00 
1.00 
1.02 
0.97 
1.00 
1.00 
1.02 



1 The magnetic azimuths are on the basis of I. M.S. and are reckoned continuously in a clock- 
wise direction from the magnetic south as 0° through 360°. 

2 Elevations above the horizon are reckoned as positive and below the horizon as negative. 

3 The vertical intensity, 2, is expressed in c. g. s. units, and is reckoned as positive for the 
northern magnetic hemisphere and negative for the southern magnetic hemisphere. 

4 See Table 2 for these values corresponding to various values of the time, t. 

Sea deflector 4 (D4)- — Sea deflector 4 was used on Cruise IV up to San Francisco, 
September 1916. The instrument developed a slight leak in the inner lining of the bowl 
and the resulting air bubble was removed at Honolulu on June 9, 1915 and again at 
Christchurch on November 23, 1915. The adjustments were not altered by these 
changes. Periodic corrections to observed card-readings are so small as to be considered 
negligible and have not been applied. The "shadow" method was not used on Cruise 
IV and hence no corrections are given for this method. The corrections to observed 
card-readings by the "bright-line method" showed no appreciable variation with 
change in the Sun's altitude. Hence, for Cruise IV, the finally adopted correction 
A be, to observed card-readings is -f-0?05 for all altitudes of the Sun. 

Sea deflector 5 (D5). — Sea deflector 5 was used on Cruise IV beginning at San Fran- 
cisco and throughout cruises V and VI. Periodic corrections to observed card-readings 
are so small as to be considered negligible and have not been applied. The "shadow 
method" has never been used at sea with this instrument. The correction Abe, to ob- 
served card readings by the "bright-line method" showed no apparent variation with 
change in the Sun's altitude for cruises IV and V. 

After the instrument was rebuilt in March- April 1919, the correction, A bc , to observed 
card-readings, showed some variation with change in the Sun's altitude for Cruise VI 
and the values finally adopted for cruises IV, V, and VI are given in Table 4. 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 

Table 4. — Corrections to Observed Card-Readings of Compass D5. 



37 



For 
Cruise 


Period 


Ai,c for Sun's altitude 


0° 


5° 


10° 


15° 


20° 


25° 


30° 


35° 


IV 
V 
VI 


Sept. 1916 to Mar. 1917 

Dec. 1917 to June 1918 

Oct. 1919 to Nov. 1921 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.06 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.07 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.09 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.11 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.13 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.15 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.17 


+0.03 
+0.03 
+0.19 





Horizontal-Intensity Observations with Sea Deflector. 
The horizontal intensity is computed from sea-deflector observations by the formula 

„ mC 
ti =—. — 
sinw 

in which m is the magnetic moment of the deflecting magnet, C is a constant involving the 
deflection distance r, the distribution coefficients P and Q, the induction factor n = mh 
(h being the induction coefficient for the deflecting magnet), and u the observed angular de- 
flection produced by the deflecting magnet when its axis is perpendicular to that of the 
compass. The sea deflector is a relative instrument, and values of the so-called constant, 
mC = H sin u, must be determined from comparison horizontal-intensity observations, 
made at shore stations with standardized absolute instruments. 

The constant, mC, is subject to changes arising from (1) decrease in m with time, (2) 
effects of temperature variations on m and r, and (3) effects of change in vertical intensity, 
Z. In the Carnegie work all available data for log mC were subjected to least-square 
adjustment based on the general form 1 

log mC = log mC 2 o at T +xAT+y(z-Z) 2 +q(20° -t) 

in which t is the date of observation expressed in years, r is the selected reference date, 
At is (t — to), q is the factor representing the combined effect of a change in temperature 
of 1° centigrade on m and C (on the latter because of the change in r), and t is the tem- 
perature of observation; the standard temperature of reference is 20° centigrade. Instead 
of deriving all the unknowns simultaneously it is found better to make a separate deter- 
mination of the temperature factor q, selecting the observations best suited for that pur- 
pose. The final results were arrived at by a process of successive approximations, in the 
last steps of which q was treated as a constant. The values of mC as observed at shore 
stations during cruises IV, V, and VI for deflectors 4 and 5, and the computed values of 
that constant are given in Tables 6, 8, and 10. The formulae for log mC derived by least- 
square adjustments of all available shore data are given in Tables 5, 7, and 9. 

Sea deflector 4- — The adopted constants for Cruise IV from March 1915 to September 
1916, on the basis of I. M.S. (see p. 35), resulting from least-square adjustments of all 
the available data from shore determinations of log mC during Cruise IV, are given in 
Table 5. 

The values of log mC for Cruise IV as observed at shore stations and the values as 
computed from the adopted formulae as given in Table 5, together with the differences 
between observed and computed values, are given in Table 6. 

Sea deflector 5, cruises IV and V. — The adopted constants, on the basis of I. M.S. 
(see p. 35), resulting from least-square adjustments of all the available data from shore 
determinations of log mC during cruises IV and V, are given in Table 7. 

1 For further discussion of this equation and the theory of the deflector, see pp. 238 and 239, Vol. Ill, Res. Dep. Terr. Mag. 



38 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 5. — Intensity Constants of Sea Deflector 4 for Cruise IV. 



Period 


Deflecting 
magnet 


Deflection 
distance 1 


Logarithms of the intensity constant 2 


Mar. 1915 

to 
Sept. 1916 

Mar. 1916 3 


45 
45 
45 
2L 
2L 
, 2L 

( I 


1 
3 

4 
1 
3 
4 
2 
3 
4 


mC =9 . 05708 4-0 . 00130At -0 . 00105( -0 . 265 -Zf +0 . 00026(20° -t) 
mC=8. 93069 4-0 . 00129At -0 . 00024( -0 . 303 -Zf 4-0 . 00026(20° -t) 
mC=8. 87705 4-0 . 00062At +0 . 00088( 4-0 . 361 -Zf +0. 00026(20° -t) 
mC =8. 98079 -0.00033Ar 4-0. 00387 (-0. 144 -Zf 4-0. 00014(20° -t) 
mC =8 . 85412 -0 . 00077At 4-0 . 00596( -0 . 096 -Zf 4-0 . 00014(20° -t) 
mC=S. 80035 -0 . OOOSGAt 4-0 . 00706( -0 . 138 -Zf +0 . 00014(20° -t) 
mC =8 . 64379 4-0 . 00025(20° -t) -0 . 00172At 
mC =8 . 57984 4-0 . 00025(20° -t) -0 . 00261Ar 
mC =8. 52837 +0. 00025(20° -O-O.OOHOAt 



1 Distance 2 for magnets 45 and 2L and distance 1 for magnet 3 were not used at sea. 

2 At- for magnets 45 and 2L = (t -1915.86); for magnet 3 Ar = (t -1916.2*8). 

3 The values for magnet 3 depend on determinations at only two land stations, and at these stations the value of Z is the 
same. Hence no Z correction can be determined. Magnet 3 was used only during March 18-22, 1916. 

Table 6. — Intensity Coyistants of Sea Deflector (4) Determined at Shore Stations During Cruise IV. 



Station 


Date 


Magnetic elements 


Logarithms of intensity constants mC } observed values 
at temperature t 




Magnet 45 


Magnet 2L 


H 


J 


Z 


t 


Distance 


t 


Distance 


1 


3 


1 


3 


Washington, A r OT 

Colon, Sweetwater, A. . 
Honolulu Observatory, 
A 


1915.13 
1915.24 

1915.42 
1915.57 
1915.89 
1916.27 
1916.57 
1916.79 


c. g. s. 

0.191 

.322 

.290 
.209 
.224 
.224 
.349 
.250 


o 

4-71.0 
+36.0 

+39.5 
+66.3 
-68.1 
-68.1 
+ 14.0 
+62.0 


c. g. s. 
+0.557 
+ .234 

+ .239 
+ .476 

- .557 

- .557 
+ .087 
+ .470 


C 

5?0 
29.6 

30.5 
15.0 
17.8 
20.2 
30.4 
13.7 


9 . 05530 
9 . 05569 

9.05621 
9.05658 
9 . 05734 
9 . 05724 
9.05809 
9 . 05749 


8.92925 
8.92948 

8.93018 
8.93046 
8.93128 
8.93099 
8.93162 
8.93159 


5?3 
29.2 

30.6 
15.4 
17.8 
20.2 
30.4 
14.1 


8.98342 
8.98179 

8.98083 
8.98205 
8.98144 
8.98124 
8.98125 
8.98173 


8.85748 
8.85539 

8 . 85504 
8.85587 
8.85536 
8.85507 
8.85382 
8.85539 


Dutch Harbor, B 


Do 


Guam, Sumay, A 

Goat Island, B 


Station 


Date 


Logarithms of intensity constant mC, 1 
computed values' at temperature t 


Logarithm differences (observed minus 
computed) 


Magnet 45 


Magnet 2L 


Magnet 45 


Magnet 2L 


Dist. 1 


Dist. 3 


Dist. 1 


Dist. 3 


Dist. 1 


Dist. 3 


Dist. 1 


Dist. 3 


Washington, N m 

Colon, Sweetwater, A. . . 
Honolulu Observatory, 
A 


1915.13 
1915.24 

1915.42 
1915.57 
1915.89 
1916.27 
1916.57 
1916.79 


9.0554S 
9.05601 

9 . 0562- 
9.056U 
9 . 0570c 
9 . 0575S 
9 . 05787 
9.0577C 


! 8. 9295; 

8 . 92981 

I 8.9300^ 
• 8.93017 
8.93071 
8.9312C 
8.93157 
8.9317£ 


' 8.98293 
8.98154 

> 8.98151 
8.98238 
8.98144 
8.98131 
8.9S077 
8.98194 


8.85722 
8.85525 

8.85513 


-0.00012 

- .00032 

- .00003 


-0.00032 
- .00034 

+ .00013 


+0.00049 
+ .00025 

- .0006S 


+0.00026 
+ .00014 

- .00009 

- .00032 

- .00001 

- .00010 
+ .00005 
+ .00008 


Dutch Harbor, B 

Christchurch 2 

Do 

Goat Island, B 


8.856 
8.855 
8.855 
8 . 853 
8.855 


19 

\~ 
17 
77 
51 


+ .00 
+ .00 

- .00 
+ .00 

- .00 


046 
031 

028 
022 
023 


+ .0 
+ .0 

- .0 
+ .0 

- .0 


0029 
0057 
0021 
0005 
0016 


- .00033 
. 00000 

- .00007 
+ .00048 

- .00021 



1 All values are based on I. M.S. 

2 The observations were made at stations Brass Pipe and Jarrah Peg in the Observatory grounds. 

3 For the formulae adopted from least-square adjustments, see Table 5. 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 



39 





Table 7. — Intensity Constants of Sea Deflector 5 for Cruises IV and V. 


Period 


Deflecting 
magnet 


Deflection 
distance ' 


Logarithms of the intensity constant * 


Sept. 1916 

to 
June 1918 


f '' 

1 2L 
[ 2L 


1 
3 
1 
3 


mC =9. 17337 -0.00036At+0.00402(-0. 002 -Z) 2 +0. 00015(20° -t) 
mC =9. 04756 -0.00038Ar+0.00347(-0. 035 -Z) 2 +0. 00015(20° -t) 
mC=S. 97215+0. 00019At+0.00442( +0.025 -,Z) 2 +0. 00014(20° -t) 
mC =8. 84551 +0.00007At+0.00504( +0.044-2) 2 +0. 00014(20° -t) 



1 Distances 2 and 4 were not used at sea. 



2 At = (t- 1917.32) for magnet 5; At =»(t- 1917.46) for magnet 2L. 



The values of log mC for cruises IV and V as observed at shore stations and the 
values as computed from the adopted formulae as given in Table 7, together with the 
differences between observed and computed values, are given in Table 8. 

Table 8. — Intensity Constants of Sea Deflector 5, Determined at Shore Stations During Cruises IV and V. 



Station 



Date 



Magnetic elements 



H 


I 


c. g. a. 


O 


0.189 


+71.0 


.223 


-68.1 


.350 


+ 14.0 


.250 


+62.0 


.255 


-25.7 


.254 


-25.7 


.302 


- 0.8 


.321 


+36.6 


.188 


+71.1 



Logarithms of intensity constants mC, 1 observed values 
at temperature t 



Magnet 5 



Distance 



Magnet 2L 



Distance 



Washington, N m 

Christchurch, Jarrah 

Peg 

Guam, Sumay, A . . . . 

Goat Island, B 

Pilar Observatory, E. 

Do 

Lima, B 

Cristobal, A and B . . 
Washington, N m 



1916.18 

1916.32 
1916.58 
1916.77 
1917.21 
1917.83 
1918.20 
1918.35 
1918.45 



c. g. 8. 
+0.549 

- .555 
+ .087 
+ .470 

- .123 

- .122 

- .004 
+ .238 
+ .549 



9.17599 



15.9 
30.2 
15.7 
27.9 
30.3 
25.0 
29.5 
20.8 



. 17484 
.17356 
. 17408 
. 17348 
.17354 
.17329 
.17289 
. 17363 



9.04971 

9 . 04887 
9 . 04756 
9 . 04839 
9 . 04732 
9 . 04759 
9.04764 
9.04756 
9.04797 



C 
9?0 

16.0 
30.3 
15.9 
28.0 
30.7 
25.0 
29.5 
20.9 



8.97340 
8.97144 
8.97354 
8.97203 
8.97254 
8.97270 
8.97244 
8.97313 



8.84725 
8.84477 
8.84704 
8.84569 
8 . 84555 
8 . 84595 
8 . 84595 
8 . 84634 



Station 



Date 



Logarithms of intensity constant mC, 1 
computed values 2 at temperature t 



Magnet 5 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Magnet 2L 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Logarithm differences (observed minus 
computed) 



Magnet 5 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Magnet 2L 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Washington, N m 

Christchurch, Jarrah 

Peg 

Guam, Sumay, A 

Goat Island, B 

Pilar Observatory, E . . 

Do 

Lima, B 

Cristobal, A and B . . . . 
Washington, N m 



1916.18 

1916.32 
1916.58 
1916.77 
1917.21 
1917.83 
1918.20 
1918.35 
1918.45 



9 . 17500 

9.17496 
9.17367 
9.17446 
9.17347 
9.17325 
9.17305 
9.17323 
9.17418 



9.04917 

9.04888 
9.04789 
9.04865 
9.04763 
9.04740 
9 . 04723 
9.04743 
9.04831 



8.97342 
8.97200 
8.97290 
8.97220 
8.97232 
8.97229 
8.97252 
8.97356 



.84724 
. 84546 
.84637 
.84563 
.84568 
.84557 
.84576 
. 84687 



+0.00099 

- .00012 

- .00011 

- .00038 
+ .00001 
+ .00029 
+ .00024 

- .00034 

- .00055 



+0.00054 

- .00001 

- .00033 

- .00026 

- .00031 
+ .00019 
+ .00041 
+ .00013 

- .00034 



-0.00002 
- .00056 
.00064 
.00017 
. 00022 
.00041 
. 00008 
.00043 



+ 

+ 

+ 



+0.00001 
- .00069 
.00067 
.00006 
.00013 
.00038 
.00019 
.00054 



1 All values are based on I. M.S. 



For the formulae adopted from least-square adjustments see Table 7, 



40 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



Sea deflector 5, Cruise VI. — The adopted constants, on the basis of I. M.S. (see p. 
35), resulting from least-square adjustments of all the available data from shore 
determinations of log mC during Cruise VI, are given in Table 9. 





Table 9. — Intensity Constants of Sea Deflector 5 for Cruise VI. 


Period 


Deflecting 
magnet 


Deflection 
distance ' 


Logarithms of the intensity constant 3 


Oct. 1919 

to 
Nov. 1921 
Oct. 1919 

to 
July 1921 
July 1921 

to 
Nov. 1921 


1 5 
1 5 

) 2L 
2L 

»2L 

2L 


1 
3 

1 
3 

1 
3 


mC =9 . 17219 -0 . 00044At +0 . 00024( +0 . 157 -Zf +0 . 00015/20° -t) 
mC=9. 04700 -0 . 00017At -0 . 00200( -0. 014 -Z) 2 +0 . 00015(20° -t) 

mC=8. 97145 -0 . 00003At +0 . 00281 ( -0 . 063 -Z) 2 +0 . 00014(20° -t) 
mC =8 . 84581 -0 . 00068Ar -0 . 00036( +0 . 010 -Z) 2 +0 . 00014(20° -t) 

mC =8. 96495 -0. 00003Ar+0. 00281 ( -0. 063 -Z) 2 +0. 00014(20° -*) 
mC =8. 84001 -0.00068At -0.00036(+0. 010 -Z) 2 +0. 00014(20° -t) 



1 Distances 2 and 4 were not used at sea. 

2 At = (t- 1920.74) for magnet 5; At = (t- 1920.60) for magnet 2L. 

3 Some change, of unknown cause, took place in magnet 2L just after the comparison observations at Apia in July 1921; 
that the change occurred at Apia is borne out by comparisons of the sea values of H before and after this station, obtained 
separately from observations with the two magnets 5 and 2L. These comparisons and the comparison observations at 
Washington in November 1921 show that log mC should be diminished by 0.0065 for distance 1 and 0.0058 for distance 3. 

The values of log mC for Cruise VI, as observed at shore stations and the values as 
computed from the adopted formulae as given in Table 9, together with the differences 
between observed and computed values, are given in Table 10. 



Table 10. — Intensity Constants o 


/ Sea Deflector 5, Determined at Shore Statiom 


During Cruise 


VI. 


Station 


Date 


Magnetic elements 


Logarithms of intensity constant mC, 1 observed values at 
temperature t 


Magnet 5 


Magnet 2L 


H 


I 


Z 


t 


Distance 


t 


Distance 


1 


3 


1 


3 


Washington, S m and . 

Buenos Aires, Florida, 

A 


1919.61 

1920.10 

1920.34 
1920 . 52 

1920.71 

1920.83 

1921.18 
1921.51 
1921.88 


C. Q. S. 

0.187 
.246 

.165 

.384 

.239 

.223 

.247 
.353 
.186 


O 

+71.2 

-27.8 

-61.5 
- 4.2 

-65.4 

-68.2 

+62.3 
-30.0 
+71.2 


c. g. s. 
+0.549 

- .130 

- .304 

- .028 

- .522 

- .558 

+ .471 

- .204 
+ .546 


C 

25?5 

29.3 

20.4 

28.7 

20.5 

17.4 

12.1 

29.2 
18.5 


9.17279 

9.17296 

9.17202 
9.17179 

9.17218 

9.17249 

9.17211 
9.17229 
9.17148 


9.04646 

9.04727 

9.04678 
9.04675 

9.04658 

9.04636 

9.04700 
9.04686 
9 . 04584 


C 

25?5 

29.4 

18.4 

28.8 

20.8 

17.0 

12.2 
29.5 
18.9 


8.97235 

8.97199 

8.97168 
8.97103 

8.97151 

8.97256 

8.97248 

8.97134 

2 8.96602 


8.84669 

8.84616 

8.84588 
8.84583 

8.84541 

8.84541 

8.84544 

8 . 84520 

2 8 . 83902 


Cape Town, Valken- 
herg, C 


Colombo, A 

Fremantle, Cottesloe, 
A 


Christchurch, Brass 
Pipe 


San Francisco, Fort 
Scott, B 


Apia Observatory, B. . 
Washington, N m 



1 All values are based on I. M. S. 

2 These values were not used in the least-square reduction, 
parison observations at Apia. See foot-note 3, Table 9. 



Some change took place in magnet 2L just after the com- 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 41 

Table 10. — Intensity Constants of Sea Deflector 5, Determined at Shore Stations During Cruise VI — Continued. 



Station 



Date 



Logarithms of intensity constant mC, 1 
computed values 2 at temperature t 



Magnet 5 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Magnet 2L 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Logarithm differences (observed minus 
computed) 



Magnet 5 



Dist. 1 Dist. 3 



Magnet 2L 



Dist. 1 



Dist. 3 



Washington, S m and O. . 
Buenos Aires, Florida, A. 
Cape Town, Valken- 

berg, C 

Colombo, A 

Fremantle, Cottesloe, A. 
Christchurch, Brass Pipe 
San Francisco, Fort 

Scott, B 

Apia Observatory, B . . . 
Washington, N m 



1919.61 
1920.10 

1920.34 
1920.52 
1920.71 
1920.83 

1921.18 
1921.51 
1921.88 



9.17273 
9.17249 

9.17242 
9.17230 
9.17231 
9.17227 

9 . 17202 
9.17188 
9.17173 



9.04656 
9.04708 

9.04690 
9.04704 
9.04649 
9.04639 

9.04646 
9 . 04680 
9.04618 



8.97253 
8.97148 

8.97162 
8.97145 
8.97204 
8.97213 

8.97223 
8.97148 



8.84638 
8.84614 

8.84595 
8.84586 
8.84564 
8.84553 

8.84534 
8.84517 



+0.00006 

+ .00047 

- .00040 

- .00051 

- .00013 
+ .00022 

+ .00009 

+ .00041 

- .00025 



-0.00010 

+ .00019 

- .00012 

- .00029 
+ .00009 

- .00003 

+ .00054 

+ .00006 

- .00034 



-0.00018 

+ .00051 

+ .00006 

- .00042 

- .00053 
+ .00043 

+ .00025 

- .00014 



+0.00031 

+ .00002 

- .00007 

- .00003 

- .00023 

- .00012 

+ .00010 

+ .00003 



•All values are based on I. M.S. 2 For the formulae adopted from least-square adjustments see Table 9. 

Inclination Coreections. 

Sea dip-circle 189. — The adopted inclination corrections for sea dip-circle 189, 
resulting from least-square adjustments of all available data for each needle from shore 
observations during cruises IV and V, are given in Table 11, and during Cruise VI are 
given in Table 12. All corrections are on the basis of I. M.S. (see p. 35). For the regular 
dip needles, the inclination corrections apply to complete determinations by both polar- 
ities, and for the deflected needle, to the mean of determinations made in both "direct" 
and "reversed" positions. All inclination values are referred to north-seeking end of 
needle, inclination of north-seeking end of needle below horizon being reckoned positive. All 
values of total intensity and horizontal intensity are reckoned positive; values of vertical in- 
tensity are given the same sign as the corresponding inclinations. Al and AF in the formulae 
are always expressed in degrees and in c.g.s. units, respectively. 

The following general formula (see Vol. I, p. 45, and Vol. Ill, pp. 242 to 252) was used 
in the least-square adjustments: 

FAI = x-\-y sin J-fz cos / 

Table 11. — Inclination Corrections for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Cruises IV and V. 



Number of 


Deflection 
distance 


Formulae for M 


Suspended 
needle 


Deflecting 
needle 


1 

2 
3D and R 
3D and R 






FM = +0?015 -0?049 sin I -0?014 cos I 
FA/ = +0.013 -0.027 sin 7-0.016 cos I 
FM = +0. 039 -0 .024 sin / -0. 120 cos I 
FM = +0 . 030 -0 . 046 sin I -0 . 1 14 cos I 






4 
4 


Short 
Long 



The inclination corrections as observed at shore stations, and as computed from 
the adopted formulae in Tables 11 and 12, are given in Table 13 for cruises IV and V and 
in Table 14 for Cruise VI. 



42 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 12. — Inclination Corrections for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Cruise VI. 1 



Number of 


Deflection 
distance 


Formulae for A7 


Suspended 
needle 


Deflecting 
needle 


1 

2 
3D and R 
3D and R 
11D and R 
11D and R 






FM = +0?058 -0?117 sin J -0?135 cos I 
FM = +0.020-0.072 sin J -0.041 cos I 
FM = +0.082 -0.079 sin 7 -0. 197 cos 7 
FM = -0 . 044 -0 . 012 sin I -0 . 026 cos 7 
FM = -0.082+0.021 sin 7+0.009 cos I 
FM = +0.151 -0.093 sin I -0.337 cos I 






4 

4 

12 

12 


Short 
Long 
Short 
Long 



1 Pivot of needle 3 was broken on November 26, 1920, and needles 11 and 12 were used in 
place of needles 3 and 4 for the remainder of Cruise VI. 

Table 13. — Inclination Corrections for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Determined at Shore Stations during Cruises IV and V. 



Station 



Date 



Magnetic 
elements 



Observed A7 l 



Regular 
dip needles 



Needle 3, D and 

R, deflected by 

needle 4 



Distance 



Short 



Long 



Computed M 2 



Regular 
dip needles 



Needle 3, D and 

R, deflected by 

needle 4 



Distance 



Short 



Long 



Washington, N m 

Colon, Sweetwater, B . . . 
Honolulu Observatory, A. 

Dutch Harbor, B 

Christchurch, Brass Pipe 

Do 

Guam, Sumay, A 

Goat Island, B 

Pilar Observatory, E . . . . 

Do 

Lima, C 

Cristobal, A 

Washington, N e 



1915.12 

1915.25 

1915.48 

1915.58 

1915. 

1916.33 

1916.57 

1916.77 

1917.24 

1917.83 

1918.19 

1918.34 

1918.49 



+71?0 
+36.0 
+39.5 
+66.3 
-68.1 
-68.1 
+14.0 
+ 62.1 
-25.7 
-25.7 
-00.8 
+36.6 
+71.1 



c.g.s. 

0.585 
.398 
.376 
.520 
.599 
.599 
.360 
.534 
.282 
.282 
.302 
.400 
.581 



-0?06 
-0.02 
-0.08 
-0.07 
+0.08 
+0.14 
+0.07 
-0.08 
0.00 
-0.05 
-0.04 
-0.02 
-0.10 



-0?07 
+0.03 
-0.01 
-0.03 
+0.09 
+0.07 
-0.05 
-0.01 
-0.08 
-0.10 
+0.02 
-0.02 
-0.06 



+0?03 
-0.30 
-0.33 
0.00 
-0.09 
-0.01 
-0.32 
-0.03 
+0.0i; 



-0.21 
-0.10 
-0.07 



-0?04 
-0.16 
-0.20 
-0.10 
-0.02 
-0.02 
-0.49 
-0.16 
+0.04 
0.00 
-0.23 
-0.22 
-0.09 



-0?06 
-0.06 
-0.07 
-0.07 

+0.09 

-0.03 
-0.07 

+0.08 

+0.01 
-0.06 
-0.06 



-0?03 
-0.04 
-0.04 
-0.04 

+0.05 

-0.03 
-0.03 

+0.04 

-0.01 
-0.04 
-0.03 



-0?04 
-0.18 
-0.18 
-0.06 

+0.03 

-0.23 
-0.07 

-0.21 

-0.27 
-0.18 
-0.04 



-0?09 
-0.22 
-0.23 
-0.11 

+0.05 

-0.26 
-0.12 

-0.19 

-0.28 
-0.22 
-0.09 



1 All values are based on I. M.S. 

2 For the formulae adopted from least-square adjustments see Table 11. 
> This value was interpolated from graph of A7. 

Sea dip-circle 204- — Sea dip-circle 204, manufactured by Dover, is of the latest pat- 
tern (see p. 195, Vol. Ill, Res. Dep. Terr. Mag.). It was used during March 1915, 
Cruise IV, and the following adopted inclination corrections are the means of the values 
as determined by comparison observations at Washington and at Colon, except in the 
case of needle 9, which was broken at sea, en route to Colon: Needle 2, — 0?04; needle 9, 
-0?05; needle 11, -0?06; needle ID and R, deflected by needle 8, short distance, -0?26, 
long distance, — 0?21. 

Marine earth-inductor 3. — Marine earth-inductor 3 was used on the Carnegie during 
cruises IV, V, and VI. This is the same instrument which was used during the earlier 
cruises. It was extensively overhauled and repaired in October 1916. The adopted 
inclination correction from all available data is, for cruises IV and V, for all values of 
inclination, — 0?01, using a marine moving-coil galvanometer. 

During Cruise VI this instrument was fitted with a special coil provided with a slip 
ring, instead of a commutator, for use with the new string galvanometer. The adopted 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 



43 



inclination correction from all available data is, for Cruise VI, for all values of inclination, 
using string galvanometer, — 0?02. 

Marine earth-induclor 7. — Marine earth-inductor 7 was designed and constructed by 
the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism during 1917, and was used on board the 
Carnegie during Cruise VI. It is of similar design to inductor 3, with the exception of 
minor mechanical improvements. It is provided with the same type marine moving-coil 
galvanometer previously used on the Carnegie with inductor 3. The adopted inclination 
correction from all available data is, for all values of inclination, 0?00. 

Table 14. — Inclination Corrections for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Determined at Shore Stations during Cruise VI. 



Station 


Date 






Observed A/ 1 


Computed AZ 2 


Magnetic 
elements 


Regular 
dip needles 


Needle 3,» D and 

ft, deflected by 

needle 4 


Needle 11, D 

and ft, deflected 

by needle 12 


Regular 
dip needles 


Needle 3, D and 

ft, deflected by 

needle 4 


Needle 11, D 

and ft, deflected 

by needle 12 


J 


F 


1 


2 


Distance 


Distance 


1 


2 


Distance 


Distance 


Short 


Long 


Short 


Long 


Short 


Long 


Short 


Long 




1919.64 
1920.10 
1920.34 
1920.53 
1920.70 
1920.85 
1920.99 
1921.18 
1921.30 
1921.55 
1921.90 




+71.2 
-27.9 
-61.5 
-04.2 
-65.4 
-68.2 
-31.0 
+ 62.3 
+ 39.4 
-30.0 
+ 71.2 


e.g.s. 
0.580 
0.278 
0.347 
0.385 
0.574 
0.599 
0.378 
0.532 
0.373 
0.407 
0.578 


O 

-0.07 

+0.24 
+0.30 
-0.34 
+0.28 
+0.10 


O 

-0.02 

+0.06 
+0.2S 
-0.07 
+0.20 
+0.08 


o 

-0.08 

H+0.09) 
+0.09 
-0.44 
+0.10 
+0.16 


o 

-0.10 
-0.02 
-0.22 
-0.28 
-0.06 
-0.07 


o 
-0.04 


o 
-0.01 


O 

-0.17 
-0.02 
+0.28 
-0.18 
+0.19 
+0.20 


o 
-0.11 
+ 0.06 
+0.18 
-0.04 
+0.12 
+ 0.12 


o 

-0.10 
-0.20 
+0.16 
-0.2S 
+0.13 
+0.14 




-0.11 
-0.22 
-0.13 
-0.18 

-o.os 

-0.07 


o 

-0.10 

-0.23 
-0.11 
-0.17 
-0.21 
-0.10 




-0.08 

-0.24 
-0.17 
-0.45 
-0.23 

-0.08 


Buenos Aires, Florida, A 

Cape Town, Valkenberg, A . . . . 










Fremantle, Cottesloe, A 

Chnstchurch, Jarrah Peg 

Papeete, Fareute Point 

San Francisco, Fort Scott, B . . . 
Honolulu Observatory, A 






-0.17 
-0.12 
-0.15 
-0.26 
-0.16 


-0.17 
-0.15 
-0.45 
-0.30 
-0.16 


-0.28 
-0.17 
-0.11 
-0.25 


-0.20 
+0.16 
-0.17 
-0.25 






-0.21 
-0.32 

0.00 
-0.17 


-0.12 

-0.16 
+0.05 
-0.11 











































1 All values are based on I. M.S. 

2 For the formulae adopted from least-square adjustment, see Table 12. 

8 Pivot of needle 3 was broken on November 27, 1920. Needles 11 and 12 were used during the remainder of Cruise VI. 
• This value was interpolated from mean of all shore-station data. 

Total-Intensity Observations. 

Sea dip-circle 189. — The value of the horizontal intensity, H, is obtained by the 
formula 

H = F COS I 

where F is the total intensity as observed with the sea dip-circle. As the method em- 
ployed is a relative one, it is essential that no change be made in the weight used with 
the loaded-dip needle, and that its position be not shifted from one end of the needle to 
the other during a cruise; furthermore, the magnetism of the loaded-dip and deflected 
needles, except for the normal changes with time, must remain unchanged. The reduc- 
tion formulae for the total intensity are: 

Loaded-dip observations only, F = C t cos I' esc u 

Deflection observations only, F = Cd esc U\ 

Both loaded-dip and deflection observations, F = C Vcos I' esc w esc w x 

where /' is the loaded-dip angle, Mi is the deflection angle, u = I — I', C t is the loaded-dip 

constant = —, C d is the deflected-dip constant —Kim, and C is the combined constant = 

m c 



VKKi. The constants Ci and C d involve the magnetic moment, m, of the loaded-dip 
needle, and are both, therefore, subject to change with temperature and with time. 
Ci, furthermore, involves the induction correction, which is a function of F. C d is affected 
also by changes in deflection distances, due to temperature changes, as well as by any 



44 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

changes in the distribution coefficients. Two deflection distances, designated short (S) 
and long (L), are provided in the modified sea dip-circle, and thus there are two indepen- 
dent sets of constants. In deflection observations there are also two positions of the 
deflected or suspended magnet, designated "direct" (D) and "reversed" (R); "direct" 
position means that the face of the deflected needle is towards the face of the vertical 
circle; "reversed" position means that the face of the deflected needle is towards the 
back of the vertical circle. For all of the Carnegie work the deflection observations 
were made in both "direct" and "reversed" positions for each determination, and, there- 
fore, the constants to be controlled by shore observations for that work are: C h C d DR for 
S, and C d DR for L. Values of these intensity constants were determined at each shore sta- 
tion and at Washington by means of comparisons between the sea dip-circles and stand- 
ardized land magnetometers and inclination instruments. 

Specimen observations and reductions for the determination of the constants are 
given on pages 248-250, Volume III. The specimens are typical of the compilations 
made for each pair of intensity needles. The order followed in the observations is such 
that the mean times of the three determinations of constants will be practically the same. 
The order is as follows: (1) loaded-dip observations, set I; (2) deflected-dip observations 
for "direct" position and short distance; (3) deflected-dip observations for "direct" posi- 
tion and long distance; (4) deflected-dip observations for "reversed" position and long 
distance; (5) deflected-dip observations for "reversed" position and short distance; 
and finally (6) loaded-dip observations, set II. 

Because of the development of microscopic rust-pits on the needle pivots there 
are erratic changes in the intensity constants. It was, therefore, necessary to depend 
entirely upon graphical adjustments, or upon linear interpolations with time between 
shore-station values. 

The adopted intensity constants, C h C dD Rs, C d DRL, based on I. M.S. (see p. 35) 
for cruises IV and V are given in Table 15, and for Cruise VI are given in Table 16. 
These values are obtained by a direct time interpolation between the values as deter- 
mined at the next preceding and the next following shore station. The values deter- 
mined by comparison observations at shore stations were plotted and the values as 
given in Tables 15 and 16 were scaled directly from the straight-line graphs between suc- 
cessive shore-station values. 

Values as computed by use of the general formula 

FA log C = w+xt+y sin I-\-z cos I 

did not agree with the observed values sufficiently well to warrant adoption. 
Values as computed by use of the formula 

A log C = xH+yZ 

did not agree as well with observed values as those computed by use of the more general 
formula. 

A comparison between the final i/-values as observed with sea deflector 5, and those 
observed with sea dip-circle 189 at sea further confirmed the use of the straight-line 
interpolation adopted above. The adopted value of the temperature factor, q, is 0.0001 
for both log Ci and log C d . To refer a value at 20° centigrade, taken from Tables 15 
and 16, to the temperature, i, of observations, the following formulae are used: 

log C« = log C K0 -0.0001(20° -0; log C dl = log C d2 o+ 0.0001 (20° -t) 

Sea dip-circle 204- — Sea dip-circle 204 was used on Cruise IV from New York to 
Colon. Owing to the breaking of the pivots of needles 8 and 9, this instrument was not 
used again at sea, but was retained as a reserve sea dip-circle. 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 45 

Table 15. — Intensity Constants at 20° Centigrade (Cuo and C<no) for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Cruises IV and V. 



Date 


Log Cm for 

needle 4 

loaded with 

weight 11 


Log Cfto for needle 3 
deflected by needle 4 


Date 


Log Civs for 
needle 4 

loaded with 
weight 11 


Log Cim for needle 3 
deflected by needle 4 


Short 
distance 


Long 
distance 


Short 
distance 


Long 
distance 


1915.28 

1915.30 

1915.35 

1915.38 

1915.50 

1915.54 

1915.59 

1915.65 

1915.70 

1915.75 

1915.80 

1915.84 

1915.93 

1915.95 

1916.00 

1916.05 

1916.10 

1916.15 

1916.20 

1916.24 

1916.36 

1916.40 

1916.43 

1916.47 

1916.50 


9.4287 
9 . 4292 
9.4303 
9.4310 
9.4332 
9.4330 
9.4332 
9.4357 
9.4377 
9 . 4400 
9.4421 
9.4436 
9.4458 
9.4459 
9.4460 
9.4463 
9.4465 
9 . 4467 
9 . 4469 
9.4471 
9.4468 
9.4461 
9.4456 
9 . 4448 
9.4442 


9.4515 
9.4513 
9.4509 
9.4507 
9.4495 
9.4488 
9.4480 
9.4477 
9.4474 
9.4471 
9.4468 
9.4466 
9.4463 
9.4463 
9.4463 
9.4463 
9.4462 
9.4462 
9.4462 
9.4461 
9.4462 
9 . 4462 
9.4463 
9.4464 
9.4465 


9.3043 
9.3040 
9.3033 
9.3029 
9.3011 
9.3004 
9.2996 
9 . 2995 
9 . 2994 
9 . 2992 
9.2991 
9.2990 
9.2986 
9 . 2985 
9 . 2982 
9.2980 
9 . 2977 
9.2974 
9.2972 
9.2970 
9.2965 
9.2965 
9.2965 
9.2965 
9.2965 


1916.54 

1916.60 

1916.65 

1916.70 

1916.73 

1916.84 

1916.90 

1916.95 

1917.00 

1917.05 

1917.10 

1917.16 

1917.93 

1917.95 

1918.00 

1918.02 

1918.06 

1918.10 

1918.14 

1918.24 

1918.31 

1918.36 

1918.40 

1918.44 


9.4435 
9 . 4429 
9.4430 
9.4430 
9.4430 
9.4433 
9.4436 
9.4437 
9.4439 
9.4440 
9.4442 
9.4444 

9.4456 
9.4457 
9.4461 
9 . 4464 
9.4467 
9.4470 
9.4474 
9 . 4463 
9 . 4447 
9.4439 
9.4449 
9.4460 


9.4466 
9.4460 
9.4450 
9.4438 
9.4434 
9 . 4425 
9.4429 
9.4433 
9.4436 
9 . 4440 
9 . 4443 
9.4447 

9.4450 
9.4450 
9.4450 
9.4451 
9.4451 
9.4452 
9.4452 
9.4445 
9.4435 
9.4428 
9 . 4423 
9.4418 


9.2965 
9.2962 
9.2958 
9.2954 
9.2952 
9.2949 
9 . 2952 
9.2954 
9 . 2957 
9.2959 
9.2961 
9.2964 

9.2964 
9.2964 
9.2965 
9.2965 
9.2966 
9.2966 
9.2967 
9.2963 
9.2959 
9.2953 
9.2942 
9.2930 



Table 16. — Intensity Constants at 20° Centigrade (Cm and C<eo) for Sea Dip-Circle 189, Cruise VI. 



Date 


Log Cuts for 
needle 4 

loaded with 
weight 11 


Log dvs for needle 3 
' deflected by needle 4 


Date 


Log C«o for 
needle 12 

loaded with 
weight 11 


Log Cans for needle 1 1 
deflected by needle 12 


Short 
distance 


Long 
distance 


Short 
distance 


Long 
distance 


1919.78 

1919.80 

1919.85 

1919.90 

1919.95 

1920.00 

1920.04 

1920.15 

1920.20 

1920.26 

1920.31 

1920.38 

1920.40 

1920.45 

1920.49 

1920.56 

1920.60 

1920.66 

1920.76 

1920.80 

1920.88 

1920.90 


9.4476 
9.4478 
9.4484 
9.4490 
9.4496 
9.4502 
9.4506 
9.4525 
9.4536 
9.4549 
9 . 4560 
9 . 4563 
9.4562 
9 . 4556 
9 . 4552 
9 . 4549 
9.4551 
9.4554 
9.4545 
9.4537 
9.4531 
9.4534 


9.4407 
9.4409 
9.4411 
9.4414 
9.4417 
9.4419 
9.4421 
9.4422 
9.4420 
9.4418 
9.4416 
9.4410 
9 . 4408 
9.4403 
9.4398 
9.4388 
9.4380 
9.4367 
9.4355 
9.4354 
9.4350 
9.4349 


9.2909 
9.2910 
9.2912 
9.2914 
9.2916 
9.2918 
9.2919 
9 . 2928 
9.2933 
9.2941 
9.2946 
9 . 2942 
9.2940 
9.2931 
9 . 2924 
9 . 2906 
9 . 2894 
9 . 2875 
9.2874 
9.2883 
9.2901 
9.2905 


1920.90 

1920.95 

1920.97 

1921.01 

1921.05 

1921.10 

1921.13 

1921.24 

1921.27 

1921.33 

1921.35 

1921.40 

1921.46 

1921.57 

1921.60 

1921.65 

1921.70 

1921.76 

1921.80 

1921.86 


9.3960 
9.3964 
9.3966 
9 . 3963 
9.3955 
9.3946 
9.3940 
9 . 3957 
9 . 3972 
9.3985 
9.3985 
9.3985 
9 . 3986 
9.3977 
9.3963 
9.3941 
9.3919 
9.3891 
9.3873 
9.3846 


9.4854 
9 . 4856 
9 . 4856 
9.4851 
9.4839 
9.4824 
9.4815 
9 . 4802 
9.4803 
9.4808 
9.4811 
9.4819 
9.4828 
9.4836 
9.4828 
9.4816 
9.4805 
9.4790 
9.4780 
9.4766 


9.3376 
9.3378 
9.3378 
9.3372 
9.3361 
9.3346 
9 . 3338 
9.3336 
9.3343 
9.3353 
9.3356 
9.3363 
9.3372 
9.3378 
9.3372 
9.3360 
9.3349 
9.3334 
9.3325 
9.3311 



46 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



The adopted intensity constants, d, C dD Rs, C d DRL, are given in Table 17. They are 
obtained by direct time interpolation between the values as determined at Washington 
and at Colon. 

Table 17. — Intensity Constants at 20° Centigrade {Cm and C<ko) for Sea Dip-Circle 204- 



Date 


Log Cm for 
needle 8 

loaded with 
weight 11 


Log Can for needle 7 
deflected by needle 8 


Short 
distance 


Long 
distance 


1915.18 

1915.19 

1915.20 

1915.21 

1915.22 


9.5376 
9.5372 
9.5368 
9.5364 
9.5360 


9.4505 
9.4506 
9.4506 • 
9.4506 
9.4507 


9.3066 
9.3068 
9.3070 
9.3072 
9.3074 



CONSTANTS AND CORRECTION FOR LAND INSTRUMENTS. 
Descriptions of Magnetometers, Magnetometer-Inductors, and Earth Inductors. 

The reduction formulae and method of determining constants for the land instru- 
ments used in the Carnegie shore work and in the standardization of the ocean instru- 
ments during 1915-1921 were the same as those in Volume I (pp. 22-41). The types of 
magnetometers and earth inductor used at shore stations are described and illustrated in 
Volumes I (pp. 2-11), II (pp. 5-15), and III (pp. 196-200). 

Magnetometer 5 was manufactured by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company of 
Rochester, New York; the magnets are hollow cylinders, the large magnet being 7.5 cm. 
long, with inside diameter of 0.75 cm. and outside diameter of 1.00 cm., and the short 
magnet being 3.5 cm. long, with inside diameter of 0.61 cm. and outside diameter of 
0.82 cm. Magnetometer-inductor 25 was designed and constructed by the Department 
of Terrestrial Magnetism; the magnets are hollow cylinders, the large magnet being 5.6 
cm. long, with inside diameter of 0.60 cm. and outside diameter of 0.79 cm., and the short 
magnet being 2.6 cm. long, with inside diameter of 0.45 cm. and outside diameter of 0.65 
cm. Phosphor-bronze-ribbon suspensions were used for these instruments. The details 
and constants for these magnetometers are given in Table 18. 

Table 18. — Details and Constants of Magnetometers Used, 1915-1921. 
(The c. o. a. system of units is used throughout the table; the value of q is given for 1° C.) 



No. 


Type 


Diameter 
hori- 
zontal 
circle 


Moments of long 
magnets a,t 20° C. 


Loga- 
rithm 

of T^K 

at 20° C. 


Distribution 
coefficients 1 


Induc- 
tion 
coeffi- 
cient, h 


Tempera- 
ture 
coeffi- 
cient, g 


Scale 
value for 
declina- 
tion 


Deflec- 
tion dis- 
tances 
used 


Inertia 


Magnetic 


P 


Q 


3 2 

5' 

25' 


1 (a) 
1 (a) 
4 (c) 


cm. 
12.5 

12.5 

10.2 


166 

234 

65 


657 
610 
304 


3.21487 

3.36323 

• 2 . 80408 


+ 10.71 
+ 14.07 
+ 7.74 


+ 1000 


0.0088 
0.0063 
. 0093 


0.00041 
0.00051 
0.00045 


lU9 
1.48 
1.97 


cm. 
25,27.5, 
30,35,40 
25,27.5, 
30,35,40 
20,25,28 







1 When no values are entered for Q the values given for P are the values of P', assuming that (1 +P'r~ 2 ) = (1 +Pr~ i +Qr~ 
this implies that the theoretical condition, Q =0, holds, since the dimensions of magnets were selected accordingly. 

2 Magnetometer 3 is the standard magnetometer of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
» Instrument overhauled and repaired during July 1919. 

* Before overhauling of July 1919, value was 2.80522. 



PLATE 4 





VIEWS OF LAND STATIONS, CRUISES IV AND V, AND OF PASSAGE THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL. 



1. Honolulu Magnetic Observatory, Honolulu, T. H. 
3. Meeting steamer near Gaillard Cut, Panama Canal. 
5. Hipodromo, Lima, Peru. 

7. Magnetic station and the Carnegie, from Ballyhoo 
Mountain, Dutch Harbor, Alaska. 



2. Guam, Ladrone Islands. 
4. Approaching Gatun Locks, Panama Canal. 
6. Magnetic observatory, Pilar, Argentina. 
8. Magnetic observatory, Apia, Samoa. 



Reduction Formulae and Instrumental Constants 



47 



The marine earlh-inductors, type (6), as already described in this Volume (pp. 24-29) 
and in Volume III (pp. 196-200), were used also at shore stations. The earth-inductor 
attachment of magnetometer-inductor 25, type 4 (c), used at shore stations, is described 
in Volume II (pp. 13-15). Earth inductor 48 of the Wild-Edelmann pattern, con- 
structed by Schulze, and fully described and illustrated in Volume I (pp. 10-11), is the 
standard inclination instrument of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Magnetometer Corrections. 

The corrections of each magnetometer on the adopted standard (see p. 35) were 
determined in Washington, before and after field use of the instrument and also in the 
field, wherever possible, by means of comparisons with other magnetometers. The 
accuracy of the mean corrections for the land instruments is usually about 0'2 in declin- 
ation, and about O.OOOli/ in horizontal intensity. The tabulated corrections are to 
be applied algebraically, east declination being recorded as positive and west declination 
as negative; horizontal intensity is always taken as positive. 

The tabulated -//-corrections shown in Table 19 are the equivalent corrections on the 
basis of the finally adopted constants as given in Table 18. 

Table 19. — Magnetometer Corrections on I. M.S. 1 for the Period 1915-1921. 



For 

Cruise 


No. of 
magnetometer 


Correction to observed 


Remarks 


Declination 


Horizontal intensity 2 




3 
5 
5 

25 
25 


-Oil 
-0.9 
-0.2 
-0.3 
• -0.2 


0.00000/7 


Standard magnetometer. 
After overhauling of July 1919. 
After overhauling of July 1919. 


IV and V. . . . 
VI 


-0.00054/7 


'-0.00058/7 


IV and V. . . . 
VI 


+0 . 00008/7 +0 . 00026(1914 . 22 -t)H 
'+0. 00029/7+0. 00040(1920. 00 -t)H 





1 International Magnetic Standards as defined on p. 35. 

2 For remarks regarding variable //-corrections with time see Vol. IV, Res. Dep. Terr. Mag., p. 10. 

> These values supersede those published in Vol. IV, Res. Dep. Terr. Mag., the latter being provisionally adopted before 
the completion of Cruise VI. 

Earth-Inductor Corrections. 

The numerous comparisons made with earth inductors by the observers of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, in various regions of the globe, have indicated 
that the correction of an earth inductor on standard is subject to practically no change 
with change in magnetic field. The adopted inclination corrections are given separately 
for each instrument ; they are to be applied algebraically, inclination of the north-seeking 
end of the needle below the horizon being regarded as positive, and vice versa. 

Marine earih-inducior 8. — Marine earth-inductor 3 was used at shore stations on 
cruises IV and V as a standard inclination instrument in conjunction with magnetom- 
eter-inductor 25. The adopted inclination correction is the same as that used for the 
sea work, viz, —0(6. 

Marine earih-inductor 7. — Marine earth-inductor 7 (see PL 3, Fig. 1) was used at 
shore stations on Cruise VI as a standard inclination instrument in conjunction with 
magnetometer-inductor 25. The adopted inclination correction is the same as that used 
for the sea work, viz, — 0'2. 

Magnetometer-inductor 25. — The inductor attachment of magnetometer-inductor 25 
was used at shore stations as a standard inclination instrument throughout cruises IV, 
V, and VI; the adopted inclination correction is 0(0 for all three cruises. 



48 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

OCEAN MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS ON THE CARNEGIE, 1915-1921. 
EXPLANATORY REMARKS FOR FINAL RESULTS. 1915-1921. 

The same conventions have been followed in this volume as were adopted in the 
publication of the previous ocean results, Volume III, Researches of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 257-295. 

Stations. — It will be seen that the results are tabulated separately for each of the 
cruises of the Carnegie, and for each ocean. The parallel of 20° longitude east of Green- 
which has been adopted as the dividing-line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans, 
147° east between the Indian and Pacific oceans, and 293° east between the Pacific 
and Atlantic oceans. Next under each cruise the stations or points at which the 
observations were made are arranged chronologically, and they are numbered accordingly. 
Thus, for Cruise IV, the stations are numbered beginning with 1 CIV (Station 1, Carnegie 
Cruise IV). Similarly for cruises V and VI. 

Geographic positions. — The second and third columns contain, respectively, the 
latitude and longitude (counted east from Greenwich), expressed in degrees and the 
nearest minute of arc. The latitudes and longitudes for the points of observation at sea 
were determined in accordance with methods described for previous cruises; in general 
they may be regarded as correct within 2 or 3 nautical miles. The geographic positions 
of the harbor stations are in general known within 1' of latitude and longitude. 

Date. — The date on which the magnetic observations were made is recorded in the 
fourth column. The following abbreviations have been adopted for the months of the 
year: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec. The year is 
indicated at the head of the column. 

Magnetic elements. — The values of the magnetic elements (declination, inclination, 
and horizontal intensity) will be found in the next columns as observed at the local 
mean time (L.M.T.), expressed to the nearest 0.1 hour, opposite each value. Occasion- 
ally it has appeared desirable, where diurnal variation in declination was observed, as, for 
example, in connection with the shore results on pages 109 to 121, or where numerous ob- 
servations were made during a certain interval, as during a vessel swing, to give the local 
mean times of the beginning and of the end of the series, and to indicate for land results 
the number of determinations from which the mean value is derived by a number in- 
closed in parentheses, thus, 9*1 to ll h 3(7) is to be read "the mean is the result of 7 deter- 
minations made during the interval 9 h l to ll h 3, local mean time, inclusive;" 6 h l to 20 h 3 
(dv) is to be read "eye readings of the suspended magnet were made regularly at short 
intervals from 6 h l to 20 h 3, local mean time." The local mean times are given according 
to civil reckoning and are counted from midnight as zero hour continuously through 24 
hours; 16 h , for example, means 4 o'clock p.m. 

The ocean values of magnetic declination and of inclination are given in degrees and 
minutes of arc. No claim, however, is made that they are correct to a minute of arc. In 
general, the error in the tabulated value is about 5' to 10' or less; in some cases the error 
may be more, dependent upon the severity of the conditions encountered during the 
observations. It was thought best to retain the original quantities resulting from the 
computations until the various corrections, mentioned below, have been applied. 

Only the mean quantities resulting from the observations with all instruments used 
for any particular element are given. 

The values of the horizontal intensity, derived as described for previous cruises, with 
all instruments employed, are tabulated to the fourth decimal of the c. g. s. unit of 
magnetic field intensity. In magnetic-survey work on land the fourth decimal is often 
uncertain by one or more units, and in ocean work the error may be five or more units in 
this decimal place. It is thus to be understood that no claim is made for the correctness 
of the last figure ; it has been retained here primarily in order that when all reductions to 



Magnetic Observations 49 

common epoch have been applied on account of the various magnetic variations, the error 
of computation will be kept within the desired limit. 

The question whether to give values of the horizontal intensity exclusively, or values 
of total intensity, was decided in the previous volumes, for the practical reasons there 
stated, in favor of the former. 

The instruments used are shown in the columns "Compass" and "Dip circle." The 
designations of the various instruments employed will be found stated on pages 30 to 34. 
The term "Compass" also includes the "Sea deflector" with which both declinations 
and horizontal intensities were observed, as described on page 24. The term "Dip 
circle" also includes the "Marine earth-inductor" and the "Magnetometer-inductor" 
and the "Sea dip-circle" when arranged for measurement of the total intensity. The 
designation 189.1234 means that inclination was observed with sea dip-circle 189, using 
regular dip needles 1 and 2 and deflected needle 3, and that, furthermore, total intensity 
was obtained by the deflection method, using intensity needles 3 and 4. Invariably the 
intensity needles are italicized and are given last. The higher number of the two in- 
tensity needles always designates the chief intensity needle (the deflecting and the 
loaded needle). Whenever the total intensity was determined from both loaded-dip 
observations and deflections, this fact is shown by the addition of the dagger (f); thus, 
e. g., 189.1234t- For the latter part of Cruise VI, when intensity-pair 11 and 12 were used 
instead of intensity-pair 3 and 4, the needle numbers are separated by commas, thus, 
189.1,2,11,12^. By referring to the specimens of observations, given in Volume III, 
pages 212-225, any additional explanation required may be obtained. 

The columns of "Remarks" contain: 
(a) Course. — This is the ship's magnetic course (heading), counting from 0° at north 
around through 90° at east, 180° at south, and 270° at west, on which the observations 
were made. To obtain true course, the declination for the day would have to be applied 
to the magnetic course as given. When the word "swing" occurs, this means that the 
vessel was swung during observations, to test occasionally the absence of deviation cor- 
rections. For all swings, the local mean times given in the respective columns denote 
the times of beginning and ending of the swing. 

On the Carnegie, because of the absence of deviation corrections, it was also possible 
to make observations when the vessel's heading was shifting, as would be the case when 
the vessel was "becalmed" or "at anchor." 

(b) Roll. — This column records the full angle through which the ship rolled, from side 
to side. 

(c) Sea. — The state of the sea is indicated by the following symbols : 

B. Broken or irregular sea. H. Heavy sea. R. Rough sea. 

C. Chopping, short, or cross sea. L. Long rolling sea. S. Smooth sea. 
G. Ground swell. M. Moderate sea, or swell. T. Tide rips. 

id) Weather. — The symbols denoting the state of the weather at the time are those 
in general use : 

b. Clear, blue sky. I. Lightning. s. Snow. 

c. Clouds. m. Misty. t. Thunder. 

d. Drizzling or light rain. o. Overcast. u. Ugly appearances, 
/. Fog or foggy weather. p. Passing showers. threatening weather. 
g. Gloomy, dark, stormy. q. Squally. v. Variable weather. 
h. Hail. r. Rain. w. Wet or heavy dew. 

z. Hazy weather. 

Weights. — The figures given in the column marked "Wt." are the weights assigned 
the results on the following scale, which expresses, in a general way, the conditions (sea 
and weather) under which the observations were made : 1 denotes severe or adverse con- 
ditions, 2 medium, and 3 favorable conditions. 



50 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

The application of variation corrections to the observed results on account of the 
numerous variations of the earth's magnetism, e. g., diurnal variation, secular variation, 
magnetic perturbations, etc., is deferred to the volume in which all the magnetic data 
obtained both on land and sea are summarized and reduced to a common epoch. To 
avoid undue delay in the promulgation of the accumulated data it is considered best to 
publish the observed results as obtained with no corrections applied except the reduc- 
tions to magnetic standards, as fully explained in the section on this subject (see pp. 35-47). 
However, since for the magnetic elements tabulated the precise date and local mean 
time of each observation are given, the reader is supplied with the required information 
in case, for some purpose of his own, he desires to reduce the observed values to some 
mean time. 

Combining Weights Assigned to Different Instruments and Methods. 

The tabulated values of the magnetic elements are the weighted means, usually of 
two or more results, obtained with two different instruments or by two different methods. 

To obtain the weighted mean value of the declination, the results with the standard 
compass (marine collimating-compass Cl) were given a combining weight 2, whereas 
the auxiliary results with sea deflector (D4, D5) received the weight 1, all conditions 
under which the observations were made being equal. 

The weighted mean value of the inclination was obtained by assigning the weight 
2 to the result from each dip needle and the weight 1 to the result derived from each 
completed observation of deflected dip. Hence, the inclination results from long and 
short distance each received a weight of 1, or if the observation at one distance was 
repeated, the result was given a weight of 2. At the stations where the inclination was 
determined both with the dip circle and the earth inductor, the dip-circle result, obtained 
as just described, was, in general, combined with the earth-inductor result by giving equal 
weights to the two instruments. When these two results differed by more than 0?2, the 
dip circle was given weight 2 and the earth inductor weight 1. For results obtained with 
the new string galvanometer and earth inductor 3 during Cruise VI, one-half the fore- 
going weights was used. While the earth inductor on land gives results superior to 
those of the dip circle, certain difficulties enter in marine-inductor work which have 
not yet been entirely overcome. 

The weighted mean value of the horizontal-intensity results was obtained by assign- 
ing weights 3, 2, and 1 to the sea-deflector results, the sea dip-circle results by deflections, 
and the sea dip-circle results by loaded needle, respectively, when the various results were 
obtained under normal sea conditions. But when the observations were made under un- 
favorable conditions of motion or with small values of horizontal intensity, the weights 
assigned were then 6, 4, 1, in the order designated. In some exceptional cases equal 
weights were assigned the results obtained by sea deflector and by sea dip-circle (deflected 
dip or loaded dip), as in the case of swings, exceptionally quiet conditions, etc. 

The weights referred to above are not to be confused with the figures which appear 
in the "Wt." columns of the Table of Results. The tabular weights refer to the condi- 
tions as to sea and weather under which the observations were made (see p. 49). 

DISTRIBUTION OF STATIONS. 

Table 20 shows for each cruise (IV, V, and VI) of the Carnegie the number of days at 
sea, the length of the cruise in nautical miles, the number of tabulated values, respectively, 
of declination, inclination, and horizontal intensity; next the average time interval as well 
as the average distance apart between observations. For the total length of cruises IV 
to VI (140,713 nautical miles), the magnetic observations, whether of declination, inclina- 
tion, or horizontal intensity, were made practically every day at an average distance 
apart of 70 to 131 miles. Plates 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 show distribution of stations. 



Magnetic Observations 51 

Table 20. — Summary Showing the Distribution of the Carnegie Magnetic Observations, 1915-1921. 



Cruise 


Number 


Number of stations 


Average time interval 


Average distance apart 


Days 


Miles 


Decl'n 


Incl'n 


Hor. int. 


Decl'n 


Incl'n 


Hor. int. 


Decl'n 


Incl'n 


Hor. int. 


IV, 1915-17. . 

V, 1917-18.. 

VI, 1919-21 . . 

IV, V, and VI. 


487 
122 

487 


63,400 
13,195 
64,118 


869 
224 
834 


480 
116 
439 


479 
116 
439 


d 

0.6 
0.5 

0.6 


d 

1.0 
1.1 
1.1 


d 

1.0 
1.1 
1.1 


miles 
73 
59 

77 


miles 
132 
114 
146 


miles 
132 
114 
146 


1,096 


140,713 


1,927 


1,035 


1,034 


0.6 


1.1 


1.1 


70 


131 


131 



OBSERVERS AND COMPUTERS. 

In the Table of Ocean Results the observers' initials, for practical reasons, have been 
omitted. The magnetic results for any one day are the combined product of all the 
observers on board at the time. Those who took part in the observations for the various 
cruises are as follows: 

Carnegie, Cruise IV.— J. P. Ault, H. M. W. Edmonds, H. F. Johnston (to April 1916), B. Jones 
(from April 1916), I. A. Luke (to October 1916), F. C. Loring (from November 1915 to 
October 1916), N. Meisenhelter, A. D. Power (from October 1916), H. E. Sawyer (to 
November 1915), and L. L. Tanguy (from October 1916). 

Carnegie, Cruise V.—H. M. W. Edmonds, B. Jones, J. M. McFadden, A. D. Power, W. E. Scott, and 
L. L. Tanguy. 

Carnegie, Cruise VI. — J. P. Ault, L. A. Bauer (from October 1921), F. A. Franke (from October 1921), 
H. R. Grummann, H. F. Johnston, R. R. Mills (to October 1921), R. Pemberton (to 
August 1921), and A. Thomson. 

For the names of observers and computers for previous cruises, see Volume III, 
Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, page 260. 

The chief persons who have taken part, at various times, in the determination of 
instrumental constants and comparisons at Washington, in the final office reductions, or 
in the preparation of results for publication, of this volume, are: J. P. Ault, L. A. Bauer, 
J. J. Capello, C. R. Duvall, C. C. Ennis, /. A. Fleming, H. F. Johnston, W. J. Peters, and 
E. L. Tibbetts. Those whose names are italicized have borne the chief brunt of the work 
at Washington. 



52 



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54 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
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Final Results op Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



55 



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56 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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OOOOOHHHrtHHHHHrtNNNNIN?'IC,NNNMCO«MrtMMnMM*^T)*Tr'f^'1 , 't^'}tL'5iOiO 
C^CNC^CNMNcNcNCNC^CNCNCNMCNWCNcN^C^ 



Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



57 



,coO 



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M^OOhCOOO^Nn^ioX>NCOOOHN«^OONOOOOHNMTt'ii:ON(»OOHNW^OON{iOOOHMWTTu:o 

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58 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



59 



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60 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 






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61 



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62 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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66 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



67 



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68 



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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



69 



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73 



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75 



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76 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



77 



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oooaiooooooooooooooooooooo 

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cocococococQcococococococococQcocococococococococo 
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cococococococococococococococococococococococococo 



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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCiOiOO^OOOOl 

coco«cocorocoMcoco«cococococococoMCv.c\)M 



mwm&wmm&rAwwmzftm&waiaiviaiw'Sjaimmwzriw 



>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 

aouaououuoaooooooooooououooo 

h (N CO ^ O (O N CO Ol O h M CO ^ iO C N 'X C. O h N CO *f O tO N CO 



78 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 

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3 






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O acOCOOOM'OiOWO'J'^CNiOO'J'iOiOMHHTttSCOH 

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W'fl'OOMWCJiOHNM'fKXDNCOaOH 
kOiOO»0»CiOiOcDOcDcDcDcDcDtDtOOt*N 






Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



79 



ScSoown'on'oo o o o owoooooooo ooooouo 

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81 



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87 



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88 



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cocococococococotrococococococococococococo 



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92 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



93 



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94 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
C 

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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



95 



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to to to 


cococococococococococococococococococococococo 


cocococococococo 


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>>> 


>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>;> 


>>>>>>>> 


>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 


OOO 


OUQUOOOOQQOQOOOOOOOOOOO 


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iCiO»0"5»0'OiC<0 


tOtOtocOCOCOOcOCOCOCOCOCOCO 





96 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
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a %0 



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ouuuuuououuouooooauuoaaououauuauoaouooouuooouooo 

«CSO)CvlCNcNC^COCOCOC^Ma3C^COCOCO^^Tt4^^^rtHrlH^^iOOOi^ 
OOccOOcDOOO(DcOcO^X>0<C^OOO^OcDcOcDcDcDcOOOcDcDNOcOcOcOtDcDcDcDCO(O^OCDtO^OcOtD 



Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



97 



u o o u u u 
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100 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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102 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



3 
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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



103 



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104 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



105 



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106 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



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WIS 



SHORE MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS FOR THE CARNEGIE WORK. 1915-1921. 

EXPLANATORY REMARKS. 

The following results of shore magnetic observations made during cruises IV, V, and 
VI of the Carnegie, 1915 to 1920, are extracted from Volume IV, Researches of the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 34 to 97, with some slight corrections due to the 
adoption of final constants for magnetometers 5 and 25. The results of shore observa- 
tions made during 1921 appear in this volume for the first time. The same conventions 
are used as in previous volumes, to which reference may be made if fuller information is 
desired. 

These shore magnetic results were usually obtained in connection with the inter- 
comparisons of ship and land instruments made at every port of call of the vessel. Some- 
times additional observations were made in view of the disclosure of local magnetic 
disturbance or for the purpose of obtaining secular-variation data. 

The arrangement of stations is according to decreasing northerly latitude within 
each country or island group, while the countries are given in alphabetical order for 
each continent and the island groups are similarly arranged under the head of the ocean 
within which they lie. Longitudes are given invariably east of Greenwich. All mag- 
netic results are reduced to the magnetic standards of the Department (see p. 35). No 
corrections have been made for reduction to mean of day, or to any common epoch. 
The quantities given in the column headed "Value" for each of the three elements are 
generally means of two or more determinations made at times indicated in the adjoining 
columns. A number in parentheses under "Local mean time," for example, "13^5 to 
14^8 (6)," means that six determinations made within the interval are included in the 
mean. For some comparisons of the marine collimating-compass or deflector it was con- 
venient to make eye-readings of declination at short intervals, usually one minute, for 
several hours; the mean values of such observations are indicated by use of the abbre- 
viation for diurnal variation (dv), thus: "14 h 4 to 17 h 2 (dv)." 

It should be noted that, as for all previous volumes, the local mean time given for 
horizontal-intensity observations refers to the mean time of what is defined as one-half 
set of horizontal-intensity observations, namely, one set of oscillations and one set of 
deflections, a full set being defined as one set of oscillations, two sets of deflections, and 
finally a second set of oscillations. The figure in parentheses following the local mean 
time of the horizontal-intensity observation indicates the number of half-sets involved. 

The instrument used for determination of declination or horizontal intensity (or 
both) is indicated in the column headed "Mag'r." Except for a few values at Colon in 
1915 and at San Francisco in 1921, all results tabulated were obtained by the ship's 
standard magnetometers 5 and 25; since values determined by other instruments were 
referred to these by the intercomparisons at shore stations, only the results by the stand- 
ard instruments are included in the table of results. 

The heading "Dip circle" is retained to designate the instrument by which the 
inclination was determined to conform to practice adopted for previous volumes, although 
only two results given in the table were observed with a dip circle. All other inclina- 
tions tabulated were determined by earth inductors. Where dip circles were compared 
with earth inductors, only the results by the latter are given, since experience with both 
types of instruments has shown the accuracy and constancy of any correction of the 
inductor for all values of inclination to be far superior to those of the dip circle. 

108 



RESULTS OF SHORE MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 1 91 5-1 921. 

AFRICA. 
British South and Central Africa. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Cape Town, A 

Cape Town, C 


33 56.1 S 
33 56.1 S 


18 29 
18 29 


Apr 30, '20 

Do. 
May 3, 20 
May 4, 20 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
May 5, 20 

Do. 
Apr 30, 20 

Do. 
May 4, 20 

Do. 
May 5, 20 

Do. 
May 6, 20 

Do. 
May 7, 20 

Do. 
May 12, 20 


h h h 

9.1,11.1 

12.2,13.7 


26 03.5 W 

25 58.4 W 


h h 


c , 


h h 
9.7,10.7 
12.6,13.2 
13.6,14.8 
8.3, 9.7 
11.1,11.9 
13.8,14.5 


c. g. s. 
0.16579 
. 16570 
. 16556 
.16578 
. 16562 
.16551 

.16572 


5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 




C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 






























13.4,14.9 

15.3,15.5 

8.6,10.3 

11.0,11.3 

9.1,11.1 

12.2,13.7 

13.4,14.9 

15.3,15.5 

8.6,10.3 

11.0,11.3 

15.3 to 16.8 (dv) 


25 58.4 W 

25 57.4 W 

26 03.9 W 
26 03.6 W 
26 06.4 W 
26 02.2 W 
26 00.8 W 
26 00.8 W 
26 08.0 W 
26 07.8 W 
25 59.9 W 


14.3,14.9 
15.4,15.7 

14.3,14.9 
15.4,15.7 
8.5 to 
14.9 (8) 
10.8,11.4 
12.3 








61 29.2 S 
61 29.9 S 


9.2, 9.9 


EI 7 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 7 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 


9.6,10.7 
12.5,13.2 
13.8,14.6 


.16551 
.16538 
.16514 






61 30.2 S 
61 29.6 S 


9.2, 9.9 


. 16552 


9.4,10.0 
12.8 


.16548 
.16531 


61 30.4 S 
61 29.6 S 
61 29.3 S 


7.9 to 9.8 (dv) 


26 05.4 W 






13.6 to 17.0 (dv) 


25 59.9 W 






25 







AUSTRALASIA. 
Australia. 



Watheroo Observatory, 
Nm 

Watheroo Observatory, 

Nw 
Watheroo Observatory 

Sm 



Watheroo Observatory 

Sw 
Cottesloe, A 



Cottesloe, B . 



30 18.9 S 

30 18.9 S 
30 18.9 S 

30 18.9 S 

31 59.3 S 



31 59.3 S 



115 52.6 

115 52.6 
115 52.6 

115 52.6 
115 44 



115 44 



Sep 
Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 
Sep 
Sep 

Sep 
Sep 
Sep 



14, 

15, 

Do. 

16, 

13, 
Do. 
14, 
15, 
16, 



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Sep 

Sep 

Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 

Sep 
Sep 

Sep 
Sep 



9, 
Do. 
Do. 

10, 
Do. 

13, 

Do. 

21, 

23, 

28, 

29, 

7, 

8, 

9, 

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Do. 

10, 

Do. 

13, 

Do. 



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Do. 
16, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



20 



h h h 

13.1,14.7 . . . 

8.6,10.5 . . . 

12.9,14.6 . .. 



8.9,10.7 

13.3,15.3 

8.5,10.8 



16.7 



9.3,10.4, 10. 
11.0,13.0 . . . 

13.9 

9.1,11.7,12. 
14.3,14.4 . . . 



6.7 to 8.5 (dv) 
16.0 to 17.7 (dv) 
16.6 to 17.4 (dv) 

5.9 to 7.9 (dv) 
16.7 



9.3,10.4,10.6 
11.0,13 .... 
13.9 

9.1,11.7,12.9 
14.3,14.4 



4 20.4 W 
4 23.5 W 
4 20.2 W 



4 26.6 W 
4 19.8 W 
4 26.0 W 



4 44.9 W 



49.4 W 

47.5 W 
48.7 W 
49.2 W 

47.6 W 



4 50.5 W 
4 47.1 W 
4 44.3 W 
4 44.3 W 
4 46.4 W 



50.5 W 
48.4 W 
50.0 W 
50.9 W 

49.6 W 



13.0 to 
15.1 (6) 



8.8 to 
11.4 (6) 



10.4 to 
12.7 (6) 
14.2 to 
15.7 (6) 



10.4 to 

12.7 (6) 
14.2 to 

15.8 (6) 
8.8 to 

14.2 (7) 



63 55.9 S 



63 56.1 S 



65 21.8 S 
65 22.7 S 



65 23.4 S 
65 23.0 S 
65 22.9 S 



h h 
13.5,14.3 
9.1,10.0 
13.3,14.2 



9.4,10.3 
13.8,14.9 

9.1,10.3 
15.2 



9 9,16.1 
16.2 

9.8 .... 
11.9,12.6 
14.7,15.4 

9.5,10.4 
13.2,13.9 



14.3,15.4 



10.0,16.1 
16.2 

9.8 .... 
11.9,12.6 
14.7,15.3 

9.5,10.4 
13.2,13.9 



10.0,11.5 

13.6 

9.8,10.5 
12.0,13.2 
14.0,14.8 
15.5 



c. g. s. 

0.24865 

.24905 

.24879 



.24884 
. 24880 
.24884 
.24874 



.23934 
.23919 
.23921 
.23900 
.23861 
.23912 
.23880 



.23902 



.23926 
.23920 
.23922 
. 23900 
.23862 
. 23906 
.23874 



.23918 
.23892 
.23927 
.23899 
.23901 
.23897 



25 
25 



25 
25 
25 



5 

5 

25 

25 

25 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



EI 7 



EI 7 



El 2r. 
EI 7 



EI 7 
EI 25 
EI 25 



C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C \ 1 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


f : v i 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


c vi 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 



109 



110 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Cottesloe, B — Concluded 


o / 

31 59.3 S 


115 44 


Sep 17, '20 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Sep 21, 20 
Sep 23, 20 
Sep 24, 20 

Sep 25, 20 


h h h 


o / 


h h 


o / 


h h 
9.1, 9.7 
10.2,10.7 
12.0,12.6 
13.4,14.0 


c. g. s. 
0.23916 
.23936 
.23880 
.23889 


25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
5 


EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 


C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 


























10.7 to 13.0 (dv) 


4 50.0 W 










14.3,15.3 


. 23887 






12.0 to 
14.5 (6) 
8.9, 9.3 
9.6 .... 


65 23.8 S 
65 23.2 S 
65 23.0 S 





























New Zealand. 



Christchurch, East Pier 



Christchurch, West Pier 



Christchurch, 
Pipe 



Brass 



•13 31.8 S 



43 31.8 S 



43 31.8 S 



172 37 



172 37 



172 37 



Nov 10. '15 
Nov 11, 15 

Do. 
Nov 12, 15 
Nov 15 

Do. 

Do. 
Nov 23 



15 



15 

Nov 24, 15 

Do. 

Do. 

Nov 25, 15 

Nov 26, 15 

Do. 

Nov 2, 20 

Do. 

Do. 

Nov 3, 20 

Nov 14, 15 

Nov 5, 20 

Nov 8, 15 

Nov 9, 15 

Nov 10, 15 

Do. 

Do. 

Nov 11, 15 

Do. 

Nov 14, 15 

Nov 15, 15 

Nov 16, 15 

15 



Nov 18, 

Do. 
Nov 19, 

Do. 
Nov 20, 

Do. 
Nov 22, 15 

Do. 
Nov 26, 15 

Do. 
Nov 29, 15 
Apr 4, 16 
Apr 5, 16 

Do. 
Apr 6, 16 

Do. 
Apr 7, 

Do. 
Apr 8, 
Apr 10, 

Do. 
Apr 11, 



15 



15 



16 



h 
15.3 
10.0 
14.5 
9.1 



14.9 .. 

11.9 .. 

8.9,11.2 .. 

11.9,12.3 .. 

18.0,18.3 .. 



9.2,11.0,11.4 
14.4,14.8,16.7 



12.8 to 16.1 (6) 



9.0,11.3,11.8 

8.7,11.0 

11.8,12.1 

15.3 

10.0,14.5,14.9 



18.1,18.3 



4 to 7.8 (dv) 

5 to 16.5 (dv) 
8 to 12.1 (dv) 
8 to 15.9 (dv) 



4 to 17.2 (7) 
6,10.0,10.6 

4,15.9 

2,11.0,11.4 
4,14.8,16.7 
2 to 16.1 (9) 
7,16.6 . 

12.3 . 

16.3 . 



,15.4 





2 

1 

2 

6,12.5 
3,12.0 
4,11.2 
6,15.2 
9 to 10.5 (dv) 



16 52.1 E 

16 43.7 E 

16 51.6 E 

16 44.2 E 

16 44.0 E 

16 48.0 E 

16 49.8 E 



16 43.9 E 
16 53.0 E 



17 06.2 E 



16 43.9 E 
16 43.6 E 
16 45.8 E 
16 51.1 E 
16 48.8 E 



16 48.5 E 



16 43.7 E 
16 52.2 E 
16 45.8 E 
16 51.9 E 
16 46.1 E 
16 51.6 E 
16 43.5 E 
16 51.0 E 
16 44.4 E 
16 50.3 E 
16 48.8 E 
16 49.8 E 
16 50.7 E 
16 51.0 E 
16 51.3 E 
16 53.3 E 
16 44.6 E 
16 49.0 E 
16 47.2 E 
16 46.7 E 
16 51.5 E 
16 44.5 E 



6.3 to 
10.8 (12) 
0.5 to 
2 . 3 (6) 



6.3 to 
10.8 (12) 



8.8 to 
11.9 (12) 



01.7 S 



10.6 S 



04.1 S 



05.1 S 



h h 
15.9,17.1 
10.7,12.1 
15.6,16.5 
9.7,10.9 
9.5,10.6 
16.1,17.2 



10.3 to 

17.2 (5) 
9.7,10.8 

14.4,15.2 
15.8,16.6 
8.8 to 

17.3 (12) 
9.6 to 

16.3 (6) 
10.8,12.3 
14.7,15.6 

16.4 

10.9 



14.8,16.0 
9.7,10.8 
9.3,10.3 



15.9,17.1 
10.7,12.1 
15.6,16.5 



8.8 to 
15.5 (8) 

9.6 to 
16.3 (6) 



12.3,16.2 
10.4,11.6 
14.6,15.9 

12.4 

14.6,15.8 



1,12.1 
8,11.6 
7 to 



14.9 (6) 



0.22417 
.22368 
. 22404 
.22358 
.22371 
.22414 



.22393 
.22361 
.22383 
.22408 

. 22386 

.22388 
. 22266 
.22282 
.22277 
.22254 



.22406 
.22332 
.22360 



.22406 
.22361 
.22412 



.22380 
.22387 



.22372 
. 22348 
.22375 
.22368 
.22382 
.22341 
.22352 
.22352 

.22364 



5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 



25 



25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 



EI 



EI 



EI 3 



EI 3 



C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


CIV 


C IV 


CIV 


CIV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C IV 


C VI 


CIV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


CIV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


CIV 


CIV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


CIV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 


C IV 



Results of Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



111 



AUSTRALASIA. 
New Zealand — Continued. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'i 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Christchvirch, Brass 
Pipe — Concluded 

Christchurch, Jarrah 
Peg 


O ' 

13 31.8 S 
43 31.8 S 


o / 

172 37 
172 37 


Apr 12, 

Do. 
Apr 13, 

Do. 
Apr 14, 
Apr 17, 

Do. 
Apr 18, 
Apr 19, 

Do. 
Apr 20, 
Apr 24, 
Apr 26, 

Do. 
Apr 27, 

Do. 
Apr 28, 

Apr 29, 

May 2, 

Oct 26, 
Oct 27, 

Do. 
Oct 28, 

Do. 

Do. 
Oct 29, 
Nov 7, 
Nov 7, 

Nov 8, 

Do. 

Nov 9, 

Nov 10, 

Do. 

Nov 12, 

Nov 15, 

Do. 

Nov 16, 

Do. 

Nov 17, 
Do. 
Do. 

Nov 23, 

Nov 24, 

Nov 29, 
Apr 4, 
Apr 5, 
Do. 
Apr 6, 
Apr 7, 

Do. 
Apr 11, 
Apr 17, 
Apr 18, 
Apr 28, 

Apr 29, 

May 2, 

May 3, 

May 4, 

Oct 26, 

Oct 27, 

Do. 

Oct 28, 


'If. 

16 

16 
16 

If. 
16 

16 
16 
16 

16 

16 

16 

16 

20 
20 

20 

20 
20 
15 

15 

15 
15 

15 
15 

15 

15 

15 
15 

15 

it; 
16 

16 

10 

Hi 
16 
16 
16 

16 

16 

16 

16 
20 
20 

20 


h h h 
9.3,10.9,12 4 


t 

16 47.9 E 
16 51.6 E 
16 45.6 E 
16 50.1 E 
16 45.9 E 
16 45.3 E 
16 49.4 E 
16 47.5 E 
16 47.3 E 
16 52.5 E 
16 47.2 E 
16 47.0 E 
16 50.3 E 
16 51.8 E 
16 47.5 E 
16 49.9 E 
16 49.0 E 


h h 


o t 


h h 

9.6to 
16.1 (8) 

9.8 to 
15.4 (6) 

9.6,10.2 


c. g. s. 

0.22362 

.22370 
.22382 


25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
5 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 


EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 

EI 3 

EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 


C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

CIV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 


15.1,16.4 .. 

9.5,11.3 .. 
12.6,15.8 .. 

9.3,10.6 .. 

9.8- 

14.2,16.2 . . 




















14.6,15.7 


.22382 


7.7 to 11.0 (dv) 
8.9 to 11.7 (dv) 

13.7 

9.1 to 12.6 (dv) 

9.5,11.4 

9.9,11.3 

12.6.15.4 .... 
9.4,10.8 

12.2.15.5 

9.5,10.8 .... 


































9.8,11.1 
10.3 to 

15.1 (6) 
9.7 to 

15.2 (6) 

9.8,10.5 


.22349 
.22286 
.22335 
.22326 


















14.7 to 

16.4 (6) 
9.4 to 

11.9 (8) 
8.7 to 

12.5 (13) 


68 05.8 S 
68 07.6 S 
68 05.2 S 












15.4 

11.0,12.6,15.2 


17 05.4 E 
17 03.2 E 


15.9 

11.5,12.1 
15.7 .... 
10.5,11.4 
14.6,15.2 


.22292 
.22248 
.22293 
.22245 
.22289 


5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

5 

25 

5 






9.8,11.8 

12.2,12.3 

16.0,16.2 

6.2to7.8(dv) 


17.00.0 E 
17 05.4 E 
17 05.1 E 
16 56.8 E 






















6.8, 8.4 


.22234 






6.2 to 
9.9 (10) 
9.6, 9.9 
11.9,12.1 


68 04.9 S 
68 04.4 S 
68 04.2 S 






10.6,11.4 
14.8,16.0 
9.6,10.8 
9.3,10.3 


.22333 
.22389 
.22341 
.22346 


25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 






9.0,11.3,11.8 
8.7,11.0 

11.7,12.1 

8.1,11.9 

8.9,11.2 

11.9,12.3 .... 


16 44.8 E 
16 43.2 E 
16 46.8 E 
16 44.6 E 
16 45.8 E 
16 49.6 E 














9.7,10.9 
9.5,10.5 
16.2,17.2 


.22355 
.22376 
.22427 






8.8 to 
11.9 (12) 
13.4 to 
16.3 (12) 


68 04.3 S 
68 04.0 S 












9.4,11.0 

13.3,14.8 

16.2 to 17.9 (dv) 


16 46.7 E 
16 54.2 E 
16 53.1 E 


10.4 to 
15.9 (7) 


.22354 


25 
25 
25 


9.6 to 
18.0 (10) 

8.8 to 
11.6 (5) 


68 03.4 S 
68 04.4 S 
















14.2tol6.1 (9) 
11.7,16.6 .... 

12.0,12.3 

14.2,16.3 

12.0,15.1,15.4 
10.2,10.6,12.5 

15.1 to 17.4 (dv) 
13.9 to 15.3 (dv) 

14.2,16.2 

13.8tol7.1 (dv) 


16 52.3 E 
16 50.2 E 
16 51.2 E 
16 52.1 E 
16 53.1 E 
16 48.0 E 

16 53.8 E 
16 52.9 E 
16 50.9 E 
16 51.8 E 






5 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 






12.3,16.2 
10.4,11.6 
14.6,15.9 
12.4,14.6 
9.8,11.1 
12.1 .... 


.22366 
. 22339 
.22370 
.22374 
.22338 
.22362 






























14.6,15.7 


.22381 






14.7to 
16.4 (6) 

9.5 to 
11.9 (8) 

8.7 to 
16.2 (17) 

8.5 to 
16.1 (8) 

9.6,11.6 


68 06.6 S 

68 08.5 S 

68 04.3 S 

68 04.4 S 
68 05.4 S 




















15.4 

9.2 to 
15.6 (5) 
10.3,11.0 

15.9 

11.6,12.1 

15.7 

10.5,11.3 


.22360 

.22355 
.22338 
.22297 
.22251 
.22289 
.22238 


25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
5 










15.4 

11.0,12.6 

15.2,16.3,16.4 


17 06.5 E 
17 04.2 E 
17 06.4 E 
17 01.0 E 










9.9,11.8 .. 









112 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



AUSTRALASIA. 
New Zealand — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Christen ureh, Jarrah 
Peg — Conducted 


43 31.8 S 


t 

172 37 


Oct 28, '20 

Do. 
Oct 29, 20 

Do. 

Do. 
Oct 30, 20 

Do. 
Oct 31, 20 

Nov 4, 20 

Do. 
Nov 11, 20 


h h h 

12.2,12.3 

16.0,16.2 

5.6 


O ' 

17 06.1 E 
17 06.0 E 
17 00.3 E 


h h 


O ' 


h h 
14.6,15.2 


e. g. s. 

0.22288 


5 
25 
25 
5 
5 
5 
5 


EI 25 


C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
CVI 














12.5,14.7 

15.5 

9.8,10.3 
11.1,12.4 


.22266 
.22291 
.22244 
.22246 






























6.6 to 
9.1 (6) 


68 10.1 S 


14.9,15.0,15.4 
15.6,15.9,16.1 
16.8tol7.7 (dv) 


17 08.3 E 
17 08.7 E 
17 06.1 E 






5 

5 

25 



























NORTH AMERICA. 
Central America. 



Colon, Washington . . . 
Colon, Sweetwater, A . 



Colon, Sweetwater, B . 



Colon, Sweetwater, C. 
Cristobal, A 



Cristobal, B. 



Old Panama. 



9 22.0 N 
9 21.3 N 



9 21.3 N 



9 21.3 N 
9 20.7 N 



9 20.7 N 



9 00 . 2 N 



280 05 
280 03 



:80 03 



280 03 
280 06 



280 06 



280 31 



Mar 27, 
Mar 28, 
Mar 27, 

Do. 
Mar 29, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 31, 

Do. 

Apr 1, 

Apr 2, 

Do. 
Mar 27, 

Do. 
Mar 29, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 30, 

Mar 31, 

Do. 

Apr 5, 
Apr 6, 
Do. 
Oct 12, 
May 4, 

Do. 

May 6, 
Do. 

May 8, 

May 4, 

Do. 

May 6, 

May 7, 

May 8, 
Oct 17, 



h h 
11.9,14.5 



13.5 to 14.8 (6) 
15.2 to 16.5 (6) 



13.5 to 14.8 (6) 
15.2 to 16.5 (6) 



15.4 to 17.2 (dv) 
7.7 to 9.0 (dv) 

10.8 to 14.2 (4) 
9.9,11.3 



9.3,10.6 



4 45.9 E 



4 58.8 E 
4 59.1 E 



4 59.9 E 

5 00 . 3 E 



4 58.8 E 

5 00.5 E 

4 59.2 E 

5 17.5 E 



5 26.2 E 



9.0 



13.0 to 
14.8 (6) 
15.2 to 
16.2 (6) 

10.1 to 

16.2 (8) 
9.0 to 

16.6 (12) 



13.0 to 
14.8 (6) 
15.2 to 
16.2 (6) 



12.8 
11.2 
14.7 
15.4 
17.0 
9.4 
9.8 



,13.0 
to 
(12) 
to 
(8) 

, 9.6 
10.0 



11.2 
14.7 
15.4 
17.0 
9.3 
16.0 
10.5 



to 

(12) 

to 

(8) 

to 

(12) 

(4) 



36 02.4 N 



36 01.7 N 
36 02.9 N 
36 01.7 N 
36 01.8 N 



36 00 . 5 N 
36 00.9 N 



37 04 . 2 N 

36 38.2 N 

36 37 . 5 N 
36 35 . N 
36 35 . 2 N 



36 38.7 N 
36 40 . 6 N 



36 38.0 N 
36 35.2 N 



36 49.4 N 



h 
13.0, 



h 
13.9 



8.8, 9.8 
10.6,11.6 
13.0,14.0 
15.1,16.0 



10.8 to 
15.5 (6) 



13.6,14.4 
15.2,16.2 



8.8, 9.9 
10.6,11.6 
13.0,14.0 
15.1,16.0 

9.7 to 
14.8 (5) 



10.3,11.0 



10.8 to 
16.6 (8) 



12.1,14.8 
10.3 to 
17.2 (7) 
9.0, 9.8 
9.7,10.3 



c. g. s. 
0.32328 



.32200 
.32216 
.32196 
.32172 



.32187 



.32176 
.32156 



.32216 
. 32206 
.32212 
.32180 

.32204 



.31776 



.32107 



.32122 

.32145 
.32165 
.31850 



21 



5 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 



25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 



5 

5 

5 

25 



25 



25 

25 
25 
25 



21.(133)4) 



EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 3 
EI 3 

EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

CIV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C VI 

C V 

C V 
C V 

cv 

C V 

C V 

C V 

C V 

C V 
CV 
CVI 



Results of Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



113 



NORTH AMERICA. 
United States. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Dutch Harbor, B> 
Dutch Harbor, C. and G 


o / 
53 54 . 2 N 

53 54 . 2 N 

53 53.4 N 

37 58.6 N 
37 48.7 N 


o / 
193 28 

193 28 

193 28 

237 27 
237 38 


Jul 22, 
Jul 23, 
Jul 24, 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 26, 

Do. 
Jul 27, 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 28, 

Do. 
Jul 29, 

Do. 

Do. 

Jul 30, 

Jul 31, 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 22, 
Jul 23, 
Jul 24, 

Do. 
Jul 26, 

Do. 
Jul 28, 

Do. 

Jul 29, 

Jul 26, 
Jul 27, 
Mar 18, 
Sep 27, 

Do. 
Sep 28, 

Sep 29, 

Do. 

Oct 3, 

Oct 4, 

Do. 
Oct 5, 

Do. 
Oct 6, 

Oct 9, 
Do. 

Oct 10, 
Do. 

Oct 11, 
Do. 

Oct 16, 

Do. 

Oct 17, 

Do. 
Oct 18, 

Do. 
Oct 19, 

Do. 
Oct 20, 

Do. 
Oct 23, 
Oct 25, 

Oct 26, 


'15 
15 
15 

15 
15 

15 

15 

15 
15 

15 
15 
15 

15 

15 

15 

15 
15 
21 
16 

16 

16 

16 
16 

16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 

16 
16 
16 

16 

16 
16 

16 


h h h 

15.4,18.0 

14.1,17.0 

8.6,11.2 

11.7 

15.4,15.5,16.6 

8.5,10.4,10.8 
13.5 to 16.2 (4) 

8.5,10.0,11.5 


o / 
16 08.4 E 
16 07.7 E 
16 16.2 E 
16 12.4 E 
16 09.5 E 
16 13.9 E 
16 07.3 E 
16 15.9 E 


h h 


o , 


h h 
16.0,17.5 
14.5,16.6 

9.0,10.8 
13.6,14.6 


e. q. s. 

. 20786 
. 20772 
.20772 
.20774 


25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 


EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 25 

EI 25 

189.1256 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 3 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 


C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

CIV 
CIV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C VI 

C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 
C IV 


















8.9 to 
17.3 (8) 

8.8, 9.5 
10.3,11.1 


.20785 
.20771 
.20754 










13.7 to 18.5 (dv) 


16 09.5 E 






10.6 to 
15.8 (12) 

16.7 (4) 
8.3 to 

10.8 (9) 
13.4,13.8 
16.3,16.6 

8.2 to 
17.6 (10) 


66 32 . 4 N 
66 32.4 N 

66 31.8 N 
66 32.8 N 
66 31.4 N 

66 32.3 N 






























14.4,15.6 


.20767 


25 










9.1 to 
17.2 (8) 

9.0 

10.8,11.4 


.20772 
. 20785 
.20776 


25 
25 
25 






10.4,11.8 


16 12.7 E 


8.3, 8.6 
9.9,10.1 


66 31.7 N 
66 31.1 N 


15.4,18.0 .... 
14.1,17.0 

8.6,11.2 

11.7 

8.5,10.4,10.8 
13.5,13.8 


16 28.0 E 
16 26.6 E 
16 35.6 E 
16 31.0 E 
16 33.2 E 
16 26.1 E 


16.1,17.5 
14.5,16.6 

9.1,10.8 
13.6,14.7 

8.9,10.0 
11.2,12.1 


. 20932 
.20929 
.20922 
.20919 
.20934 
.20923 


5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 






















10.6 to 
15.8 (12) 

16.7 (4) 
8.3 to 

10.8 (9) 


66 16.4 N 
66 17 . 1 N 

66 16.5 N 






















15.9,18.4 


17 16.0 E 


16.7,17.8 


.20926 


25 


9.8 .... 
14.6,14.7 

9.6 to 
15.1 (13) 
16.2,16.5 

9.0 to 
15.1 (14) 


66 31.8 N 
62 13.4 N 

62 06.4 N 
62 04.4 N 

62 05.7 N 


10.5,11.9 .... 


18 20.0 E 


11.0,11.6 


. 24736 


25 


Goat Island, A 






















9.7,12.1,13.3 
15.5,15.9,16.2 

9.9,15.7 

9.0,11.0,11.3 

14.0,14.4,16.6 
14.1 to 17.0 (dv) 


18 17.2 E 
18 15.2 E 
18 18.8 E 
18 19.0 E 

18 15.7 E 
18 14.8 E 


10.3,11.6 
13.9,15.0 
11,2,14.5 
9.5 to 
16.1 (6) 


.24990 
.25017 
. 24982 

.24994 


5 
5 
5 

25 
25 
25 














8.8,10.6 
11.4,13.9 

9.0 to 
15.6 (8) 


62 04.6 N 
62 05.0 N 

62 07 . 8 N 


9.6,12.6 


.24986 






10.0,11.5 

9.3 to 
14.0 (6) 
10.4,11.7 
13.5 

9.5 to 
14.4 (6) 

10.4,11.4 
14.0 

9.8 to 
14.9 (5) 

9.9 to 
14.9 (6) 

8.7, 9.5 
10.3,11.1 

9.3,10.1 
11.1,12.7 


. 24966 

. 24960 
.24982 
.24955 

.24966 

. 24978 
. 24976 

.24990 

.24993 
.25000 
.25002 
. 24996 
.25010 


25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
5 


8.9,10.5, 

12.0,14.4 

9.9,12.2,14.8 


18 21.2 E 
18 17.9 E 
18 15.6 E 










9.0,11.2 

13.3,14.8 


18 18.6 E 
18 16.0 E 










9.1 to 
15.4 (8) 


62 05.7 N 






8.8,10.7 

13.4.15.2 

9.4,11.2 

13.6.15.3 

8.3, 9.9,11.5 

14.3 to 16.9 (dv) 


18 18.1 E 
18 15.8 E 
18 18.6 E 
18 16.1 E 
18 18.3 E 
18 14.5 E 


































6.9 to 9.5 (dv) 


18 16.9 E 






8.9 to 
14.0 (13) 


62 05 . 3 N 






8.0 to 9.8 (dv) 


18 20.6 E 






25 











'Local disturbance 



114 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



NORTH AMERICA. 

United States— Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


San Francisco, Fort 
Scott, A 

San Francisco, Fort 
Scott, B 


O ' 

37 48.7 N 
37 48.7 N 

37 48.7 N 


/ 

237 38 
237 31 

237 31 


Sep 27, '16 

Do. 
Sep 28, 16 

Sep 29, 16 

Do. 
Oct 3, 16 

Oct 4, 16 

Do. 
Oct 13, 16 
Oct 25, 16 

Feb 26, 21 
Feb 28, 21 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 1, 21 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 2, 21 

Do. 

Mar 3, 21 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 4, 21 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 7, 21 

Mar 8, 21 

Mar 9, 21 

Mar 10, 21 

Mar 15, 21 
Feb 26, 21 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 1, 21 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 2, 21 

Do. 

Mar 3, 21 
Do. 

Do. 

Mar 4, 21 
Mar 10, 21 

Mar 11, 21 

Mar 14, 21 
Mar 16, 21 

Do. 
Mar 17, 21 


h h h 


o t 


h h 

9.6 to 
15.1 (13) 
16.2,16.5 

9.0 to 
15.1 (14) 


o / 

62 05.7 N 
62 04.8 N 

62 05.4 N 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 3 
EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 3 

EI 25 

EI 26 

EI 25 
EI 7 

EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 25 
EI 25 


C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 
C IV 
CIV 

C IV 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 






















9.7,12.2,13.3 
15.5,15.9,16.2 

9.9,15.7 

9.0,11.0,11.3 

14.0,14.4,16.6 
12.8tol5.5(10) 


18 16.4 E 
18 15.0 E 
18 17.0 E 
18 18.7 E 

18 15.2 E 
18 13.9 E 


10.3,11.6 
13.9,15.0 
11.1,14.5 
9.5 to 
16.2 (6) 


. 24980 
.25006 
.24984 

.24988 


25 
25 
25 

5 

5 

25 


























8.9 to 
14.0 (13) 


62 04.6 N 






10.8.12.7 

13.3,13.4,13.8 
14.0,14.5,14.7 
15.1,15.3 

15.6.15.8 

13.0,13.2 

13.5,13.7 


18 08.0 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 04.5 E 
18 05.2 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 05.8 E 


11.3,12.2 
9.3,10.1 
10.9,11.7 


.24714 
.24738 
.24714 


5 
5 

5 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 






















9.1,10.0 
10.8,11.6 
14.1,14.8 


.24740 
.24736 

.24727 














11.1 to 
13.3 (6) 
13.9 to 

15.2 (6) 


62 16.8 N 
62 16.1 N 












13.4,13.6,14.0 
14.3,14.7,14.8 
15.4,15.6 


18 06.8 E 
IS 06.6 E 
18 06.4 E 


9.5,10.6 
11.3,12.9 


.24729 
. 24704 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 

5 














10.0,11.8 
13.9,14.7 

15.2 

9.4 to 

15.3 (7) 
13.9,14.6 

15.1 

10.3 to 
14.9 (6) 


.24722 
.24725 
.24726 

.24716 
.24726 
.24739 

.24724 






































9.8 to 
15.3 (9) 
11.0 to 
13.9 (7) 


62 15.7 N 
62 16.7 N 






10.5tol3.5(dv) 

10.8.12.7 

13.3,13.4,13.8 
14.0,14.5,14.7 
15.1,15.3 

15.6.15.8 

13.0,13.2 

13.5,13.7 


18 06.9 E 
18 05.1 E 
18 02.5 E 
18 01.9 E 
18 02.2 E 
18 02.6 E 
18 03.4 E 
18 03.4 E 






25 

26 

26 

26 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 






11.3,12.2 
9.3,10.1 
10.9,11.7 


.24694 
.24728 
.24715 


























9.1,10.0 
10.8,11.5 
14.1,14.8 


.24732 
.24730 
.24724 














9.4 to 
13.3 (10) 
13.9to 
15.2 (6) 


62 19.1 N 
62 18.7 N 






9.5,10.6 
11.3,12.9 


.24716 
.24710 


25 
25 
25 
25 


13.4,13.6,14.0 
14.3,14.7,14.8 
15.4 15.6 


18 03.9 E 
18 03.1 E 
18 03.5 E 














10.0,11.8 


.24724 






10.4 to 

16.0 (14) 

9.2 to 

14.4 (9) 


62 20.0 N 

62 18.5 N 






12.9,13.8 


.24736 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


15.1 to 17.6 (dv) 
7.9 to 9.4 (dv) 

15.0 to 17.6 (dv) 
7.3to 9.3 (dv) 


18 02.7 E 
18 06.9 E 
18 04.3 E 
18 18.1 E 



































Results of Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



115 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

Argentina. 






Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Pilar, B 


o / 

31 40.1 S 

31 40.1 S 
31 40.1 S 

31 40.1 S 
31 40.1 S 


O / 

296 07 

296 07 
296 07 

296 07 
296 07 


Mar 19, 
Do. 
Mar 20, 
Mar 26, 
Mar 27, 
Apr 3, 
Do. 
Mar 27, 

Nov 10, 

Do. 
Nov 13, 

Do. 
Mar 20, 
Mar 21, 

Do. 
Apr 4, 
Nov 9, 

Do. 
Nov 12, 

Do. 
Mar 13, 
Mar 14, 

Do. 
Mar 15, 

Do. 
Mar 16, 

Do. 
Mar 22, 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 23, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 27, 
Mar 28, 

Do. 
Oct 24, 
Oct 25, 

Do. 
Oct 26, 
Oct 27, 
Oct 29, 
Nov 1, 

Do. 
Nov 2, 

Do. 
Nov 5, 

Do. 
Mar 13, 
Mar 14, 

Do. 
Mar 15, 

Do. 
Mar 16, 

Do. 
Mar 17, 

Do. 
Mar 19, 

Do. 
Mar 20, 
Mar 21, 
Mar 22, 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 23, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 26, 
Mar 27, 
Mar 28, 


*17 

17 
17 
17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
17 

17 
17 

17 

17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
17 

17 
17 

17 
17 
17 
17 

17 

17 

17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
17 
17 

17 

17 
17 
17 


h h h 
8.9,11.2,11.9 

16.0,16.5 

8.9,11.7 .... 


o / 

8 15.3 E 
8 16.3 E 
8 11.4 E 


h h 


O 1 


h h 
9.5,10.6 
14.2,15.3 
9.5,11.0 


e. g. a. 

0.25474 

. 25476 

.25486 


25 
25 
25 


EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 3 
EI 3 
EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 3 
EI 3 
EI 3 


CIV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
CIV 

CIV 

cv 

C V 

cv 

C V 
C IV 
CIV 
CIV 
C IV 

cv 

C V 
C V 

cv 

CIV 
C IV 
CIV 
CIV 
C IV 
CIV 
CIV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C V 

cv 

C V 
C V 

cv 
cv 

C V 
C V 
C V 

cv 

C V 
C V 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 








10.9 (7) 
8.9 (3) 


25 36.7 S 
25 42.3 S 












8.9, 9.2 

14.4 to 16.5 (6) 


8 10.0 E 
8 16.6 E 






5 
5 










10.5 to 

12.6 (9) 
8.5, 8.8 
9.9 (4) 
9.5, 9.8 

11.0 (4) 


25 37.4 S 
25 38.5 S 
25 35.5 S 
25 36.8 S 
25 37.1 S 










































14.1,17.0 

8.8,11.8,13.9 


8 17.4 E 
8 14.6 E 


14.8,16.0 
9.4,11.0 
14.5,15.6 


.25486 
.25471 
.25460 


25 

25 

25 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 


Pilar, E 










9.0 to 11.6 (6) 
10.6,10.9,11.4 
13.6,15.2,17.2 

8.2,10.2,10.6 
12.8,14.4,16.3 

9.7,15.0,15.9 

8.8,11.5 

14.0,16.6 

8.7,11.5,12.0 
14.0,16.5 

8.7,11.3 

11.9 


8 12.7 E 
8 12.3 E 
8 10.6 E 
8 09.0 E 
8 13.4 E 
8 16.2 E 
8 14.4 E 
8 19.8 E 
8 12.1 E 
8 17.4 E 
8 10.7 E 
8 16.8 E 










8.8 to 
16.8 (6) 

8.7 to 
15 9 (6) 
10.8,14.5 

9.4,11.0 
14.4,16.0 

9.4,11.0 
14.6,16.0 

9.2,10.8 


.25482 

.25431 
.25434 
.25442 
.25442 
.25456 
.25444 
.25465 














Pilar, F 






















11.6,11.9 
14.6,15.2 
16.3 (4) 
9.5 (4) 

11.3 (3) 
14.9 (5) 

16.4 (4) 


25 37.8 S 
25 41.4 S 
25 43.2 S 
25 41.2 S 
25 38.0 S 
25 41.5 S 
25 43.6 S 
















































15.3 to 16.7 (4) 
9.5 to 10.6 (4) 

11.1 to 14.3 (6) 

15.1,17.5 

8.8,11.7 

12.2,15.9 

9.3.12.1 

8.4.11.2 .... 
8.6,11.1 


8 16.1 E 
8 11.6 E 
8 18.0 E 
8 13.8 E 
8 11.4 E 
8 13.3 E 
8 09.1 E 
8 08.6 E 
8 10.8 E 






5 

5 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 






















15.7,17.0 

9.5,11.1 

14.1,15.4 

10.0,11.4 

8.9,10.5 

9.3,10.7 


.25416 
.25393 
.25377 
.25428 
.25425 
.25398 


















10.2 to 

15.8 (12) 

16.9 (4) 
15.4 (4) 
16.6 (4) 


25 39.2 S 
25 43.2 S 
25 41.2 S 
25 42.7 S 
























25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

5 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 


9.5tol3.3(dv) 
14.6 to 17.6 (dv) 

9.7,15.0,15.9 

8.8,11.5 

14.0,16.6 

8.7,11.5,12.0 
14.0,16.5 

8.7,11.3 

11.9 

8.5 to 12.1 (dv) 
14.0 to 16.3 (dv) 
17.0 


8 10.7 E 
8 11.7 E 
8 16.3 E 
8 13.2 E 
8 20.0 E 
8 13.2 E 
8 19.3 E 
8 12.1 E 
8 15.2 E 
8 12.3 E 
8 18.3 E 
8 14.4 E 














10.8,14.5 
9.4,11.0 

14.5,16.0 
9.4,11.0 

14.6,16.0 
9.2,10.8 


.25410 
.25452 
.25452 
.25458 
,25447 
.25470 




































9.3,11.1 
14.1,16.2 


.25452 
. 25458 






6.9 to 10.0 (dv) 
6.4 to 9.1 (dv) 


8 09.9 E 
8 12.2 E 










10.7,14.3 


.25450 


11.6,11.9 
14.6,15.2 
16.3 (4) 
9.5 (4) 

11.3 (3) 
14.9 (5) 

16.4 (4) 


25 38.9 S 
25 40.7 S 
25 42.7 S 
25 40.9 S 
25 39.0 S 
25 42.8 S 
25 44.5 S 


















































15.3 to 17.9 (dv) 
15.3tol6.7(4) 
9.5 to 10.6 (4) 


8.16.4 E 
8 17.1 E 
8 11.8 E 






25 
25 
25 



























116 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

Argentina — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Pilar, F— Concluded . . . 


31 40.1 S 

34 32.1 S 
34 32.1 S 


296 07 

301 30 
301 30 


Mar 28, 
Mar 28, 
Mar 29, 
Do. 
Mar 30, 

Apr 2, 
Do. 
Do. 

Apr 3, 

Do. 
Oct 24, 
Oct 25, 

Do. 
Oct 26, 

Do. 

Do. 
Oct 27, 
Oct 29, 

Do. 

Oct 30. 

Do. 
Oct 31, 

Do. 
Nov 1, 

Do. 
Nov 2, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Feb 2, 

Do. 
Feb 3, 

Do. 

Do. 
Feb 4, 
Feb 5, 

Do. 
Feb 9, 
Feb 2, 

Do. 
Feb 3, 

Do. 
Feb 4, 

Do. 
Feb 5, 

Do. 

Do. 
Feb 6, 

Do. 

Do. 
Feb 7, 

Do. 


'17 
17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
17 

17 

17 
17 

17 
17 
17 

17 

20 
20 

20 
20 

20 
20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 


h h h 
11.1 to 14.3 (6) 
15.0tol6.1 (dv) 


o / 

8 18.7 E 

8 19.7 E 


h h 


o , 


h h 


c. g. s. 


5 
25 
25 


EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 3 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 3 
EI 3 

EI 7 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 7 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 


C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 










13.8,14.2 
16.0,16.3 
9.6 to 
15.6 (8) 


25 39.2 S 
25 42.6 S 

25 39.9 S 


15.0 


0.25457 










10.6,14.7 
9.4,10.2 
11.1,11.9 


.25458 
. 25436 
.25452 


25 
5 
5 
5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

25 

5 

5 

25 
25 
25 
25 


8.9,10.6 

12.2,13.8 

15.2tol7.7 (dv) 


8 12.0 E 

8 18.6 E 
8 17.8 E 










9.4 to 
16.7 (5)* 


25 41.9 S 


10.1 

14.6,15.9 
15.7,17.0 
9.4,11.1 
14.1,15.4 


.25438 
.25402 
.25401 
.25376 
.25386 






15.1,17.5 

8.8,11.7 

12.2,15.9 

5.6to8.3 (dv) 

9.3.12.1 

15.3 to 18.3 (dv) 

8.4.11.2 

8.6,11.1 


8 13.4 E 
8 11.0 E 
8 12.8 E 
8 07.3 E 
8 09.8 E 
8 10.2 E 
8 09.7 E 
8 11.4 E 






















10.0,11.5 


.25422 










9.0,10.5 

9.3,10.7 
13.7 to 
17 . 5 (6) 

9.0, 9.8 
14.9,15.8 

9.8,10.9 


.25432 
.25384 

.25302 
.25414 
.25385 
.25445 














12.1 (4) 
16.9 (4) 

8.4, 8.8 

12.7 (3) 

10.2 to 

15.8 (12) 

16.9 (4) 
9.1, 9.6 

12.1 (3) 
15.4 (4) 
16.6 (4) 


25 38.6 S 
25 45.2 S 
25 40.5 S 
25 35.2 S 

25 39.1 S 
25 44.2 S 
25 40.0 S 
25 36.3 S 
25 41.6 S 
25 43.2 S 






































10.6,10.9 


.25470 


25 


























10.9,13.8 

14.8,16.6 

10.0,11.9 

13.4,14.8 

16.1 to 17.4 (dv) 


4 39 . 8 E 
4 37.4 E 
4 38.6 E 
4 40.3 E 
4 39.2 E 


11.6,13.4 
15 '',16.1 
10.5,11.4 
13.8,14.5 


.24578 
.24581 
.24622 
.24633 


5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

5 


Florida, B 


















10.2,10.7 


.24616 






10.8,11.1 
11.6,11.9 


27 50.2 S 
27 50.2 S 












18.5 

10.9,13.8 

14.8,16.6 

10.0,11.9 

13.4,14.8 


4 39.2 E 
4 38.9 E 
4 37.0 E 
4 37.7 E 
4 39 . 5 E 






25 
25 
25 
5 
5 
25 
25 






11.6, 13. 4 
15.2,16.0 
10.5,11.4 
13.8,14.5 
10.2,10.7 
14.5,15.0 


.24586 
.24590 
.24619 
.24628 
.24620 
.24606 
















13.2,13.8 
15.6,15.9 
10.8,11.1 
11.6,11.9 
13.1,14.8 


27 54.4 S 
27 55.6 S 
27 50.6 S 
27 50.7 S 
27 51.8 S 
























13.8,14.4 
10.0,11.1 
12.0,13.8 
14.5,15.8 
10.7,11.8 


.24623 
.24621 
.24642 
.24638 
.24602 


25 
25 
25 
25 
25 


























10.0,11.3 
11.5,12.3 


27 52.3 S 
27 51.2 S 

















Chile. 



Concepcion. 
Coronel, D . 



36 49.6 S 

37 01.9 S 



286 57 
286 51 



Jan 16, '18 
Jan 19, 18 



h h h 
10.6,14.5 ... 
10.6,12.9,13. 



15 19.6 E 
15 27.5 E 



h h 
15.3,15.5 
14.7,14.9 



34 52.7 S 

35 11.6 S 



h h 
11.6, 14.1 
11.0, 12.4 



c. g. s. 

0.26452 

.26484 



25 
25 



EI 25 
EI 25 



C V 
C V 



Peru. 



Lima, B . 



12 04.3 S 



282 58 



Feb 28, '18 

Do. 
Mar 1, 18 

Do. 



h h 

10.0,13.6 

14.0,17.3 

9.7,12.1 

13.1,15.4 



42.0 E 
41.4 E 
40.8 E 
43.7 E 



h h 
10.8,13.0 
14.6,16.7 
10.2,11.6 

13.6,14.9 



c. g. s. 
0.30113 
. 30068 
.30199 
.30164 



5 

5 

5 

25 



C V 

C V 

C V 

C V 



Results op Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



117 



SOUTH AMERICA. 
Peru — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Or. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Lima, B — Concluded . . . 


o / 

12 04.3 S 
12 04.3 S 


282 58 
282 58 


Mar , 2, 
Do. 

Mar 5, 

Mar 6, 

Mar 7, 

Do. 
Mar 11, 

Do. 
Mar 13, 

Mar 14, 

Do. 

Mar 18, 

Feb 28, 
Do. 

Mar 1, 
Do. 

Mar 2, 
Do. 

Mar 4, 

Do. 
Mar 5, 

Mar 6, 

Mar 9, 

Mar 12, 
Mar 14, 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar 15, 

Mar 19, 


'18 
18 
18 
18 

IS 

18 
18 

18 
18 
18 

18 
18 

18 

18 

IS 
18 
18 

IS 
18 


ft ft A 

8.0,10.1 

10.6,12.7 


8 39.4 E 
8 45.1 E 


ft ft 


o / 


ft ft 
8.4, 9.7 
11.1,12.3 


e. g. s. 

0.30134 
.30284 


25 
25 


EI 25 
EI 3 
EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 25 


C V 
C V 

C V 

C V 

C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 

C V 
C V 

C V 

C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 
C V 

C V 

C V 






11.6 to 
15.9 (12) 
9.5 to 

12.3 (12) 
9.9 to 

15.4 (9) 


45.7 S 
45.9 S 
46.7 S 
















11.2,12.4 
13.7,14.2 

10.9,11.8 
13.9,14.3 

11.1,13.2 


.30182 
.30162 

.30140 
.30070 

.30211 


25 
25 

25 
25 

25 
5 
5 










9.7 to 
15.5 (10) 


45.3 S 










9.6 to 
14.6 (10) 


45.7 S 


9.3, 9.6 

10.2,10.6 .... 


8 40.0 E 
8 40.6 E 










13.4 to 
14.8 (8) 


45.5 S 






10.0,13.6 .... 
14.0,17.3 

9.7,12.1 

13.1,15.4 

8.0,10.1 

10.6,12.7 

9.4,11.0,13.2 

14.8,16.4 


8 42.3 E 
8 41.8 E 
8 41.7 E 
8 42.9 E 
8 38.9 E 
8 44.0 E 
8 41 9 E 

8 44.6 E 


10.8,13.0 
14.6.16.7 
10.2,11.6 
13.6,14.9 

8.4, 9.7 
11.0,12.3 

9.8 to 
16.0 (8) 


.30124 
. 30076 
. 30208 
.30144 
.30149 
.30294 

.30180 


25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 
25 
































11.6 to 

15.9 (12) 

9.5 to 

12.3 (12) 


46.4 S 
45.9 S 










6.5 to 8.5 (dv) 
9.3 to 18.3 (dv) 

9.3, 9.6 

10.2,10.6 

12.3,12.5,12.6 


8 39.3 E 
8 42.0 E 
8 40.5 E 
8 42.0 E 
8 44.5 E 






25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 

25 






































9.5 to 
15.9 (8) 

9.6 to 
16.2 (8) 


.30170 
.30187 



















ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN. 
St. Helena. 



Longwood, A 


o / 

15 56.7 S 


o / 

354 19 


Mar 30, '20 


ft ft ft 
10.8,13.9 


25 07.2 W 


ft ft 
15.4,15.7 


38 20.8 S 


ft A 
11.5, 13.4 


c. g. s. 

0.21736 


25 


EI 25 


C VI 


South Georgia. 


Edwards Point 


o / 

54 18 S 


o / 

323 34 


Jan 13, '16 


ft ft ft 
9.2,10.8 


4 23.5 W 


A ft 
11.4,11.6 


49 15.2 S 


A A 
9.6, 10.4 


e. g. s. 
. 24056 


25 


EI 25 


C IV 


ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN. 
Ceylon. 




o / 

6 54.2 N 


O f 

79 52 


Jul 6, '20 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 7, 20 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 8, 20 

Do. 
Jul 12, 20 


ft ft h 
8.6,12.0 12.4 


2 29.5 W 


A A 


o , 


A ft 
9.3,11.5 
13.0,14.3 
15.9,17.0 


c. g. s. 

0.3S422 

. 38392 

.38332 


25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 


EI 25 


C VI 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 

C VI 








14.8,15.4,17.4 
8.6. 9.8,10.3 

10.8,13.6 

14.8,17.0 

10.1,11.7,12.2 


2 28.8 W 
2 28.2 W 
2 29.0 W 
2 28.9 W 
2 29.2 W 














11.5,12.9 

15.8 

9.3,10.5 
11.4 


.38390 
.38344 
.38406 
.38406 










10.1 to 
16.5 (10) 


4 11.6 S 













'Local disturbance. 



118 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 191 5-2 1» 



ISLANDS. INDIAN OCEAN. 
Ceylon — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Colombo, A ' — Concluded 
Colombo, C 1 . .. 


6 54.2 N 
6 54 . 2 N 


/ 

79 52 
79 52 


Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 


13, 

15, 

19, 

6, 

Do. 

Do. 

7, 

Do. 

Do. 

8, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

9, 

Do. 

Do. 

10, 

12, 

13, 

Do. 

14. 

Do. 
20, 


'20 

20 
20 
20 

20 

20 

20 

20 
20 

20 

20 

20 


h h h 


/ 


h h 

8.5 to 
111 (7) 


o t 

4 09.4 S 


h h 


c. g. a. 




EI 7 

EI 7 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 


C VI 
C VI 
CVI 
C VI 
CVI 
C VI 
CVI 
CVI 
CVI 
CVI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
CVI 
CVI 
C VI 
CVI 

CVI 

CVI 

CVI 

CVI 
C VI 
CVI 


15.4 to 17.1 (6) 
8.8tol0.2(5) 
8.6,12.0,12.4 


2 27.8 W 
2 28.2 W 
2 31.7 W 






25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 














9.4,11.5 
13.0,14.3 
15.9,17.0 


0.38435 
.38368 
.38340 








14.8,15.4,17.4 
8.6, 9.8,10.3 

10.8,13.6 

14.8,17.0 

10.1,11.7,12.2 


2 29.3 W 
2 28.4 W 
2 29.8 W 
2 29.7 W 
2 30.3 W 














11.4,12.9 
15.8 

9.3,10.5 

11.4 

13.1,13.7 
14.7,15.8 

8.4, 9.5 
10.2,11.3 
12.6,13.3 


.38426 
.38367 
.38406 
.38416 
.38358 
.38339 
.38390 
.38410 
.38400 














































15.6 to 17.8 (dv) 
6.6 to 8.7 (dv) 


2 29.5 W 
2 28.5 W 










10.1 to 

16.5 (10) 
8.6 to 

11.1 (7) 
14.4 to 

16.6 (4) 
9.4 to 

16.7 (10) 


4 20.1 S 
4 17.3 S 
4 20.5 S 
4 19.3 S 




















15.2,15.8 

10.3 .... 
15.7,16.3 


.38370 

.38422 
.38351 


25 

25 
25 
25 


6.8to 8.2 (dv) 


2 28.0 W 


16.2 to 18.0 (dv) 


2 29.2 W 















ISLANDS, pacific ocean. 
Easter Island. 



Cook Bay. 



27 08.0 S 



250 35 



Dec 27. '16 
Dec 29, 16 
Dec 30, 16 



h h 
11.4,13.8 
7.2 to 
7.7 (dv) 



14 40.0 E 
14 36.6 E 



h h 
15.6,15.8 



38 30.2 S 



h h 
11.9,13.3 



c. g. a. 
0.30762 



25 
25 



EI 25 



C IV 
C IV 



Hawaiian Islands. 



Sisal, Honolulu Mag- 
netic Observatory, 
Pier A 



21 19.2 N 



201 56 



Jun 3, *15 

Do. 

Do. 
Jun 4, 15 

Do. 

Do. 
Jun 5, 15 

Do. 
Jun 21, 15 

Do. 
Jun 22, 15 

Jun 23, 15 

Jun 24, 15 

Do. 
Jun 25, 15 

Jun 26, 15 

Apr 18, 21 

Apr 18, 21 

Apr 19, 21 

Apr 21, 21 



h h h 
9.9,12.0 13.9 
16.0,16.5,18.6 



9.8.12.0,12.5 
16.3,16.8 



9.3, 9.5 .... 
11.4,14.3 



8.7 to 10.2 (6) 



41.1 E 
41.4 E 



9 41.3 E 
9 40.6 E 



9 43.4 E 
9 41.5 E 



9 54.7 E 



12.2 to 

16.3 (6) 
17.7 (4) 
13.7 to 
17.9 (8) 
10.5 to 
17.1 (5) 

8.3 to 
16.9 (11) 



9.1 to 
15.8 (10) 
9.0 (4) 



9.4 to 
15.1 (6) 



39 31.6 N 
39 33 . 5 N 

39 31.5 N 

39 31 . 4 N 

39 29.5 N 



39 30.5 N 
39 30.2 N 



39 24 . 8 N 



h h 


e. g. a. 




10.4,11.6 


0.29028 


5 


14.4,15.6 


.29029 


5 


17.0,18.1 


.29011 


5 


10.3,11.6 


.29011 


25 


14.8,15.8 


. 29022 


25 


17.3 


.29014 


25 


8.8 .... 


. 29025 


25 


11.8,13.9 


.29014 


25 


11.3,12.0 


.28979 


25 


15.4,16.4 


.28984 


25 


9.5,11.7 


.29002 


25 


14.0 


.29017 


25 


15.4,16.0 


.29014 


25 


9.6,11.1 


.28987 


25 


12.4 


.28996 


25 


11.0,12.0 


.28884 


5 


15.2,16.0 


.28868 


5 


14.4,15.2 


.28820 


5 









EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 

EI 25 



EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 



CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 
CIV 

C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
CVI 
CVI 
CVI 

CVI 



'Local disturbance. 



Results of Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



119 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 
Hawaiian Islands — Concluded. 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local mean time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r Dip circle 



Obs'r 



Sisal, Honolulu Mag- 
netic Observatory, 
Pier A — Concluded 

Sisal, A 



21 19.2 N 



21 19.2 N 



201 56 



201 56 



Sisal, B. 



21 19.2 N 



201 56 



Apr 22, '21 

Do. 
Apr 23, 21 

Do. 
May 27, 15 

Do. 
May 28, 15 

Do. 
Jun 4, 15 

Do. 

Do. 
Jun 5, 15 

Do. 
Jun 18, 15 

Jun 19, 15 

Do. 

Jun 26, 15 



Apr 15, 

Do 
Apr 20, 

Do 
Apr 21, 
Apr 25, 

Do 
May 26, 
May 27, 

Do 
May 28, 

Do 
May 29, 

Do 

Do 
May 31, 

Do 
Jun 1, 

Do 
Jun 2, 

Do 
Jun 3, 

Do 

Do 
Jun 9, 
Jun 10, 

Do 
Jun 12, 
Jun 14, 

Do 
Jun 15, 

Do 
Jun 16, 
Jun 17, 

Do 

Do 
Jun 22, 
Jun 23, 



15 



h h 
9.4 (5) 

10.0,11.6 
9.7, 9.9 

11.0,11.2 



39 25.4 N 
39 25.2 N 
39 25.6 N 
39 24.4 N 



10.4,11.0 



0.28810 



10.4,13.0 ... 
16.0,18.0 ... 

8.9,11.0 ... 
11.5,14.7 ... 

9.8,12.0 ... 
12.5,16.3,16. 



9 41.0 E 
9 41.3 E 
9 41.6 E 
9 39.0 E 
9 41.7 E 
9 39.9 E 



9.3, 9.5 



9 43.0 E 



11.0,12.5 
16.4,17.4 

9.3,10.5 
11.9,14.3 
10.3,11.6 
14.8,15.8 
17.3 .... 

8.8,11.8 
13.9 



.28992 
.28978 
.28998 
. 29009 
.29002 
.29006 
.29013 
.29026 
.29012 



13.9 to 
17.6 (6) 

12.5 to 
15.9 (6) 

16.6 .... 
10.3 to 
14.3 (12) 



39 34.4 N 



39 32.4 N 
39 33.2 N 



39 31 . 1 N 



7.9, 8.1, 8.6 

8.8, 9.2 

8.2 



10 00.5 E 
9 59 . 8 E 
9 59 . 2 E 



13.3 to 
17.2 (8) 



9.4,10.4 
13.9,14.8 



.28790 
.28806 



39 28.0 N 



8.6, 9.5 
15.0,15.9 



.28832 
. 28808 



4 to 18.6 (dv) 

4,13.0 

0,18.0 

9,11.0 

4.14.7 .... 

5 to 8.2 (dv) 
0,11.7 .... 

2,14.3 

6, 9.6,11.3 
9,15.7,17.2 
9,12.5,13.9 

4.17.8 

3,10.6 

0tol6.3(dv) 
8 to 7.0 (dv) 
9,12.0,13.9 
0,16.5,18.6 



9 40.8 E 
9 42.0 E 
9 41.8 E 
9 41.5 E 
9 39.2 E 
9 46.0 E 
9 42.3 E 
9 37.6 E 
9 42.5 E 
9 40.4 E 
9 40.6 E 
9 41.0 E 
9 42.2 E 
9 39 . 5 E 
9 43 . 5 E 
9 41.2 E 
9 41.7 E 



11.0,12.4 
16,4,17.4 

9.3,10.4 
11.8,14.2 
10.4,11.1 
12.1,12.7 
14.6 

9.1 to 
17.8 (9) 

11.3 to 

17.4 (8) 
9.6, 10.3 



.29022 
.29007 
.29029 
. 29028 
.29033 
. 29032 
.29032 

.29018 

. 29025 
.29040 



0,11.7,12.0 

2,15.9,17.4 

0tol8.6(dv) 

4,9.9,11.5 

3,16.2,17.7 

5,10.8 

4,15.1 

8 to 17 . 1 (dv) 
6 to 8.7 (dv) 
0tol4.5(dv) 
8 to 17.5 (dv) 



9 42.5 E 
9 41.2 E 
9 39.9 E 
9 42.8 E 
9 39.4 E 
9 43.3 E 
9 39.6 E 
9 40.5 E 
9 43.5 E 
9 37.4 E 
9 38.4 E 



10.4,11.6 
14.4,15.5 
17.0,18.2 
15.7,17.3 
10.4 to 
17.1 (8) 



.29030 
.29030 
.29022 
.29017 

.29040 



8.7 to 
17.3 (10) 

8.9 to 
14.6 (6) 



.29015 
. 29032 



6.1 to 8.2 (dv) 



8.4, 9.3 



.28972 



25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 



9 44.6 E 



5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

5 

25 

25 

25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 3 

EI 25 
EI 3 

EI 3 



EI 25 



C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

C IV 

CIV 
CIV 

CIV 

C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 













Marianas (Ladrone Islands). 














Guam, Cabras Island. . 
Guam, Orote Point. . . . 
Guam, Sumay, A 


O ' 

13 28 N 
13 37 N 
13 26.2 N 


O t 

144 40 
144 37 
144 39 


Aug 2, 
Jul 26, 
Jul 20, 

Do 
Jul 21, 

Do 

Do 
Jul 22, 
Jul 24, 

Do 


'16 
16 

16 

16 

16 
16 


h h h 

9.3,10.6 .. 
10.0,11.3 .. 

10.5.13.2 .. 

14.4.16.3 .. 
8.9,11.0 .. 

11.6,14.0 .. 

14.5,16.2 .. 

8.8,10.6 .. 




/ 

2 00.0 E 

1 56.8 E 
1 58.8 E 
1 58.3 E 
1 59.9 E 
1 58.8 E 
1 58.4 E 
2.00.4 E 


h h 
11.5,11.7 
12.5,12.9 


O / 

14 03.6 N 
14 05.4 N 


h 

9.7, 
10.4, 
11.0, 
14.8, 

9.4, 
12.0, 
14.9, 

9.2, 


h 

10.3 
11.0 
12.8 
15.9 
10.6 
13.7 
15.8 
10.2 


c. g. s. 
0.35042 
.34953 
.34961 
. 34924 
.34974 
. 34982 
.34944 
.34977 


25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 


EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 3 
EI 3 


CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

CIV 






















11.3 (3) 
14.7 to 
17.1 (6) 


14 04.3 N 
14 02.6 N 





























120 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 
Makianas (Ladrone Islands) — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Guam, Sumay, A — 
Concluded 

Guam, Sumay, B 


13 26.2 N 
13 26.2 N 


o / 
144 39 

144 39 


Jul 25, 
Do. 

Jul 28, 
Jul 20, 

Do. 
Jul 21, 

Do. 

Do. 
Jul 22, 
Jul 24, 

Jul 25, 
Do. 
Do. 

Jul 26, 
Do. 

Jul 27, 

Jul 28, 
Do. 
Do. 

Jul 29, 

Jul 31, 
Do. 

Aug 3, 


•16 

16 
16 

10 

If. 
16 

16 

16 
16 
16 

16 
16 

16 


ft ft ft 


o ' 


ft A 
11.4 (4) 
14.0 to 
16.3 (8) 
14.8 (4) 


O ' 

14 01.9 N 

14 02.2 N 
14 03.6 N 


ft ft 


c. g. s. 




EI 3 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 3 


C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 

CIV 

C IV 

C IV 

C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
CIV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 
C IV 






















10.5.13.2 

14.4.16.3 

8.9,11.0 

11.6,14.0 

14.5,16.2 

8.8,10.6 


1 58.6 E 
1 56.8 E 
2.00.7 E 
1 58 . 8 E 

1 59.0 E 

2 01.1 E 


11.0,12.8 
14.8,15.9 

9.4,10.6 
12.0,13.7 
14.9,15.9 

9.2,10.2 


0.34960 
.34944 
.31968 
.34986 
.34952 
. 34956 


25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 






















10.8 to 
17.1 (10) 
11.4 (4) 
14.0 to 
16.3 (8) 


14 03.2 N 
14 01.8 N 

14 02.0 N 












6.0 to 7.9 (dv) 

9.4 

10.4,11.8 

14.2,15.9,17.1 


2 03 . 5 E 
2 02.2 E 

1 59.8 E 

2 00.9 E 






25 
5 
5 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 
25 

25 
5 


10.7 to 

16.8 (8) 
10.4,11.5 
14.8,15.6 

9.3,10.0 
11.4,12.0 


.34928 
.34952 
.34948 
.34970 
. 34962 






9.4 to 
17.0 (6) 

8.8,10.4 
10.9,12.3 
14.8 (4) 


14 03.2 N 
14 03.0 N 
14 02.6 N 
14 03.4 N 














8.9 to 11.7 (dv) 
9.2,10.6,11.9 

14.2,15.7 

15.9 to 17.9 (dv) 


1 58.9 E 
1 57.5 E 

1 59 . E 

2 01.1 E 






9.5 to 
15.3 (8) 


.34967 



















Samoan Islands. 



Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, A 



Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, B 



Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, A r . Pier 



Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, S. E. Pier 

Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, West Pier 1 



13 48.4 S 



13 48.4 S 



13 48.4 S 



13 48.4 S 
13 48.4 S 



1S8 14 



183 14 



188 14 



188 14 
188 14 



Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



1, '21 
Do. 

2, 21 
5, 21 

12, 21 
Do. 

13, 21 
Do. 
Do. 

13, 21 

16, 21 

18, 21 
Do. 

19, 21 

20, 21 

1, 21 

2, 21 
5, 21 

11, 21 

12, 21 
Do. 

13, 21 
Do. 

13, 21 

18, 21 

19, 21 



Jul 20, 21 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 



7, 21 

8, 21 
Do 

9, 21 
11, 21 

Do. 

15, 21 

20, 21 

6, 21 



ft ft ft 



9.8 to 11.6 (6) 



10.0,10.1,10.9 
11.1,11.6,12.5 



9.8 to 11.6 (6) 



10.0 to 11.8 (6) 



10.0 to 11.8 (6) 
10.2 to 11.7 (6) 



10 11.8 E 



10 12.1 E 
10 12.5 E 



10 12.3 E 



10 12.5 E 



10 08.7 E 



10 09.0 E 



10.6,11.6 
14.4,14.8 
15.4,15.8 
10.4 (3) 
9.5 to 
12.0 (6) 



11.8 to 

15.0 (7) 

14.9 to 

17.1 (6) 



14.9to 
17.1 (6) 



30 01.6 
30 00.8 
30 01.4 
30 00.0 



29 59.9 S 



30 02.8 S 
30 03.5 S 



30 04.2 S 



ft ft 
10.9,11.8 
14.4,15.4 
10.6,11.6 



c. g. s. 

0.35264 

35244 

35259 



9.6,10.7 

11.7 

7.8, 9.0 

10.1 .... 
11.6,12.2 

13.8 



14.4,15.4 
10.6,11.7 



14.4,15.6 
9.5,10.7 

11.7 .... 
7.7, 9.0 

10.1, 

12.2,13.8 



14.0,14.9 
9.8,10.8 

12.8,15.1 
9.7,11.0 



14.3,15.6 



9.0 to 
13.9 (5) 



.35259 
.35243 
.35226 
.35236 
.35216 
. 35245 



.35244 
.35245 



.35244 
.35228 
.35226 
.35220 
.35226 
.35222 



.35278 
.35248 
. 35260 
.35257 



.35258 



. 35244 



5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 



25 
25 



25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

5 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 23 
EI 25 

EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 7 



EI 25 



CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


CVI 


CVI 


CVI 


CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


C VI 


cvi 


CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


CVI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


CVI 


CVI 


CVI 


C VI 


CVI 


CVI 


CVI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


C VI 


CVI 


C VI 



1 West Pier was examined before these observations and was found to be magnetic. 
question. 



Hence these and all previous results obtained at West Pier are subject to 



Results of Shore Magnetic Observations, 1915-21 



121 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 
Samoan Islands — Concluded. 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 


Local mean time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip circle 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, West Pier 1 — 
Concluded 


O 1 

13 48.4 S 

14 16.8 S 


/ 

188 14 

189 20 


Jul 7, '21 

Do. 
Jul 8, 21 

Do. 
Jul 11, 21 
Jul 15, 21 
Jun 12, 16 
Jun 13, 16 
Jun 16, 16 


h h h 


O 1 


h h 


o / 


h h 
9.8,10.1 

14.0 

9.8,10.8 

12.8,15.1 


c. a. «. 
0.35214 
.35221 
.35206 
.35212 


5 
25 
25 
25 
25 

5 


EI 25 


C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
CIV 
C IV 


























10.0 to 11.8 (6) 
8.1 to 9.3 (6) 


10 09.0 E 
10 10.0 E 














15.1 (3) 


29 46.4 S 








10.3,12.3 

10.8,11.1 


9 27.8 E 
9 28.6 E 


10.8,11.9 


.35670 


25 
25 























Society Islands. 
















o / 

17 31.5 S 


O I 

210 26 


Deo 27, '20 
Do. 


h h h 
11.5,11.7 


/ 

10 11.2 E 


h h 
13.0,14.1 
15.1 


30 58.0 S 
30 59.1 S 


h h 
13.4,14.7 


c. g. s. 
0.32432 


25 


EI 25 
EI 25 


C VI 
C VI 













1 West Pier was examined before these observations and was found to be magnetic Hence these and all previous results obtained at West Pier are subject to 
question. » Local disturbance. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SHORE STATIONS. 1905-1921. 

The following summary shows the geographical distribution of the shore stations 
occupied by the Galilee parties during cruises 1, 2, and 3, and by the Carnegie parties 
during cruises I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, covering the total period of the ocean work, 1905- 
1921, as published in Volume III and in the present volume. At each port of call where 
intercomparisons of ship instruments and the standard land instruments were under- 
taken, two or more stations were established; these are listed as separate stations in the 
summary. Of the grand total of 234 occupations listed in the summary, 191 are new 
stations and 43 are reoccupations. Many of these stations have been reoccupied also 
by the Department's land expeditions, and the results will be found published in Volumes 
I, II, and IV. The secular-variation data thus obtained, together with the information 
resulting from Galilee and Carnegie cruise intersections, will be utilized in a later discus- 
sion of the time-variations in the Earth's magnetic field. 

Summary shouting Geographical Distribution of Galilee and Carnegie Shore Stations, 1905-1921. 



Countries and islands 


Galilee cruise 


Carnegie cruise 


1 


2 


3 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


1905 


1906 


1907- 
1908 


1909- 
1910 


1910- 
1913 


1914 


1915- 
1917 


1917- 
1918 


1919- 
1921 












4 








2 


China and Japan 




3 


4 
5 










Australia and New Zealand 










4 




10 


Great Britain and Norway 






4 
3 

8 


7 
3 

17 
4 
7 

14 
2 
3 
3 


7 
2 

9 


United States and Central America 


8 


4 


5 

2 


8 
5 


2 

8 


5 
2 




Iceland, Bermudas, Madeiras, and West Indies 






St. Helena, Falkland, and South Georgia 








1 




1 
2 
5 
2 

1 


Ceylon, Java, and Mauritius 










Caroline, Marshall, Fiji, and Samoan Islands 




8 
4 
2 


7 

3 

13 






1 

7 
1 






1 

1 


Fanning, Marquesas, Easter, and Society Islands 

Totals 


10 


21 


39 


15 


64 


18 


27 


10 


30 





DESCRIPTIONS OF SHORE STATIONS, 1915-1921. 

As stated in the previous volumes, one of the chief difficulties experienced by 
the observers of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in the reoccupation of 
old stations for secular-variation data has been the lack of information necessary 
to precise recovery of the point where the previous observations were made. Owing 
to the frequent occurrence of local disturbances, it may readily happen that errone- 
ous secular-variation data will result from non-recovery of exact station. Accord- 
ingly the observers of the Department are instructed to furnish as complete 
descriptions as possible of stations occupied, especially of such as give promise of 
future availability. Information additional to that contained in the published 
descriptions or copies of station-sketches or of photographs of surroundings will 
gladly be supplied to those interested in the reoccupation of any of the stations. 

The descriptions are given in alphabetical order under the same geographical 
divisions adopted in the preceding Table of Shore Results. The general form fol- 
lowed in the descriptions is: Name of station, year when occupied, general loca- 
tion, detailed location, distances and references to surrounding objects, manner of 
marking, and finally the true bearings of prominent objects likely to be of permanent 
character. All bearings, unless specifically stated otherwise, are true ones, and are 
reckoned continuously from 0° to 360°, in the direction south, west, north, east. 
When no mention is made of marking of station, it is to be understood that the 
station was either not marked at all or not in a permanent manner. 

Most of the measured distances were made originally in the English system ; 
however, the distances obtained by conversion into the metric system are also 
given, but inclosed in parentheses, so as to show that they are converted figures. 
The following rules have been adopted in the conversions: Distances given to 01.0 
foot are converted to the nearest 0.001 meter, 0.1 foot to the nearest 0.01 meter, 
1 foot to the nearest 0.1 meter, estimated feet or yards to nearest meter, estimated 
fraction of a mile to nearest 0.1 kilometer, and estimations of more than a mile to 
nearest kilometer. Short and important reference distances, when measured accu- 
rately, have been converted into nearest 0.1 centimeter; such measurements, how- 
ever, as, for example, dimensions of marking-stones, etc., which are not of great 
importance, have been converted to the nearest centimeter. If a distance is given 
immediately preceding an azimuth of a mark, it is to be interpreted as distance 
from the magnetic station to the mark. 

122 



Descriptions of Shore Stations, 1915-21 



123 



AFRICA. 

British South and Central Africa. 
Cape Town, Cape Colony, 1920. — Close inoccupation of 
C. I. W. stations of 1911, in field belonging to Valken- 
berg Mental Hospital, back of North Lodge and 
bounded on north and west by grounds of Royal 
Astronomical Observatory. Station A is 83.2 meters 
east of fence along east side of avenue leading to 
hospital, and 83.2 meters north of fence along south 
side of field. True bearings: middle spire of three 
on church, 26° 58 '9; tall spire with weathercock, 
99° 37: 1; east gable of hospital lodge, 124° 31 !7; top 
of lower part of observatory flagpole, 157° 43(7; base 
of flagpole on windmill, 212° 5812; bottom of weather- 
vane on hospital tower, 317° 44(9. 

Station C is 29.78 meters northwest of station A in 
line through station A to bottom of weather-vane on 
hospital tower; it is 71 meters from the southeast 
corner of hospital lodge lot, which bears 139°, and 
93.7 meters from southwest corner, which bears 115°, 
and 70.0 meters nearly east of iron fence-post, which 
is 60.9 meters south of southwest corner of lodge lot. 
True bearings: center spire of three on church, 25° 
38! 7; east gable of hospital lodge, 125° 17 !0; bottom 
of weather-vane on hospital tower, 317° 44 !9. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia. 
Cottesloe, Western Australia, 1920. — For the purpose of 
making intercomparisons of instruments, C. I. W. 
stations A and B of 1914 were exactly reoccupied, in 
the Government Educational Endowment Reserve, 
in Osborne District, Cottesloe, near Perth, northeast 
of junction of Grant street and Marmion street. 
Station A is 240.5 feet (73.30 meters) northeast of 
sign-post at southwest corner of reserve, and 
160.2 feet (48.83 meters) north of telegraph-pole in 
north edge of Grant street; marked by a jarrah post 
1.5 by 2.5 inches (4 by 6 cm.) sunk slightly below 
surface of ground. True bearings: bottom of left 
end of fence by quarry, three-fourths mile (1.2 km.), 
20° 14! 3; top of sign-post at corner Grant and Mar- 
mion streets, 51° 34 !9; near gable of house on hill, 
52° 34!6; spike on front gable of house, one-third 
mile (0.5 km), 120° 40!7; ornament on left gable of 
Methodist church, one mile (1.6 km.), 205° 17 !7; or- 
nament on roof of near house, 263° 12 !4. 

Station B was established on the line from the left 
end of fence by quarry through station A, being 110 
feet (33.5 meters) north-northeast of station A. 

Watheroo Observatory, 1920. — The stations regularly used 
for control of variometers, piers N m and N w in abso- 
lute observatory, the former being the central of 
three piers at north end of building and the latter 
the pier in northwest corner of building, and piers 
S m and S w in absolute observatory, the former being 
the central of three piers at the south end of building 
and the latter the pier in southwest corner of build- 
ing, were all used in the intercomparisons of the 
Carnegie standard land instruments with the 
Watheroo Observatory standards. The mark used 
for declination work at N m is center of two black 
lines on board 947.6 feet (288.83 meters) distant in 
true bearing 265° 06! 6 west of south. The mark 
used for declination work at S m is the same as for 
N m and distant 951.6 feet (290.05 meters) in true 
bearing 263° 35! 9. 

New Zealand. 
Christchurch, South Island, 1915, 1916, 1920.— Observa- 
tions were made on East Pier and West Pier of abso- 
lute house of Christchurch Observatory, and at 
stations designated Jarrah Peg and Brass Pipe. 
Jarrah Peg is station "peg A" of 1907-8, and is 



AUSTRALASIA. 

New Zealand — continued. 

12.14 meters north of northeast corner of absolute 
house and 14.10 meters northeast of northwest 
corner. True bearings: iron pipe, RMi, 196° 03 !8; 
iron pipe 2, 200° 13 !3. Brass Pipe is identical with 
station of that name occupied in 1907-8, 21.70 
meters northeast of Jarrah Peg. True bearing: iron 
pipe 2, 195° 14 !2. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Central America. 
Colon, Sweetwater, Panama, 1915. — About 2.5 miles (4 
km.) due west of Cristobal Channel, on north side 
of Sweetwater Bay, approximately one-fourth mile 
(0.4 km.) southwest of station of 1907, 1908, 1909, 
and 1912, and approximately 100 meters west-south- 
west of station B of 1912, on a low sandy stretch of 
beach from which line of vision to Colon passes near 
a shelf of rock on right shore, called by natives 
"Pelo Bendito," and at right angles to telephone- 
lines across bay. Station A is about 2 meters from 
water's edge; marked by wooden peg. True bear- 
ings: left edge entrance to bay, 226° 19'; left edge 
Washington Hotel, 247° 13! 8; left wireless tower, 
250° 51! 8; right wireless tower, 251° 43! 1; right en- 
trance to bay, 253° 45'. 

Station B is 61.25 meters north of station A, about 
14 meters from water's edge, 7 meters southeast 
of a palm, and in direction of A are some stumps 
that were the foundation of a native hut; marked by 
wooden peg. True bearings: left edge Washington 
Hotel, 247° 30!8; center left wireless tower, 251° 
06! 2; center right wireless tower, 251° 57! 1. 

Colon, Sweetwater, Panama, C, 1921. — About 2.5 miles (4 
km.) due west of Cristobal Channel, on north side 
of Sweetwater Bay, near stations A and B, of 1915. 
These stations could not be reoccupied, as an 8-inch 
iron pipe-line has been laid close to their positions. 

Station C, so designated to distinguish it from A 
and B of 1915, is about 6 feet from high-water line, 
69.5 feet (21.2 meters) from iron pipe No. 4505, to 
northwest, and 78.2 feet (24.4 meters) from iron 
pipe No. 2170 to southwest. It is near a group of 
three palms forming an equilateral triangle, whose 
sides are approximately 20 feet (6.1 meters) long. It 
is 11.6 feet (3.5 meters) from the east tree of this 
group and 27.3 feet (8.3 meters) from the north one. 

Pipe section No. 698, the one immediately south 
of No. 2170, is the 31st section counting from the 
large valve in the line near the wooden foot-bridge 
across the mouth of Sweetwater River. 

The exact spot was not marked, but the three 
brass-bound tripod pegs were left in the ground. 
These pegs are about 10 inches long, and are driven 
flush with the ground. True bearings: south end of 
bridge at water-line, 6° 20! Galeta Point, 231° 02 !9; 
tip of left wireless mast, 251° 26! 6; pilot's signal 
tower behind pier 6, 261° 25! 3. 

Colon, Washington Hotel, Panama, 1915. — The station is 
east of hotel grounds in Bolivar Street near where it 
ends at sea-wall, and north-northwest of Christ 
Episcopal Church, 8.97 meters east of eastern wall 
of hotel grounds at fourth pillar, 20.70 meters south- 
east of pillar at junction of hotel wall and sea-wall, 
23.93 meters southwest of pillar at end of sea-wall, 
and 41.43 meters northwest of lamp-post at nearest 
corner of church; marked by large wooden stake. 
True bearings: signal-pole on top of Washington 
Hotel, 33° 12'; light on east end of west breakwater, 
145° 08 !9; east end of east breakwater, 205° 06'; 
lamp-post at corner of Christ Episcopal Church, 
325° 21 '. 



124 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



NORTH AMERICA. 

Central America — continued. 

Cristobal, Canal Zone, 1918. — About 1 kilometer east of 
coaling-station, on main road Colon to Gatun, near 
quartermaster's garage, about 225 meters directly 
behind the middle one of three houses numbered 
6001, 6003, and 6005, and about 125 meters south- 
southeast of a small round knoll covered with palms. 
Two stations were occupied, station B being 30.9 
meters east by south from station A. Not suitable 
for reoccupation. 

Old Panama, Panama, 1921. — The station is located on 
the site of the ruins of the old city of Panama, about 
8 miles east of Ancon. It is 72.5 feet (22.1 meters) 
west of the southern corner of the ruined square 
cathedral tower, the most prominent ruins in old 
Panama, and is in line with that face of the tower 
which is toward the sea. Marked by a 10-inch 
brass-bound tripod peg driven flush with the 
ground. True bearings: extreme east end of 
Taboguilla Island, 6° 36! 3; gable of house on Culebra 
Island, almost in line with coconut palm on the 
beach, 23° 46 !2; gable of building to west, 62° 32(6; 
southwest corner of old cathedral tower, 258° 36! 3 

United States. 

Dutch Harbor, Alaska, 1915. — On Amaknak Island, on 
medium high ground north of village of Dutch Har- 
bor, north of Unalaska and U. S. Navy wireless sta- 
tions, about 300 yards (274 meters) northwest of 
pier extending eastward into harbor at about middle 
of village, in line with wireless station and large 
white house in Unalaska known as Jesse Lee Home, 
and in line with edge of bay near pier and a grass- 
covered water-tank on knoll; station A is marked 
by 10-inch post projecting about 1 foot (30 cm.) 
and having on its top a circular brass plate inscribed 
C I. W. 1915 with a small drill-hole to mark exact 
spot. True bearings: peak east of Captains Bay, 
12° 44!5; upper knob of volcano slope, 131° 15!5; 
beacon on spit, 252° 50 !4; pole on C. and G. S. sta- 
tion near water-tank, 328° 54 !2; center gable of Jesse 
Lee Home, 344° 24! 4. 

Station B is 34.2 meters north of A in line from cen- 
ter gable of Jesse Lee Home extended through station 
A. True bearings: upper knob of volcano slope, 
131° 10 !4; beacon on spit, 254° 04 !7; pole over C. 
and G. S. station, 329° 47 !4; center gable of Jesse 
Lee Home, 344° 24!4; west gable of Jesse Lee Home, 
344°45!0. 

The C. and G. S. station of 1913 was reoccupied. 
On Amaknak Island southeast of village near crown 
of hill, about 164 feet (50 meters) south of sod-covered 
water-tank, 98 feet (30 meters) south of observatory 
azimuth mark; marked by square dressed stone with 
a drill-hole in top. True bearings: point on moun- 
tain, 76° 44! 0; observatory azimuth mark, 180° 00! 3; 
white post near end of island, 341° 17 !8. 

Goat Island, California, 1916. — Station A is reoccupation 
of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey station of 1904 
and C. I. W. station of 1905 and 1908, on military 
reservation, near center of small plateau on western 
slope of hill at eastern end of island, slightly south 
of line from top of hill to smokestack at naval train- 
ing-station, and 48 feet (14.6 meters) north of line 
of two flagpoles, one on highest point of island and 
other on southern part of lawn at officers' quarters; 
marked by a rough stone about 6 inches (15 cm.) 
square with a hole in top. True bearings: tip of 
east radio mast, 44° 5S!7; tip of west radio mast, 
62° 17 !6; right edge of chimney of house No. 8, 74° 
02!4; lighthouse on McDowell Point, 85° 56!2; tip 
of lighthouse on Alcatraz Island, 104° 03 !4; cam- 



NORTH AMERICA. 

United States — continued. 

panile at University of California, 234° 36! 7; center 
of gable at Western Pacific ferry, 300° 07 !1. 

Station B is 64 meters west of A in line from sta- 
tion to lighthouse on McDowell Point. True bear- 
ings: top of east radio mast, 43° 47 !7; lighthouse on 
McDowell Point, 85° 56! 2; lighthouse on Alcatraz 
Island, 104° 07! 7; campanile, 234° 40! 2; center of 
gable on Western Pacific ferry, 299° 55 !0. 

San Francisco, Fort Scott, 1921. — Two stations were 
occupied in the military reservation of Fort Scott. 
Station A is located in the vacant plot of ground 
north of the parade ground, about 415 feet (126 
meters) south of large barracks building; marked by 
a pine post 1.5 by 24 inches (4 by 61 cm.) True 
bearings: base of flagpole in front of Fort Scott head- 
quarters, 7° 04 !7; light on Point Stewart, west end 
of Angel Island, 201° 20! 1; lighthouse on Alcatraz 
Island, 242°30!0. 

Station B is 86.8 feet (28.6 meters) northeast of A 
and in line with lighthouse on Alcatraz Island. It 
is in line with the northwest side of the fourth (from 
the lower side of the hill) house which faces the beach 
road and is about 800 feet (244 meters) distant; 
marked by a hole in the top of a granite post 6 by 6 
by 18 inches (15 by 15 by 46 cm.), with the letters 
"C. I. W. 1921" cut in the top surface. True 
bearings: base of flagpole in front of Fort Scott head- 
quarters, 9° 27 !0; lighthouse on Lime Point, 169° 
3S!5; light on Point Stewart, west end of Angel 
Island, 201° 11 !6. 

San Rafael, California, 1921. — Exact reoccupation of 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey station of 1897 and 
C. I. W. stations of 1905, 1908, and 1916, 1.1 miles 
(1.8 km.) west-northwest of county court-house, on 
eastern slope of hill about 375 feet (114 meters) east 
of water company's reservoir; marked by marble 
post 8 by 8 by 48 'inches (20 by 20 by 122 cm.) pro- 
jecting about 24 inches (61 cm.) above surface of 
ground, and lettered U. S. C. and G. S. on its west 
vertical face, MAG. STA. on its south face, and 1897 
on its east face, with a cross on the upper face 
marking exact point. True bearings: meteorological 
station on Mount Tamalpais, 26° 58 !4; flagpole on 
county court-house, 2S9° 46! 3. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Argentina. 
Florida, Buenos Aires, 1920. — Two stations were occu- 
pied. Station A is in vacant plot of ground 6 blocks 
west of Florida railway station within square 
bounded on north by Calle Llavallol and on west 
by Calle Bias Parera, 308 feet (93.9 meters) south of 
near side of former, and 260 feet (79.2 meters) east 
of far side of latter; marked by wooden peg. True 
bearings: minaret nearest flagstaff on residence, 
8°29!0; spire on residence, 73°59!9; ventilator on 
distant house, 190° 41 !0; spire on church, 256° 35!4. 
Station B is 100 feet (30.5 meters) nearly north of 
A in line with ventilator on distant house; marked 
by wooden peg. True bearings: minaret nearest 
flagstaff, 8°44!4; spire on Sr. Wiggin's house, 76° 
01 !7; ventilator on distant house, 190° 41 !0; spire 
on church, 256° 59 !1. 

Pilar, Cordoba, 1917. — On grounds of Pilar Observatory 
of Argentine Meteorological Office. Station B is 
an exact reoccupation of the C. I. W. station B of 
1911, a wooden pier having been set and a small 
frame building erected over the spot. Declination 
and horizontal intensity were observed at Pier 4, and 
inclination on Pier 5 in the new absolute observatory 
called station D. For intercomparison of instru- 



Descriptions of Shore Stations, 1915-21 



125 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

Argentina — continued. 

ments two stations, E and F, were established in line 
from Pier 4 at station D to left edge of a house about 
2 kilometers distant in azimuth 119° 20! 6. Station 
E is 71.26 meters west of northwest corner of varia- 
tion observatory, 89.54 meters northeast of stone 
pier used as observatory azimuth mark, 73.35 meters 
east of east corner of observers' quarters, and 87.48 
meters southwest of south corner of carpenter shop. 
Station F is 26.30 meters northwest of E in line 
toward their common azimuth mark, the left edge 
of house distant about 2 kilometers, whose bearing 
is 119° 20 : 6. 

Chile. 
Conception, Conception, 1918. — Practical reoccupation of 
C. I. W. station of 1913. In low pasture land on 
east side of grounds of agricultural college, 32.6 
meters south of wire fence along main road near 
entrance to school grounds, 33.7 meters west of 
fence along road to east, and 17.8 meters northeast 
of near corner of small bridge. True bearings: near 
corner of small bridge, 48°22!1; right-hand vase- 
like ornament on distant house, 91° 10! 1; post at 
northeast corner of inclosure, 240° 05 ! 1 ; telephone- 
pole on hill-slope, 270° 09! 2. 

Coronet, Conception, 1918. — The station is on a sandy 
plain about 1 kilometer southeast of town and is 
about 80 meters south-southeast of TJ. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey station of 1907 and C. I. W. stations 
of 1912 and 1913, which were found unsuitable for 
reoccupation, on southeast end of highest and most 
easterly one of a group of sandy knolls, about 200 
meters northwest of slaughter-house. True bear- 
ings: middle corner of middle house on hill above 
Lota, 19°36!1; west edge cornice at top of soap- 
factory chimney, 155° 04 !0; brick chimney east of 
town, 201° 47! 9; north gable of slaughter-house, 320° 
17!7. 

Peru. 
Lima, Lima, 1918. — As station Hipodromo of 1914, 1916, 
and 1917 could not be recovered, stations B and 
C were established. 

Station B is about 70 meters west-southwest of 
station Hipodromo, 108.5 meters northeast of east 
corner of brick foundation under bay window on 
southeast side of middle one of three hexagonal 
buildings within race-course, 1.7 meters southwest 
of extension of northeast face of small building 
southwest of grand-stand and 119.5 meters southeast 
of east corner of its brick foundation. True bear- 
ings: point on left end of distant house, 59° 44! 9; 
cross on church dome, 127°11!0; right corner of 
foundation of small building near grand-stand, 158° 
55 !9; wireless tower on San Cristobal Hill, 215° 
10 !5; right corner of railing on roof of house outside 
grounds, 342° 16 !0. 

Station C is 49 meters southwest of station B 
in line with point on left end of distant house. True 
bearings: point on left end of distant house, 1,300 
meters, 59° 44 !9; cross on church dome, 129° 59 !8; 
right corner of foundation of small building near 
grand-stand, 173° 07 !0; wireless tower on San Cris- 
tobal Hill, 215° 20! 7. 

ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

St. Helena. 
Longwood, A, 1920. — Exact reoccupation of C. I. W. sta- 
tion of 1913. On lawn in front of house in which 
Napoleon died, 53.05 meters west-southwest of 
southwest corner of north post of gate, 34.1 meters 
northwest of west corner of masonry support for 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

St. Helena — continued. 

three water-tanks, and 13.1 meters due south of 
point in line with flax hedge; post marking site had 
decayed and point was further marked by oak stake 
bound around top with brass ferrule. True bear- 
ings: west edge of door-way in single house across 
valley, 3° 05 !6; flagstaff at High Knoll Fort, 102° 
30! 4. 

South Georgia. 
Edwards Point, King Edward Cove, 1916. — On southeast 
side of Edwards Point, about 6 feet (2 meters) 
above water, on flat piece of ground, about 30 to 
50 feet (9 to 15 meters) wide, bordering sloping 
beach between Edwards Point Light and English 
magistrate's office, at a point between path and 
beach about 90 paces from light and about 1 pace 
southeast of line from light to magistrate's flagpole; 
marked by 3-inch stub projecting about 4 inches 
(10 cm.) above ground, with brass screw marking 
center. True bearings: south one of two ranges, 
prominent squared and painted poles, set by Captain 
Shackelton for convenience of vessels testing their 
compasses, 40° 35 !0; north range, 43° 41 ! 5; Edwards 
Point Light, 71° 06.4; spire of Lutheran church, 
112° 32! 2; base British flagstaff, 250° 01! 7. 

ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN. 

Ceylon. 
Colombo, 1920.— C. I. W. Stations A and C of 1911 were 
reoccupied, in western part of grounds of Colombo 
Observatory, in Cinnamon Gardens off Buller's 
Road. Station A is 108 feet (32.9 meters) south- 
west of fence, 164 feet (50.0 meters) southwest 
of southwest corner of office building, and 80.6 feet 
(24.57 meters) west of thermometer shelter; marked 
by concrete block 5 inches (13 cm.) square on top 
and lettered C. I. W. 1911. True bearings: northwest 
corner of lunatic asylum, 55° 41 !2; left corner near 
eaves of Cricket Club grand-stand, 123° 49 !5; lower 
tip of small white upright over east gable of "Gras- 
mere," the surveyor-general's bungalow, 177°26!0; 
nearest corner of office building, 212° 07! 

Station C is 84.62 feet (25.79 meters) south 
177° 26 !0 west from 4. 

ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Easter Island. 
Cook Bay, Easter Island, 1916. — Near shore of Cook Bay, 
Easter Island, on first small point south-southwest 
of boat landing, on fairly level ground, about 15 
feet (5 meters) above sea-level, at a point in line 
between two beacons, 137.0 feet (41.76 meters) 
southeast of one, a barrel beacon set on a rough 
rock and cement pyramid about 8 feet (2.4 meters) 
high, with an iron rod and shield projecting upward 
from middle, and 162.7 feet (49.59 meters) northwest 
of the other beacon, a triangular shield with black 
center, mounted on a heavy iron rod set in a concrete 
block, adjacent to and outside of a high stone fence; 
marked by a block of concrete and cement work, 
about 14 inches (36 cm.) square, set about 2 feet 
(0.6 meter) into ground and projecting about 2.5 
inches (6 cm.) above ground, with top surface 
marked C. I. W. 1916. True bearings: barrel 
beacon, 142° 17! 6; landing beacon, 238 paces, 209° 
19! 1; plaza flagstaff, 268° 06! 0; triangular beacon, 
322° 20! 3. 

Hawaiian Islands. 
Sisal, Honolulu Magnetic Observatory, Oahu Island, 
1915, 1921.— -Observations were made on Pier A in 



126 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Hawaiian Islands — continued. 

absolute house, Honolulu Magnetic Observatory, of 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and at 
stations A and B, in 1915, and stations Pier A and 
A were reoccupied in 1921. 

Station A is outside observatory inclosure, 18.46 
meters north of Pier A, in line with north meridian 
mark which is distant 2,800 feet (853 meters), on 
level coral plain 6.4 meters north of stone wall sur- 
rounding inclosure; marked by wooden peg with 
copper tack at precise point. True bearings: trig- 
onometric staff on mountain, 148°30!5; V-cut in 
mountain, 160° 02 !3; north meridian stone, 180°00!0. 

Station B is 2.8 meters north of south stone wall of 
observatory inclosure measured from a mark chiseled 
in wall, 12.50 meters southwest of southwest corner 
of absolute house, 18.01 meters east of southeast 
corner vestibule of variation observatory, and 15.70 
meters southeast of near corner of thermometer 
shelter; marked by copper nails in top of hardwood 
peg. True bearings; southeast corner vestibule 
variation observatory, 88° 48.1; trigonometric staff 
on mountain, 148° 3915; V-cut in mountain, 160° 
07!9; right corner office building, 202° 12!5; south- 
west corner absolute house, 212° 42! 6; Mount Tan- 
talus, 265° 46! 8. 

Marianas. 
Guam, Sumay, 1916. — On hill west of Sumay, Port Apra, 
on sloping grounds of Commercial Pacific Cable 
Company, about midway between north end of ce- 
ment tennis-court and north end of bungalow B, 
in fine between right heavy edge of wireless mast 
near ground and point 1 foot (30 cm.) north of 
eaves of bungalow B. Station A is 42.0 feet 
(12.80 meters) northwest of a large tree, 164.3 feet 
(50.08 meters) northeast of southeast cement 
porch-pier of bungalow B, 182.6 feet (55.66 meters) 
southeast of northeast cement porch-pier of bunga- 
low A, 463.7 feet (141.34 meters) southwest of south 
ventilator of superintendent's house; marked by 
round instrument peg. True bearings: left edge of 
house D, 20°36:7;left edge of bungalow B, 65°40:4; 
south ventilator of superintendent's house, 233° 
44! 6; wireless mast, 260°02!3; tip of south ventilator 
of mess house, 280° 36! 7. 

Station B is 91.6 feet (28.22 meters) east of A in 
line with wireless mast, 80.1 feet (24.41 meters) 
northeast of tree, 99.7 feet (30.39 meters) west of 
near corner of tennis-court; marked by round stake. 
True bearings: left edge of bungalow D, 32° 03 !3; 
wireless mast, 260° 36! 7; south ventilator of mess 
house, 286° 42! 5. 

Guam, Cabras Island, 1916. — Close reoccupation of C. I. 
W. station of 1906, Port Apra, on northern shore of 
harbor, left of channel leading from main harbor to 
town of Piti, Guam, near water edge and south of 
coral reef ledge 25 to 50 feet (8 to 15 meters) high 
extending along northern shore-line, at a point 60 
feet (18.3 meters) west of southwest corner of coal- 
bunkers, 63 feet (19.2 meters) south of front edge of 
magazine-house, and 30 feet (9.1 meters) north of 
low-water edge. True bearings: tip of wind-mill 
tower at Sumay, 40° 11 ! 7; right edge of bluff at Orote 
Point, 74° 20'. 

Guam, Oroti Point, 1916. — Close reoccupation of C. I. W- 
station of 1906, at entrance of Port Apra, just up over 
break of beach line on first sandy beach encountered 
on coming into harbor after passing Orote Island, 
85 feet (25.9 meters) east of a 3-inch field gun, and 
about 150 feet (46 meters) south of coral-reef edge. 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Marianas — continued. 

True bearings: flagpole at Piti, 257° 24!0; rightedge 
of wireless mast across harbor, back of town of 
Agana, about 8 miles (13 km.), 166° 12!4. 

Samoan Islands. 
Apia, Samoa Observatory, Upolu Island, 1921. — Five 
stations were occupied, two in the absolute observa- 
tory, N. Pier, used for declination and horizontal in- 
tensity, and S. E. Pier, used for inclination, and 
three in the observatory grounds, A, B, and West 
Pier. 

West Pier has been used in previous intercompari- 
son work. Before beginning observations in 1921 
this pier was tested and found to be magnetic, hence 
two other stations, A and B were established. 

A is 50.51 feet (15.40 meters) from the northwest 
corner and 48.53 feet (14.80 meters) from the south- 
west corner of the concrete base of the atmos- 
pheric-electric laboratory. The distance from A 
to the rain-gauge is 26.82 feet (8.17 meters). 

B is 50.32 feet (15.34 meters) west of A and in line 
with A and the main mark, church steeple to west 
across the bay. B is 51.12 feet (15.58 meters) 
from the rain gauge and 26.10 feet (7.96 meters) from 
the square pier north of the absolute observatory. 

Both stations A and B were marked with circular 
brass-bound tripod pegs. A was later marked with a 
cement post 7 by 7 by 30 inches (18 by 18 by 76 
cm.), with a hole in top face to mark the exact spot. 
The top of post was set 2 inches (5 cm.) below the 
surface of the ground. 

True bearings from Apia A: church steeple across 
the bay to the southwest, 43°28!8; church steeple 
across the bay to the west, 95° 46! 6; gable of house 
on Faleuli Point, 1 14° 01 ! 2 ; northeast corner of Gauss 
House in Observatory Grounds, 340° 23 !0. 

Pago Pago, Tutuila Island, 1916. — Close reoccupation of 
C. I. W. station of 1911, on parade-ground of Fita- 
Fita barracks at U. S. naval station in Pago Pago 
harbor, at a point south of pathway 162.8 feet 
(49.62 meters) west-southwest of northwest corner 
of jail connected with barracks, 78.5 feet (23.93 
meters) east-northeast of northeast corner of nearest 
house, 322.0 feet (98.15 meters) southeast of north- 
east corner of schoolhouse, southeast of and in line 
with bandstand and flagstaff, 254.2 feet (77.48 
meters) south-southwest of concrete astronomical 
pier about 2 feet (0.6 meter) high and 2 feet (0.6 
meter) square, and in line with center of pier and 
northwest corner of Fita-Fita wash-house; marked 
by peg left flush with ground. True bearings: lower 
near corner of nearby house, 65° 05! 6; monument or 
survey stone in front of Ho Ching's house, 97°18!9; 
astronomical pier, 200° 01 !2; near gable of judge's 
house, 240° 45! 7; tip of smoke-stack of power-house, 
0.25 mile (0.4 km.), 241°48!0; bottom of northwest 
pier of jail, 265° 04! 8. 

Society Islands. 
Point Fareute, Tahiti Island, 1920. — Station of 1920 is 
close reoccupation of that of 1916, and both are close 
reoccupations of C. I. W. station of 1906. On coral 
beach, east of site of old arsenal, 1.2 meters south of 
high-water line, about 360 feet (110 meters) north of 
northeast corner of iron bridge across stream, about 
20 meters east of (changeable) mouth of stream 
20.85 meters west of wire fence along roadway, 12.7 
meters southwest of coconut tree, and 5.7 meters 
southwest of small rivulet. True bearing: north 
gable of yellow house, 22° 22! 2. 



EXTRACTS FROM INSTRUCTIONS FOR CRUISES AND OBSERVATIONAL WORK ON 

THE CARNEGIE. 

The following extracts from the official instructions to those in command of 
the Carnegie, from time to time, will serve to explain the routes prescribed for the 
vessel and the methods of observation adopted for the various kinds of work. 
They will aid in showing how the observations were made at successive stages of the 
work, and how the methods and instrumental appliances were developed and 
modified as experience suggested. It will be noticed that, although the Carnegie 
is a strictly nonmagnetic vessel, nevertheless the instructions called for occasional 
swings of the vessel in order to make desired tests, both as to the absence of ship 
deviations and of "instrumental deviations" (Vol. Ill, p. 18). From the discussion 
on pages 179 to 183 it will be seen that the observations made on these swings served 
a useful purpose, and gave the means of judging as to the accuracy of determination 
of magnetic elements aboard the Carnegie under harbor conditions. 

CRUISE IV OF THE CARNEGIE, 191 5-191 7. 
From Route Instructions to J. P. Ault. 

(I) February 2, 1915, at Brooklyn. — a. The route and ports for Cruise IV of the 
Carnegie, given below, are hereby approved as far as Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, 
which port is to be reached, if possible, about the middle of October 1915. The route 
to Port Lyttelton is tentatively sketched on the map supplied, it being understood, 
of course, that any variation as required by conditions encountered will be left wholly 
to the commander's discretion. 

b. Respecting the question of stopping at Guam on the trip from Dutch Harbor 
to Port Lyttelton, it would appear that considerable delay might ensue when leaving 
Guam. You may, accordingly, omit this port on the southward trip 

c. For the balance of the cruise, beginning at Port Lyttelton, a chart is being pre- 
pared showing the magnetic data at present available in the regions concerned. . . . 

(II) February 17, 1915. You are hereby authorized to carry out the circum- 
navigation of the region between parallels 50° and 60° south, beginning at Lyttelton, 
proceeding in an easterly direction to South Georgia and thence to Lyttelton, as indi- 
cated on the attached map. . . . 

(III) September 4, 1915, at Lyttelton. — a. If circumstances permit it will be highly 
desirable to amplify the track already proposed from Kerguelen to Port Lyttelton in 
the manner tentatively shown on the attached map. This will provide an intersection 
with the Carnegie's 1911 track in the Indian Ocean, and will cover better the area south 
of Australia. If it should be necessary, in order to accomplish this, to make some 
Australian port, for example, Adelaide, Melbourne, or Hobart, you are authorized 
to do so. . . . 

b. The desirable tracks to be covered by the Carnegie in 1916 are shown on 
the attached map. . . . The main purpose is to secure as many intersections as 
possible with previous tracks for determination of secular change and for control ob- 
servations, covering the intervening gaps between our various tracks, and especially 
strengthening the work of the Galilee in the North Pacific Ocean. . . . 

(IV) September 23, 1915, at Lyttelton. — a. As it may be some time before the 
Carnegie again enters the Pacific, it is desirable to obtain more secular land data in the 
western part of the ocean. ... It, therefore, is probable that Guam may be included 
in the approved homeward track. It is also desirable to reduce the large uncovered areas 

127 



128 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

immediately northwest and northeast of Easter Island, which lie in the southeast trades. 
The route modified accordingly is sketched on the attached map. . . . 

b. The track approaching and leaving Panama will be left largely to the discretion 
of the commander, as the best course would depend upon the actual wind directions 
encountered. 

(V) March 8, 1916, at Lyttelton. At Guam please obtain as much information 
as possible regarding sites for a magnetic observatory. . . . 

(VI) May 17, 1916, at Pago Pago. A consideration of all points involved concerning 
the work of the Department during 1916 and 1917 has made necessary a revision of the 
balance of the cruise of the Carnegie. . . . The changes are, in the main, as follows : 

a. The substitution of San Francisco in place of San Diego. 

b. Instead of proceeding to Balboa from Easter Island, the cruise will be continued 
round the Horn to Falkland Islands, thence to St. Helena and finally New York. . . . 

c. General examinations of sites for possible observatory use are to be made at 
Easter Island, Falkland Islands, and St. Helena, according to directions already given 
for Guam. . . . 

[In his supplementary instructions, the commander was authorized to substitute 
Buenos Aires for Falkland Islands, and to close the work of Cruise IV at Buenos Aires 
in March 1917, owing to the entry of the United States in the world war. The adopted 
ports of call for Cruise IV were as follows: Brooklyn, Greenport, Cristobal, Balboa, 
Honolulu, Dutch Harbor (Alaska), Lyttelton, South Georgia, Lyttelton, Pago Pago 
(Samoa), Guam, San Francisco, Easter Island, and Buenos Aires.] 

Instructions of February 18, 1915, for Scientific Work on Cruise IV. 

(I) Magnetic work. — a. The general program of work under this head will be the 
same as on previous cruises, the observations, as heretofore, being promptly reduced 
and mailed to the office of the Department. Specific directions as to instruments will 
be found with the data giving instrumental constants. 

b. In view of the new conditions, caused by the recent structural work and altera- 
tions of vessel and by the installations of the atmospheric-electric instruments within 
close proximity to the mounts for the magnetic instruments, it will be highly desirable 
to swing vessel and make complete observations as often as conditions may permit, in 
order to make certain the absence of deviation-corrections. During these swings, 
the atmospheric-electric instruments are to be in place, and in operation, just as when 
the regular observations with these instruments are made. It may suffice, for the 
present year (1915) to make these swings at Gardiners Bay, Colon (or Panama), Hono- 
lulu, Dutch Harbor, and Port Lyttelton. In view of the possibility of local disturbance 
at some of these ports, especially Honolulu, and perhaps also Dutch Harbor, it will be 
desirable to make some swings also at sea. The aim should be to get as large a range in 
magnetic latitude as possible. 

c. The shore observations at Gardiners Bay may be omitted. The shore work at 
Colon (or Panama) may be restricted to the absolutely essential observations and com- 
parisons. At Honolulu, where a longer stop is contemplated, the shore observations and 
comparisons of instruments will be made according to the complete scheme for such 
work. Here also comparisons will be obtained with the magnetic standards of the 
Honolulu Magnetic Observatory. The shore observations and comparisons at Dutch 
Harbor, in view of the high magnetic latitude, should be made as complete as con- 
ditions will permit. Similar observations on arrival of the vessel at Port Lyttelton will 
be made at the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory, and an intercomparison of stand- 
ards will be secured. Information regarding the shore stations and the places where the 
Galilee was swung at Honolulu and Port Lyttelton is supplied on separate sheets. 



Extracts from Instructions, 1915-21 129 

(II) Atmospheric-electric work. — a. The detailed directions supplied for observa- 
tions under this head will be followed. 1 With the addition of another observer to the 
vessel's scientific staff, it will now be possible to assign one observer practically entirely 
to the atmospheric-electric work. However, in order to secure simultaneity of deter- 
mination of the various electric elements, it will be necessary to have also an auxiliary 
observer take part in this work. The principal observer, in return, will give any 
assistance required in the successful execution of the other work of the Carnegie. 

(III) Atmospheric-refraction work.— The observations will be made in accordance 
with the detailed directions supplied. 1 It is hoped that special attention will be paid 
to these observations, in order to secure desired improvement. 

(IV) Barometer and boiling-point work. — See pages 132 and 134. 

(V) Meteorological observations. — See pages 132 and 135. 

(VI) Astronomical observations. — See pages 132 and 135. 

Directions of March 6, 1916, for Experimental Apparatus No. 1 for Recording Ship's 

Motion. 

(1) Inclosed herewith are directions and notes for using experimental apparatus 
No. 1 for recording ship's motion. . . . 

(2) This apparatus is a camera mounted to turn about two axes, a vertical and a 
horizontal, and is designed to record the motion of the ship over a short period by mak- 
ing a quick succession of instantaneous exposures of the sun while the camera is rigidly 
fixed to the ship. 

CRUISE V OF THE CARNEGIE. 1917-1918. 

From Route Instructions to H. M. W. Edmonds. 

(I) August 8, 1917, Buenos Aires. — a. In accordance with the authorization re- 
ceived from President Woodward, please make all necessary arrangements for the 
carrying out of a cruise of the Carnegie, to be known as Cruise V, and to be approximately 
as follows: 

Leaving Buenos Aires not later than November 15, 1917, the Carnegie is to proceed 
to the Straits of Magellan, reporting her arrival at Punta Arenas and awaiting there 
any cable instructions from the office. The plan would be to have the vessel towed 
through the Straits. . . . The vessel's passage through the Straits could probably 
be wired to the office, through the tugboat, either from Cape Pillar or from Punta Arenas. 

The vessel would then proceed to Talcahuano, Chile, and possibly also to Val- 
paraiso, her arrival at the first Chilean port being again reported, and cable instructions 
from the office awaited. 

The Carnegie is thence to proceed to Callao, Peru, where arrival would again be 
reported to the office, and cable instructions once more awaited. 

From Callao the cruise would be continued according to the circumstances at the 
time, either to San Francisco direct or to San Francisco via Honolulu. It may possibly 
even develop that the Carnegie would proceed from Callao to Balboa, and thence to 
an American port if conditions permitted. . . . 

b. It will be observed that the cruise as tentatively outlined implies calls at vari- 
ous ports where, if conditions make it necessary, the cruise may be discontinued and 
the vessel may be laid up. Only sufficient time is to be allowed at Punta Arenas and 
Talcahuano (or Valparaiso) for reoccupation of previous magnetic stations; comparisons 
of instruments, after the work of this character has been completed at Buenos Aires, 
will not be required again until Callao is reached. By mutual cooperation, it will be 

1 The detailed directions are described in the special reports dealing with the various kinds of work. For those pertaining 
to the atmospheric-electric work, see pages 266 to 276. 



130 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

possible for the office and the vessel to keep in effective communication, and thus make 
possible any alterations in plans which prevailing conditions may cause. . . . 

(II) October 5, 1917, Buenos Aires. — On account of the unsettled conditions in 
Argentina and of the liability of interruption to telegraphic communication between 
Washington and Buenos Aires, it seems best to give you your final sailing instructions 
now by mail. If the above contingency should arise and you are unable to obtain con- 
firmation of sailing orders by cable, you are hereby authorized to sail at your discretion 
when ready. The date of sailing should be as near November 15, 1917, as possible. 

(III) February 7, 1918, Callao, Peru. — Since it has been decided to omit the portion 
of the cruise including Honolulu, the following will be your route instructions after leav- 
ing Callao, as decided upon in conference with President Woodward: 

a. From Callao please proceed to Balboa, Canal Zone, following route a as shown 
by the dotted line on the attached route map. 

b. If not otherwise instructed at or before reaching Balboa, or Colon, proceed to 
Newport News, with New York as an alternative, following, as nearly as conditions 
permit, the route b shown by the dotted black line on the attached route map, and call- 
ing at San Juan, Porto Rico, on the return from the eastward loop indicated on the map, 
to report and to receive final instructions as to home port. 

(IV) April 17, 1918, Balboa, Canal Zone. — It has been found essential to bring the 
Carnegie back to an Atlantic port at the earliest possible date. It therefore becomes 
necessary to omit the extension (loop eastward of San Juan, Porto Rico) as indicated 
in route b of your "Route Instructions" dated February 7, 1918. You will accordingly 
proceed by this route directly from Colon to Newport News, omitting San Juan. 

Instructions op September 28, 1917, for Scientific Work on Cruise V. 

(I) Magnetic work.— a. The general program of work under this head will be the 
same as carried out during Cruise IV, the observations, as heretofore, being promptly 
reduced and mailed to the office of the Department. Any specific directions as to 
instruments will be found in attached letter giving information as to the constants of 
the various instruments, dated September 28, 1917 (No. Al). 

b. In order to determine the possibility of deviation corrections, harbor swings 
will be made wherever conditions are especially favorable, particularly at San Francisco, 
where previous swings have been made. It will probably not be possible to swing in 
any of the South American harbors to be entered during Cruise V. Pearl Harbor has 
also been shown by past observations not to be a satisfactory place for swings. Accord- 
ingly, every opportunity to swing under excellent conditions at sea, remote from local 
disturbances, should be taken. 

In swinging ship care will be taken to make the headings with each helm as symmetri- 
cal as possible about the center of swing and to note any divergence therefrom. The 
various headings for the respective helms will be made whenever possible in chronological 
order, and any necessary departure therefrom will be noted on the record and the reason 
given. A position by bearings will be obtained for each heading, if possible, and the 
deviations of the steering compass will be obtained on at least one complete helm. 

c. The Argentine magnetic station at Punta Arenas will be reoccupied or, if un- 
suitable for reoccupation, a new station will be established. A description of the sta- 
tion is to be obtained by you from the Argentine Meteorological Office. The C. I. W. 
station at Talcahuano will be reoccupied, as well as the one at Valparaiso if a call is 
made at the latter port. A complete program, as far as possible, of intercomparisons 
of instruments will be carried out at Callao, e. g., constants will be determined for such 
instruments, magnets, and distances as have been in use since leaving Buenos Aires 
and as might be used for the continuation of the cruise. At Honolulu the complete 



Extracts from Instructions, 1915-21 



131 



program will be carried out and comparisons of the various Carnegie instruments will 
be obtained with those of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Magnetic 
Observatory, as on previous occasions. Likewise, at San Francisco complete inter- 
comparisons of our instruments will be obtained. 

(II) Atmospheric-refraction work. — The observations will be made in accordance 
with the detailed directions supplied herewith. It is hoped that special attention will 
be paid to these observations, in order to obtain as great certainty as possible in the 
results. Since particular interest is attached to good observations obtained under this 
head, special care will be used in guarding the instruments from injury and in noting 
on the record sheet all pertinent data. Likewise advantage will be taken of every 
opportunity to make any of the auxiliary observations called for in the following 
detailed directions: 

1. Observations are to be made three times daily, as heretofore, with dip measurers 
Zeiss Nos. 4048 and 5490. Whenever practicable the observations will be made on the 
bridge, simultaneous with the regular meteorological observations, as also at such times 
when the meteorological conditions, for one reason or another, are abnormal, as is espe- 
cially likely to occur on approaching cold waters, or in the vicinity of land. In order to 
vary the conditions, additional observations, at higher elevations than the bridge, will 
be made at sea, when favorable opportunities permit. 

2. The observations, with all pertinent data, will be entered on the usual forms and the 
following conventions will be adopted for each instrument in its normal position for 
observing. The algebraic signs will always be entered in the record. 



Positions 


Read- 
ings 


Dip measurers Nos. 4048 and 5490 


Erect 


E 
I 

(+) 
(-) 


When the scale is erect. 

When the scale is inverted. 

When the sea-images overlap. 

When the sky appears between the sea-images. 




E and / are positive 

E and / are negative 



3. The units of the scale in Zeiss No. 4048 express minutes of arc; one unit of the 
scale in Zeiss No. 5490 corresponds to 1 '01 in arc of elevation or depression of the sea- 
horizon. 

4. The dip of the horizon is given by %(E+I) ; its sign is negative when the apparent 
horizon is below the mathematical horizon. 

5. Assuming two observers, A and B, available, the order of observation will be as 
follows: A to make all the observations from Buenos Aires to Punta Arenas, B to make 
all the observations from Punta Arenas to Callao, then A from Callao to Honolulu, 
and B from Honolulu to San Francisco. 

6. Observations will be made at sea when conditions permit and when they can be 
secured without delay as follows: Simultaneous observations with both dip measurers 
and a sextant or circle, the dip-of-horizon to be obtained with the latter instruments 
by measuring altitudes of the Sun or other celestial body from opposite horizons, when 
the body is near the zenith. 

7. Observations will be made in port when conditions permit and when they can be 
secured without undue delay or expense as follows: 

a. On land, simultaneous observations with both dip measurers and a theodolite, 
all three instruments being at the same elevation above the sea. Such observations 
may be possible by occupying some cape, point of land, or small island. Observations 
made on some headland at varying altitudes would also be valuable in investigating 
possible sources of error of the dip measurers. Such observations would permit the 



132 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

use of the instruments under the most perfectly steady conditions and, hence, would 
eliminate errors which are due to the ship's motion. 

b. On board ship, simultaneous measurements of the sea-horizon with both dip 
measurers and Sun altitudes with a sextant, all three instruments being at the same 
elevation, when, at the same time, the ship's position can be determined by bearings. 
Favorable conditions for such observations occur when the vessel is at anchor in some 
roadstead, strait, or long bay, or when coasting along a well-marked shore. 

8. The attention of observers using these dip measurers will be called to two sources 
of error to be guarded against, if possible, and noted in the record when existing: (a) Error 
due to ship not being on even keel ; (b) error due to observing in or partly in the trough 
of the sea. Both errors may be very small, yet they are always in one direction and 
can not be eliminated by a series of observations. 

(III) Barometer and boiling-point work. — 1. The following observations are pre- 
scribed to obtain not only some control over the barometer constant, but also further 
information on the constants of the hypsometric thermometers on board: 

a. Boiling-point determinations will be made at every port, on board ship, simul- 
taneous with, or symmetrically arranged with, barometer readings as heretofore. Ar- 
rangements will be made so that any comparisons with standards or substandards 
ashore will be simultaneous with the above barometer readings during boiling-point 
determinations. 

b. Ice-point determinations will be made on the same day, if practicable, and after 
the boiling-point determinations. 

c. If the vessel passes through the Magellan Strait, boiling-point observations will 
be made every day during the passage through the Strait. 

2. A careful examination will always be made for detached pieces of the mercury col- 
umn. These can be united to the column by means of an oil bath, care being taken 
not to heat the thermometer any more than is necessary to drive the column into junc- 
tion with the detached pieces. 

(IV) Meteorological observations. — 1. The customary meteorological observations by 
the watch-officers are to be continued in port, as at Buenos Aires, as well as at sea. 

2. The Greenwich mean noon observations and the record which will be transmitted 
through this office to the Weather Bureau will receive especial attention. You will 
continue to use Weather Bureau list barometer No. 7272, and two copies of the results 
of these observations will be transmitted to the office. The date and place of the last 
barometer comparison will be inserted and also the result, if it be available. The geo- 
graphic positions of the Greenwich mean noon observations will be stated only to the 
nearest minute. 

3. Probably no standards will be found with which to compare except at Buenos 
Aires, Honolulu, and San Francisco. For these comparisons it will not be necessary 
to remove the barometers from the vessel. 

4. The barometer reading should be the mean of at least 20 readings when there 
is pumping, taken, for example, on 5 successive highs followed by 10 successive lows 
and finally 5 successive highs. On account of the skill necessary for these observa- 
tions and the necessity of sometimes using artificial light (with objectionable heating 
effects), it is desirable that these observations be made by one trained observer who 
will always be available at Greenwich mean noon. 

5. You will continue to make the usual observations on the occurrence of thunder 
and lightning at sea, making full notes and transmitting a report at the end of each 
passage. 

(V) Astronomic observations. — 1. All astronomic observations at sea will be made 
in duplicate at least, and the results will be deduced by independent calculation. As 



Extracts from Instructions, 1915-21 133 

heretofore, advantage will be taken of every opportunity to determine the geographic 
position of the vessel. 

2. All positions of magnetic stations at sea will be corrected for the error of run, 
except when it is considered inadvisable to do so for special reasons. These reasons 
will be entered on the appropriate dead-reckoning sheets. 

3. The usual statement as to error of longitudes due to chronometer error at the 'end 
of a passage will be entered on the last sheet of the astronomic observations cahier 
and on the last sheet of the table of "Results of ocean magnetic observations and 
comparisons with chart values," together with final and definite statement as to 
whether the error is large enough or sufficiently well determined to be applied. 

4. Two copies of revised abstract of log will be forwarded to the office of the Depart- 
ment at the end of each passage. 

(VI) Observations with experimental apparatus No. 1 for recording ship's motion. — 
Before departure from Buenos Aires you will see that this instrument is in good working 
order. During the cruise these observations will be taken as frequently as conditions 
will permit, in order to determine the value of the instrument and method. As soon as 
all films on board have been exposed, further instructions are to be awaited before pur- 
chasing another supply. 

(VII) Atmospheric-electric work. — See pages 266 to 276. 

CRUISE VI OF THE CARNEGIE. 1919-1921. 

The plans for the sixth cruise of the Carnegie were prepared by Captain Ault- 
The route instructions for the two-years' voyage of 1919 to 1921, as finally approved 
by the Director, included the following ports: Old Point Comfort, Dakar, Buenos 
Aires, St. Helena, Cape Town, Colombo, Fremantle, Lyttelton, Papeete, San Fran- 
cisco, Honolulu, Pago Pago and Apia (Samoa), Rarotonga, Balboa, Old Point Com- 
fort, and Washington. Brief calls were made at Fanning Island and at Penrhyn 
Island and Manihiki Island of the Cook Island Group. 

Instructions of October 7, 1919, for Scientific Work on Cruise VI. 

(I) Magnetic work. — a. The general program of work* under this head will be the 
same as carried out on cruises IV and V, the observations, as heretofore, being promptly 
reduced and mailed to the office of the Department. Any specific directions as to 
instruments will be found in the attached letter of even date, No. F3, with constant-data 
sheets for the various instruments. 

b. In order to determine the possibility of deviation-corrections, particularly so 
in view of the recent installation of the small gasoline engine, which is not nonmagnetic, 
and the reconstruction and alteration of the main engine, harbor swings will be made 
wherever conditions are especially favorable, particularly in Chesapeake Bay at the 
point where the concluding swings for Cruise V were made in June 1918. A copy of 
C. and G. S. chart 1224, Chesapeake Bay, Smith Point to Cove Point is attached, upon 
which are marked the positions for the declination swing and horizontal-intensity and 
inclination swing of June 9, 1918; please note that the results of land observations made 
during June 27 to July 8 at stations surrounding this place of swing are indicated in 
pencil. The values given are reduced on the basis of International Magnetic Standard. 
A slight irregularity is indicated, but is not sufficient to affect the sea observations. Single 
copies of descriptions of stations occupied by Messrs. Fisk, Mills, and Grummann, 
together with a copy of Mr. Fisk's report on the field work executed in Chesapeake Bay 
and a summary of the magnetic results obtained, are attached. If local conditions are 
favorable, it will be desirable to secure a swing also near Buenos Aires and near Aden. 



134 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Past observations show Lyttelton and Pearl Harbor not to be suited for swing observa- 
tions ; most of the ports reached in the Pacific islands are also probably locally disturbed. 
Accordingly, opportunity should be taken to swing under excellent conditions at sea 
remote from local disturbances. 

c. In swinging ship care will be taken to make the headings with each helm as 
symmetrical as possible about the center of swing, and to note any departures there- 
from. The various headings for the respective helms will be made wherever possible 
in chronological order, and any necessary departure therefrom will be noted on the 
record and the reason given. A position by bearings will be obtained for each heading, 
if possible, and the deviations of the steering compass will be obtained on at least one 
complete helm. 

d. Shore observations for intercomparisons of instruments, for secular change, and 
for intercomparison at observatories will be carried out in accordance with the notes 
attached to the schedule of Cruise VI, which accompanied your letter Al of September 
22. A curtailed program of intercomparison of ship instruments is to be prepared by 
yourself and Mr. Fleming before the latter leaves the vessel. It is desired that the inter- 
comparisons be curtailed as greatly as the limit of error for ocean work will permit. 

(II) Atmospheric-electric work. — See section on atmospheric-electric results during 
cruises IV, V, and VI, pages 266 to 276. 

(III) Atmospheric-refraction work. — The same general methods and forms will be 
used as on cruises IV and V. In addition please note: 

1. Observers should be changed at each port in rotation in order to collect ad- 
ditional data on systematic personal errors. 

2. The draft of the vessel should be recorded in the cahier on leaving and upon 
arriving at each port. 

3. The height of eye should be carefully determined in port for a stated draft and 
any variations noted for each observer which would apply when bracing himself in the 
position he will usually assume for observing at sea. 

4. The temperature of the air is to be determined at an altitude equal to that of 
the eye. 

5. The temperature of the sea water is to be determined by the same thermometer, 
or, if two are used, sufficient comparisons are to be made between the two thermo- 
meters to insure against an error of not more than 0°.l in the air- water temperature 
difference. 

6. Probably one of the most important sources of discrepancies between results 
for different passages is the varying height and length of waves. Both the height and 
length are difficult to measure with accuracy, but an estimate should be added to each 
complete set of observations. It is suggested that the height and length of waves be 
determined by the usual methods given in the hydrographic publications as often as 
may be found practicable in order to guide observers in their estimates. 

7. Care should be taken to follow previous work on the Carnegie in taking observa- 
tions on even keel and when riding the wave. 

(IV) Barometer and boiling-point observations. — 1. The following observations are 
prescribed to obtain not only some control over the barometer constants but also further 
information on the constants of the hypsometric thermometers on board: 

a. Boiling-point determinations will be made at every port, on board ship, simulta- 
neous with, or symmetrically arranged with, barometer readings as heretofore. Ar- 
rangements will be made so that any comparisons with standards or substandards 
ashore will be simultaneous with the above barometer readings during boiling-point 
determinations. 



Extracts from Instructions, 1915-21 135 

b. Ice-point determinations will be made on the same day, if practicable, and after 
the boiling-point determinations. 

2. A careful examination will always be made for detached pieces of the mercury column. 
These can be united to the column by means of an oil bath, care being taken not to heat 
the thermometer any more than is necessary to drive the column into junction with 
the detached pieces. 

(V) Meteorological observations. — 1. The customary meteorological observations are 
to be continued, in port as well as at sea. 

2. The Greenwich mean noon observations and the record which will be transmitted 
through this office to the Weather Bureau will receive especial attention. You will 
continue to use the standard Weather Bureau form and transmit two copies of the 
results of the observations to the office. The date and place of the last barometer com- 
parison will be inserted and also the result, if it be available. The geographic positions 
of the Greenwich mean noon observations will be stated only to the nearest minute. 

3. For those ports at which standard barometer comparisons are possible, simul- 
taneous readings will be made of the port standard and the ship's barometers always 
to be kept mounted on the vessel. 

4. The barometer reading should be the mean of at least 20 readings when there is 
pumping, taken, for example, on 5 successive highs followed by 10 successive lows and 
finally 5 successive highs. On account of the skill necessary for these observations and 
the necessity of sometimes using artificial light (with objectionable heating effects), 
it is desirable that these observations be made by one trained observer who will always 
be available at Greenwich mean noon. 

5. You will continue to make the usual observations on the occurrence of thunder and 
lightning at sea, making full notes and transmitting a report at the end of each passage. 

6. In accordance with letter Bl of October 6 and the copy of letter dated October 5 
from Professor W. J. Humphreys, attached thereto, cloud photographs should be made 
if it is convenient. Professor Humphreys' letter indicates the general requirements 
sufficiently. 

(VI) Astronomic observations. — 1. All astronomic observations at sea will be made 
in duplicate at least, and the results will be deduced by independent calculation. As 
heretofore, advantage will be taken of every opportunity to determine the geographic 
position of the vessel. 

2. All positions of magnetic stations at sea will be corrected for the error of run 
except when it is considered inadvisable to do so for special reasons. These reasons 
will be entered on the appropriate dead-reckoning sheets. 

3. The usual statement as to error of longitudes due to chronometer error at the end 
of a passage will be entered on the last sheet of the astronomic observations cahier and 
on the last sheet of the table of "Results of ocean magnetic observations and compari- 
sons with chart values," together with final and definite statement as to whether the 
error is large enough or sufficiently well determined to be applied. 

4. Two copies of revised abstract of log will be forwarded to the office of the De- 
partment at the end of each passage. This abstract is to be made in accordance with 
the memorandum instructions and specimen form attached hereto. 

(VII) Observations of ship's motion with automatic roll-and-pitch recorder. — Records 
should be obtained with the gyro roll-and-pitch recorder supplied, in accordance with 
the special memoranda attached to the constants for that instrument and in accordance 
with the general directions supplied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. Further 
instructions with reference to this work will be sent you from time to time as you report 
upon it. 



136 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

1. Location. — The choice of location on board ship should be governed by the 
following considerations seriatim: 

a. It should be remote from the magnetic instruments, since it is constructed of 
steel. 

b. It should be well sheltered against weather and sea. 

c. It should be readily accessible. 

2. Installation. — The instrument should be installed according to "Description 
and instructions" issued by the makers, and accompanying these instructions. Ac- 
cordingly, the short dimension of the base is to be exactly parallel with the fore-and-aft 
axis of the ship. The instrument may therefore be oriented with the gyrostat on the 
port side of the recording sheet, or vice versa, as may be found convenient in case of 
starting, stopping, clamping, or for removing and renewing the record. The orientation, 
however, should be noted, so that the roll to port may be distinguished from the roll to 
starboard. The ring clamp (15340-B) should always be clamped, either to hold the 
gyrostat when the latter is not operating, or to prevent the clamp from slipping when 
the gyrostat is operating. The "Description, etc." should be read carefully. 

3. Use.— In the absence of actual experiments with the instrument at sea and a 
positive knowledge of what data may be required for future corrections of dynamic 
deviations, it will be desirable to run the roll-and-pitch recorder during all magnetic 
observations, starting the gyrostat about 15 minutes before observations begin. The 
recording apparatus may be started later, say about 3 to 5 minutes before magnetic obser- 
vations, and shut off immediately at end of magnetic observations in order to save paper. 

For identification, the time and date of 10-second indentation at the beginning of 
the record should be scratched on the record sheet, noting the time by the same watch 
that is to be used in the magnetic observations. The time should be noted also at one of 
the last 10-second indentations and written opposite to the indentation on the record 
sheet. The reference of these time marks to the roll-and-pitch records corresponding 
will depend upon the distance between the time-marking needle and the roll-and-pitch 
marking needles; these distances should be noted for each record. 

When the current has been cut off at the end of a record, the gyrostat should be 
allowed to swing freely until the revolutions of the gyrostat are visible, after which the 
gyrostat should be clamped first by the clamp at the bottom and finally by the ring 
clamp (15340-B). 

For the purpose of correlating the records of motion made on earlier cruises, the 
notes regarding rolling and pitching will be made as on earlier cruises where called for 
on the observation forms, the data being taken from the clinometers as heretofore. 

The auto roll-and-pitch recorder sheets should be preserved in tubes and mailed 
in tubes at each port of call. 

4. Constants. — The scale on one of the guide strips (13055) is approximate, each 
division representing about one degree of roll or pitch. 

5. Limit for pitch. — It should be noted that the record for pitch is limited to about 
10° or 12°, and the instrument should not be used when this limit is approached. 

(A typical record of roll and pitch as obtained aboard the Carnegie with the Sperry 
automatic recorder is shown in Fig. 3.) 

(VIII) Instructions for swing observations, October 7, 1919. — The following instruc- 
tions will govern the swing observations (1) in Chesapeake Bay at a point about half-way 
between Point No Point and Cedar Point, southwest of Hooper Island Lighthouse 
at the beginning of Cruise VI, (2) other swing observations during Cruise VI. 

Make declination observations, using both M. C. C. 1 and deflector 5 while swing- 
ing ship with two helms, port and starboard, steadying on the eight cardinal and inter- 



Extracts from Instructions, 1915-21 



137 



cardinal points for each helm. A sufficient number of observations should be taken 
to insure good results. 

2. Make intensity observations with deflector 5 and dip and intensity observations 
with sea dip-circle 189 while swinging ship with two helms as above. 

The observations with deflector 5 should consist of deflections with magnet 5, dis- 
tance 1, vernier A, for one helm, and magnet 2L, distance 3, vernier B, for the other 
helm. You will see that this is only half the usual program for each magnet, thus 
reducing the time required for each heading and reducing the region covered during 
the swing. 

The observations with sea dip-circle 189 should consist of deflection observations with 
intensity needles 3 and 4, one distance complete on each heading for one helm, and 
the other distance for the second helm. 

The lighthouses and other prominent marks are sufficiently numerous to permit 
keeping control of the position of the vessel, which should be done for each heading. 
The attempt should be made to have all headings so arranged in position when plotted 
as to insure symmetry about the center of swing. A prominent buoy, anchored at the 
middle point of the swing, would be of great assistance. 



[ A/^\ ^W f^ 



RECORD OF PITCH 




Nvim 



!4"34 



I4 n 38 n 



14"30"' 

Fig. 3. — Record of Ship's Motion as obtained with Sperry Gyroscopic Roll-and-Pitch Recorder aboard the Carnegie, 

November 2, 1921. 

Preliminary computations during the observations will show whether or not any 
of the headings should be repeated. 

(IX) Supplementary instructions for Cruise VI, October 15, 1919. — The following 
instructions, in addition to the Department's General Directions for Magnetic Observa- 
tions, will, apply for the shore work and for the observatory intercomparisons at ports 
of call during Cruise VI of the Carnegie. 

1. Observations for secular changes only are to be made at St. Helena, Fanning 
Island, and Colon. 

2. The complete program of intercomparisons and standardizations of ship instru- 
ments as followed in the past work of the Carnegie will be carried out only at Aden 
and at Watheroo, these points giving extreme range in dip. Note that for this work 
the three orientations of footscrews will be used for the magnetometer, sea dip-circle, 
and earth-inductor work, and that the orientations 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° will be used 
for intensity work with deflector 5, and orientations 0° and 180° for a. m. and p. m. 
declination work with deflector 5 ; the determinations of constants for marine collimating- 
compass 1 will consist of observations for the values of A cS , A cW , A cN , A cE , m s , m w , m N , 
and m E , two determinations being made for each constant, making the round forward 
for the first determination and in the reverse direction for the second. 

3. A curtailed program of intercomparisons and standardizations will be carried 
out at Dakar, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Lyttelton, Papeete, Honolulu, and Samoa. 
The curtailment over the complete program will be as indicated below and will reduce 
the time required for the shore work to five days or less, depending of course largely 
upon the meteorological conditions prevailing. 



138 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

a. The preliminary work to be done on the first day will consist of the careful 
selection of two stations to be designated A and B to be set preferably in line with a dis- 
tant azimuth mark; the determination of a. m. and p. m. azimuth and local mean time 
by observations on the sun; circummeridian observations of the sun for latitude; the 
securing of measurements, sketches, photographs, and other matter for full description 
of stations. 

b. The instrumental work will consist of simultaneous observations at stations A 
and B, in accordance with the following skeleton outline (it is to be noted that the 
order of procedure indicated in the outline may have to be altered to take advantage of 
prevailing meteorological and other local conditions and that the instruments will be 
mounted invariably with one footscrew orientation only, namely, footscrew A to the 
south) : 

Curtailed Program for Shore Stations. 
Station A. Station B. 

M. 5, A south, D, H, a 2 sets. M. 25, A south, D, H, a 2 sets. 

M. 25, A south, D, H, a 2 sets. M. 5, A south, D, H, a 2 sets. 

M. 25, A south, J, 2 sets. E. I. 7, A south, I, b 2 sets. 

E. I. 7, A south, I, b 2 sets. M. 25, A south, I, 2 sets. 

C. D. C 189, A south, I and F, c 2 sets. M. 25, A south, H, a 2 sets, and /, 4 sets, alternating 

D. 5, H, orientations 0°, 2 sets, and 180°, 2 sets. (thus, I, H, I, I, H, I). 

D. 5, a.m. D. or p.m. D., altitude 0° to 30°. M. 25, H a throughout D5 work. 

M. 25, D (axis, scale erect readings, axis). 

° Deflections at two distances only; a magnetometer set will consist of the following observations: declination, oscil- 
lations, deflections, deflections, oscillations, and declination. 

6 One set, commutator up, and one set, commutator down. 

c Set with sea dip-circle 189 will consist of the following observations; polarity A with the two dip needles regularly 
used, loaded dip with weighted needle of the intensity pair regularly used, deflected dip with intensity pair regularly 
used, for short distance direct and reversed, deflections long distance direct and reversed, deflections long distance 
direct and reversed, deflections short distance direct and reversed, loaded dip, polarity B for the two dip needles. 

4. Observatory intercomparisons, with the complete program for magnetometer 
and earth-inductor work as heretofore used, will be made at Watheroo, Lyttelton, 
Honolulu, and Samoa (note that no observatory intercomparisons are to be undertaken 
from Buenos Aires for the observatory at Pilar), in accordance with the Department's 
memoranda regarding intercomparisons of magnetic instruments and standards at 
observatory stations. These memoranda emphasize the points concerning which par- 
ticular caution must be observed for such work; they are the result of the accumulated 
experience of Department observers over the last ten years. 

5. Magnetometer 5 should be considered as the standard declination and inten- 
sity instrument, its past record having indicated its superiority particularly in intensity 
work. The program is so arranged that after the magnetometer intercomparisons this 
magnetometer should be returned to the ship; the magnetometer to be used for inter- 
comparison of ship instruments is 25. 



EXTRACTS FROM FIELD REPORTS AND ABSTRACTS OF LOGS OF THE CARNEGIE, 

1915-1921. 

Synopses of the cruises of the Carnegie, 1915-1921, will be found on pages 
6 to 21. The abstracts of the logs of the Carnegie, given on pages 144 to 170, con- 
tain more detailed information as to the various passages of the vessel and the 
conditions encountered on them. 

The extract from the report of the circumnavigation trip of the Carnegie in 
sub-Antarctic regions, published in Volume III, Researches of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 326-330, is reproduced here, since it describes an 
important part of Cruise IV, the final results of which are included in this volume. 

EXTRACTS FROM FIELD REPORTS. 

J. P. Ault: On the Sub-Antarctic Voyage of the Carnegie from Lyttelton to Lyttelton, 
via South Georgia, December 6, 1915, to April 1, 1916. 

I beg to submit the following report on the circumnavigation trip of the Carnegie 
from Lyttelton to Lyttelton via South Georgia, December 6, 1915, to April 1, 1916. 

For the first week after leaving Lyttelton the winds were mainly from the SSW, 
forcing us considerably to the eastward of our route; so much so that we sighted the 
Antipodes, bearing south, distant 20 miles, on December 9, and would have passed 
over the charted position of the Nimrod Group had the wind remained in the south 
another 12 hours. It had not been the intention to go near this group, but the adverse 
winds sending us so near them, it was decided to stand on toward the east another day, 
to endeavor to sight them; but the wind shifted to the north 12 hours too soon and we 
passed 40 miles to the SW of the position. [The Nimrod Islands were stated to have 
been seen, at a considerable distance, by Captain Henry Eilbech in the Nimrod in 1828, 
who placed them in about 56?5 S and 158?5 W.] 

On December 7, a mirage presenting the appearance of distinct and extensive land 
was seen in the west, in the direction of Banks Peninsula, which was 190 miles distant 
at the time. 

We crossed the 180th meridian December 9, so repeated the date as December 9 (2). 
Our first piece of ice was sighted on December 18, lat. 60° 12' S, long. 150° 46' W, and on 
December 19, 30 icebergs, some being over 400 feet high and 1 mile long, were passed. 
We had snow on December 18, 19, 20, and 21, and rather wintry weather. 
The barometer dropped to 28.26 inches on December 18, during the snow storm. No 
icebergs were seen after December 24 until January 10, just before arrival at South 
Georgia, when 8 or 10 good-sized bergs were passed. 

As our route lay near the charted position of Dougherty Island, we determined to 
look for it. On the afternoon of December 24, the cry of "land ahead" was given and 
we saw what appeared to be a bold, dark-rock island. Immediately our course was 
shaped to pass near it. Everyone was convinced that either a new island had been 
discovered or that the position given for Dougherty Island was very much in error. 
It seemed to be a rocky cliff with a snow cap. Nearer approach, however, proved that the 
supposed island was an iceberg, 225 feet high by one-quarter mile long. The light was 
reflected from the perpendicular ice-wall in such a way as to give the berg the appear- 
ance of a huge dark rock. The morning of December 25 found us within 3 miles of the 
position given for Dougherty Island. The weather was cloudy but the seeing was good. 
Nothing could be seen from the masthead. I went aloft myself every half hour while 
we were passing the position given for the island. Had anything over 100 feet high 

139 



140 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

been within 35 miles of the vessel in any direction we would have seen it. At 3 h 40 m a. m., 
December 25, Dougherty Island should have been 3 miles SE of us. There was noth- 
ing visible within a radius of 35 miles at the time. The island has either been charted in 
the wrong place, or it has disappeared, or possibly it was an ice-island. Our experience 
on December 24 would confirm the possibilities of optical illusions. The Carnegie's track 
(see Fig. 1) extended from latitude 59° 28' S, and longitude 123° 17' W, to latitude 59° 08' S, 
and longitude 110° 10' W; daylight and good seeing were had all the time. If anyone else 
attempts to locate the island, he should try either 40 miles south or 40 miles north of the 
charted position. We assumed the island to be at 59° 21' S, and between 119° 10' W and 
120° 20' W. Dougherty Island was supposed to have been seen by Captain Dougherty in 
the James Stewart in 1841, who located it approximately in latitude 59° 20' S and longitude 
120° 20' W. In 1859, Captain E. Keates in the Louise sighted an island, assumed to be 
Dougherty, assigning the position 59° 21' S and 119° 07'. W 1 to it. 

December 30 and 31 were the first fine days experienced since our departure from 
Lyttelton. In spite of storms, rain, snow, fog, and prevailing cloudy weather, we 
succeeded in getting declination observations daily, and averaging twice daily during 
the entire trip. This was accomplished by taking advantage of every opportunity and 
spending considerable time standing by. Frequently we would make six or more trips 
to the bridge before being successful. At other times observations would be made dur- 
ing the only 5 or 10 minutes that the Sun was visible on the entire day. 

The winds were mainly from the westerly semicircle, north and northwesterly 
winds with high and falling barometer, shifting to west and southwest when the baro- 
meter began to rise; rain and mist occurred nearly every day. Fogs were quite frequent 
but not of long duration. 

The entire party has enjoyed thus far the very best of health, and the weather has 
not been very severe. It has been more enjoyable in fact than a trip through the hot 
tropics. 

We arrived at King Edward Cove, South Georgia, January 12, 9 h 30 m a. m., going 
the last 24 hours under our auxiliary power. The total run from Lyttelton to South 
Georgia was 5,440 miles, or an average of 144 miles for 37.9 days; the total distance 
logged was 6,010 miles. 

The Carnegie left South Georgia at 7 p. m., January 14, 1916, towed out of harbor 
against a heavy head-wind by the steam whaler Fortuna. In the following days we 
realized that we were in climatic conditions quite different from what we had experienced 
previously. Icebergs appeared in increasing numbers, and fog was almost continuous. 
We will long remember January 18 as the only day during the entire trip of 4 months 
when we failed to obtain observations of the magnetic declination. The Sun was visible 
for only 3 seconds during the entire day, giving no opportunity for observations. 

Larger icebergs were seen as we neared Lindsay Island, one looming up through 
the fog like a vast extent of dark land with the bright ice-blink reflected from the fog 
above it. We encountered an ice stream where small pieces were too numerous to dodge. 

On January 22 we passed along the north coast of Lindsay Island about 3 miles 
offshore, obtaining a good view of this lonely, desolate place, with its deep mantle of 
snow and ice, surrounded with the wrecked icebergs that have come to grief on its shoals. 
A delegation of six penguins came out to greet us, the only ones seen in this vicinity. 

The island agrees almost exactly in appearance and outline with the description 
and sketch given in the British Admiralty's Africa Pilot, Part II, 1910. It was sur- 
veyed by the German Deep Sea Expedition of 1898 in the Valdivia. They gave the 

1 According to Nature, vol. 97, No. 2431, June 1, 1916, p. 237, "in 1909, on the homeward voyage of the Nimrod, with 
Sir E. H. Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, Capt. J. K. Davis made a thorough search for the Nimrod and Dougherty 
islands, and failed to find them; they were in consequence removed from the last edition of the Prince of Monaco's bathy- 
metrical chart of the oceans." 



Extracts from Field Reports 141 

position for its center as latitude 54° 26' S, longitude 3° 24' E. Our observations place 
its center in latitude 54° 29' S, longitude 3° 27' E, or about 3 miles from the position 
assigned by the Valdivia. This is a very close check in position for these regions, and we 
had no difficulty in locating the island. When our reckoning had placed it about 10 
miles southeast of the vessel, we were able to locate it in the proper direction by noting 
the outline of a snow-covered glacier which appeared motionless through the shifting 
rifts in cloud and fog. 

Some authorities have called this island "Bouvet Island," thereby causing a little 
confusion. H. R. Mill, in his book "The Siege of the South Pole," 1905, gives a couple 
of pages to a description and picture of Lindsay Island, but names it "Bouvet," and 
gives as its position the latitude and longitude quoted above from the British Admiralty 
Pilot as that of Lindsay. Both books give as their authority the German Deep Sea 
Expedition of 1898. The British Admiralty Pilot states that "in November, 1898, 
the island (Bouvet) was searched for unsuccessfully by Captain Krech, of the German 
Deep Sea Expedition vessel Valdivia. Its position must, therefore, be considered un- 
certain." We agree with this conclusion, since we check so well the Valdivia' s position 
of Lindsay Island. 

Stieler's Hand-Atlas, 1907, publishes a map of Bouvet in a small insert with its 
south polar charts. The position given, the coast outline, and appearance are those 
of Lindsay Island. 

Did Captains Bouvet and Norris see Lindsay Island or some island that has never 
been seen again? They reported it, Captain Bouvet in 1739, and Captain Norris in 
1825, and placed it in latitude 54° 00' S to 54° 15' S and in longitude 4° 30' E to 5° 00' E, or 
about 15 miles north and about 50 miles east of Lindsay. We know that this position 
is seriously in error, for Cook, Ross, and Moore searched unsuccessfully for this island 
while on their various Antarctic cruises. 

After taking bearings of Lindsay Island and such views as the weather and clouds 
permitted, we stood east in the hope of sighting Bouvet Island. Unfortunately, drift- 
ing ice, though in small pieces, became so thick that we thought it best to change our 
course to the north to avoid delay in this locality. So disappeared our chance of sight- 
ing either Bouvet or Thompson Islands. 

Shortly after leaving the vicinity of Lindsay Island, it was decided to stand north- 
ward toward the Crozet Islands, so as to cut the isogonic lines at a greater angle. 

When within 30 miles of the southwest point of Kerguelen Island the weather 
became unfavorable for making the land, fog set in, and a gale began to blow, with a 
rapidly falling barometer. The vessel was immediately headed south to avoid outlying 
dangers, and when clear the course was set toward Heard Island. The season was 
advancing, and as a large area remained to be covered before our return to Port Lyttel- 
ton, a delay of a week or more in order to land at Kerguelen seemed unwarranted. This 
was February 6, and in the evening a copper box, tightly sealed, containing abstracts 
of all results to date, was set adrift on a float. The following was stamped on the copper 
box with steel dies: "Mail to the Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A., 
from Yacht Carnegie, February 6, 1916." The float was set adrift at 8 h p. m. in latitude 
50° 14! 3 S, longitude 68° 19 '2 E. The only sign of human kind seen during 4 months, 
except at South Georgia, was a corpse floating in the open sea, about halfway between 
Heard and Kerguelen islands, far from land. This was on February 7, at latitude 
51° 12' S, longitude 71° 26' E. 

On February 8 our course was set to the northward to intersect the Carnegie's track 
of 1911, and to determine the annual change of the magnetic elements. We made 
the first intersection in good time, but encountered head winds and later a calm, when 



142 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

attempting to make the second crossing. With the aid of the engine, however, we were 
able to make the desired point. 

The annual changes determined were as follows: 17' in declination, increasing numer- 
ically west values, as opposed to 8' shown on the charts; — 2' in inclination, increasing 
numerically southerly dip; and —0.0007 c. g. s. in horizontal intensity, the value of 
this element decreasing. 

The brief rest in quiet seas and in warm sunshine was very welcome, but the season 
was advancing and we were obliged to turn southward again and plunge into the dark 
and stormy regions of the "roaring forties and furious fifties." The stormiest period 
of the trip awaited us. The heaviest gale and roughest seas yet encountered were 
experienced, but the vessel stood the strain well. 

As the Carnegie proceeded south toward the region of Queen Mary Land, the chart 
errors in declination constantly increased until, in the region of latitude 60° S, longitude 
110° E, they reached a maximum of —12° for the United States and British charts, 
and of —16° for the German chart, i. e., the charts gave values of west declination 
numerically too small by 12° to 16°. 

On March 23, during magnetic observations in the afternoon, the horizontal 
intensity ranged from 0.098 to 0.110 c. g. s., possibly indicating a magnetic disturbance 
of some kind. 

One iceberg was seen on March 1, the only one encountered since January 28. 
Owing to the decrease in horizontal intensity and the consequent uncertainty of the 
compasses, it was decided to turn to northward on this date, latitude 59° 24' S having 
been reached. A few hours before turning northward a south wind sprang up, so it 
was well that we continued no farther in that direction. 

The portion of our route extending into the Australian Bight was accomplished 
without special difficulty, and latitude 39° 29' S was reached. Going south again, the 
Carnegie sailed as far as latitude 57° 25' S, obtaining the low horizontal intensity of 
0.086 c. g. s. 

Owing to conditions of weather and lateness of season, it was thought best to head 
directly for Port Lyttelton, considering that we would intersect at good angles all iso- 
magnetic lines. 

The Snares were sighted early on the morning of March 29. They were almost 
exactly where we expected to see them, so we knew that our chronometers were giving 
us nearly correct longitudes, after 4 months of hard usage and with the wide range in 
temperature obtained in the cabin on account of the presence of the heating stove. 

Observations for intensity and inclination were taken every day regardless of 
conditions, even when the vessel was hove to in a hurricane and was being tossed about 
like a chip, and mountainous seas were threatening to break through the observing 
domes. Magnetic declinations were observed on all but one day, during the four months' 
cruise — a remarkable record, considering the prevailing conditions of fog, mist, rain, 
and snow. This record was made possible only by the constant watchfulness of the 
entire party and by taking advantage of every opportunity. Considerable time was 
spent in "standing by," waiting for a break in the clouds or fog. Frequently only a 
small opening in the clouds would be seen approaching the Sun; then the vessel would 
be directed to the proper heading and all observers would be called to their stations 
ready to begin observations the moment the Sun appeared. Often the Sun was not 
seen again during the day. 

I can not speak too highly of the work done by each and every member of the party, 
as to spirit of cooperation and unfaltering zeal in the face of most trying conditions. 

Gales occurred of force 7 or higher, Beaufort scale, on 52 out of 120 days. On 26 
days the gales were very strong, having an estimated force of 9 to 11. We were over- 



Extracts from Field Reports 143 

taken by a continual procession of circular storms, moving about the south polar conti- 
nent from west to east, and were invariably caught in the northern semicircle, as indi- 
cated by the barometer changes. A falling barometer always presaged northerly winds 
shifting to the northwest and blowing hard. As the barometer began to rise, the wind 
shifted to southwest, blowing a strong gale if the barometer rose rapidly. The tempera- 
ture of the sea-water was taken every hour during the entire cruise, excepting the first 
few days. The air temperature averaged about 5° C. We had precipitation of some sort, 
mist, light rain, fog, rain, hail, or snow on 100 days out of the 120 days of the voyage. 
Fog was recorded on 20 days and snow on 16 days. 

We were in the region where icebergs may be encountered for a period of 3.5 months, 
yet saw them on only 24 days, and to the number of only 133, the largest being 5 miles 
long and the highest being 500 feet high. 

Upon the return to Port Lyttelton (April 1), there still remained two tanks of fresh 
water on board, and potatoes and onions sufficient for 3 more weeks. 

The vessel sustained no serious damage during the trip. The metal fastening of 
the upper topsail yard broke on January 4, but the yard was successfully lashed to the 
parral and gave us no further trouble. The bronze bob-stay carried away at the for- 
ward end on February 24. It was fished up after some difficulty and secured with a 
deadeye and lanyard. Upon examination in the dry dock, the vessel's hull was found 
absolutely clean and undamaged, only one sheet of copper near the keel requiring 
renewal. 

The total distance run from Lyttelton to Lyttelton was 17,084 miles, giving an 
average of 145 miles for 118 days. The entire track followed is shown in Plate 9 and 
also Figure 1. 



144 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



ABSTRACTS OF LOGS OF THE CARNEGIE. 

In the following abstracts of logs of the Carnegie, the data relating to the day's 
run and to the ocean current refer to the 24-hour period, noon to noon, preceding the 
noon position of the day for which the data is given, whereas it was more convenient to 
give the meteorological data, appearing in the column headed "Remarks," for the 24- 
hour period, midnight to midnight, of the date for which the data are given. 

Whenever the word miles is used, throughout this publication, a nautical mile is 
the unit understood, unless otherwise indicated. 

In the column headed "Current" is given the true direction toward which the ocean 
current was flowing, and the speed of the current in nautical miles per day. 

J. P. Ault: Abstract of Log, Cruise IV, 1915-1917. 

Brooklyn to Cristobal, Canal Zone. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1915 
Mar 6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


o / 

Brooklyn 

Gardiners 
Bay 

Do. 

Do. 
37 07 N 
33 40 N 
30 45 N 
27 52 N 
26 27 N 
24 03 N 
22 52 N 
22 15 N 
20 37 N 
18 11 N 
16 49 N 
15 13 N 
13 29 N 
12 05 N 
10 55 N 
Cristobal 1 


o / 


miles 





miles 


Left Beard's Basin in tow at 8 h 20 m a. m.; 10 h 20 m p. m. anchored in 
Gardiners Bay. 

Swung ship two helms. Strong NE breeze to calm. Cloudy. 
Swung ship four helms. Gentle breeze. 

At 9 b 10 m a. m. under way in tow of tug. Fresh breeze. Clear. 
Strong NW wind to moderate gale. Squally. 
Moderate to strong gale. Heavy sea. Squally. 
Moderating wind and sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate wind and sea. Partly cloudy. 

Gentle breeze to calm to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. 
Strong to light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. 
Light to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 

Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Through Mona Passage. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth Sea. Clear. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 

Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Rain squalls. At 3 h 50 m a. m. anchored 
in Colon Bay. 




91 


















288 22 
288 28 
288 11 

288 46 

289 19 

290 24 

290 37 
293 03 
293 13 

291 43 
289 32 
287 12 
284 37 
282 32 
280 23 


235 
207 
176 
175 

90 
156 

72 
140 

98 
169 
149 
164 
180 
149 
145 

91 


82 

63 

70 

6 

184 

4 

208 

340 

79 

298 

52 

358 

333 

244 

278 

342 


14 

28 

18 

8 

16 

5 

8 

4 

3 

15 

12 

3 

6 

17 

13 

7 



Total distance, 2,487 miles. Time of passage, 16.4 days. Average day's run, 151.6 miles. 

1 The Carnegie left Cristobal in tow April 7, at 8 h 25 m a. m., to pass through the Panama Canal, and arrived at Pedro 
Miguel at 4 p. m. Leaving Pedro Miguel the next morning at 7 h 30 m , the vessel arrived at Balboa, April 8, at 10 h 45 m a. m. 

Balboa, Canal Zone, to Honolulu. 



1915 


o / 


o 


f 


miles 


O 


miles 






Apr 12 


Balboa. . . 












At 10 a. m. left Balboa. 




13 


6 30 N 


279 


56 


151 


195 


23 


Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Clear. 




14 


5 32 N 


279 


43 


59 


188 


40 


Light airs and calm. Smooth sea. Clear. 




15 


3 59 N 


279 


33 


93 


187 


33 


Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Swung ship. 




16 


2 36 N 


278 


08 


119 


153 


13 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




17 


2 09 N 


276 


17 


114 


232 


23 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




18 


2 26 N 


273 


43 


155 


315 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 




19 


2 10 N 


271 


53 


111 


251 


12 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




20 


2 10 N 


269 


32 


141 


260 


8 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




21 


2 58 N 


267 


12 


147 


318 


21 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




22 


3 42 N 


264 


33 


165 


304 


20 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, showers, lightning. 


Tide rips. 


23 


4 55 N 


263 


51 


85 


181 


5 


Light variable winds. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 




24 


4 28 N 


263 


53 


27 


87 


11 


Light winds. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 




25 


3 49 N 


264 


38 


59 


246 


7 


Light variable winds. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 




26 


4 15 N 


263 


36 


67 


251 


2 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 





Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Balboa, Canal Zone, to Honolulu — Concluded. 



145 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1915 

27 

28 

29 

30 

May 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

May 10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 


o / 

4 57 N 
6 27 N 
8 12 N 
8 29 N 

8 39 N 

9 51 N 
10 19 N 

10 25 N 

11 08 N 

11 53 N 

12 46 N 

13 38 N 

14 42 N 

15 50 N 

16 49 N 

17 28 N 

18 10 N 

19 00 N 

19 45 N 

19 54 N 

20 34 N 

20 53 N 

21 05 N 
21 23 N 
Honolulu 


o / 

262 09 
261 14 
260 36 
259 44 
257 53 
255 20 
253 33 
250 11 

247 37 
244 49 
241 51 
239 13 
235 54 
232 41 
230 02 
227 06 
223 57 
221 11 

218 06 
215 29 
212 15 
209 19 
206 19 
203 19 


miles 
97 
105 
112 
54 
110 
167 
109 
199 

156 
170 
182 
163 
203 
198 
164 
173 
184 
164 

179 
148 
186 
166 
168 
168 
85 


O 

344 
109 
101 
164 
206 
322 
40 
135 

259 

93 

162 

89 

85 

162 

103 

127 

124 

152 

54 
93 

85 

88 

128 

17 


miles 

3 

7 

21 

9 

25 

18 

14 

15 

5 

6 

6 

14 

10 

9 

23 

21 

24 

12 

15 

14 

6 

15 
8 
9 


Gentle to light breeze. Smooth sea. Passing showers. 

Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Squalls, rain. 

Gentle breeze to light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 

Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 

Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 

Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 

Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, showers. 

Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Passed Clip- 

perton Island at 7 h 50 m a. m. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, showers. 
Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, showers. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, showers. 
Strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 
Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Rough sea. Showers. 
Moderate breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, showers. 
Fresh breeze. Heavy sea. Partly cloudy, showers. 
Moderate breeze. Long NE swell, rough sea. Partly cloudy, 

showers. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, showers. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally. 
Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, showers. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Squally, rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, showers. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. At 9 h 30 m a. m. made 

fast to Quarantine Wharf. 







Total distance, 5,303 miles. Time of passage, 39 days. Average day's run, 136.0 miles. 

Honolulu to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. 



1915 


/ 


o / 


miles 


o 


miles 




Jun 29 


Honolulu 










Swung ship off Pearl Harbor all day. 

2 h 15 m p. m. left Honolulu. Swung ship off Pearl Harbor till sunset. 

Light to fresh breeze. Moderately rough to high sea. Partly cloudy. 


Jul 3 


Do. 










4 


22 39 N 


201 20 


10.3 


148 


5 


5 


25 40 N 


199 47 


200 


174 


12 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


6 


28 03 N 


198 54 


150 


207 


8 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


7 


29 49 N 


198 44 


107 


192 


15 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Tide rips. 


8 


31 22 N 


198 36 


93 


171 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


9 


33 45 N 


198 35 


143 


148 


26 


Moderate to strong breeze. Rough SW sea. Overcast. 


10 


36 24 N 


199 01 


160 


142 


25 


Moderate breeze. Rough SW sea. Cloudy, rain. 


11 


37 31 N 


196 10 


154 


164 


24 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. Streams of barnacle 
clusters. 


12 


38 58 N 


193 22 


158 


145 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Squally, overcast. Streams of 
barnacle clusters. 


13 


40 20 N 


190 42 


149 


121 


13 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Streams of barnacle 
clusters and of velella. 


14 


40 51 N 


189 28 


64 


146 


18 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Overcast, misty. Sea covered 
with velella. 10 h 25 m a. m. started engine. 


15 


42 20 N 


189 41 


90 


185 


15 


Calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Sea covered with velella. 2 p. m. 
stopped engine. 


16 


43 24 N 


189 42 


64 


311 


7 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


17 


46 06 N 


190 11 


163 


171 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 


18 


49 23 N 


190 29 


197 


172 


16 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, rain. 


19 


52 36 N 


190 18 


193 


209 


14 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. 


20 


Dutch Ha 


rbor .... 


138 






Moderate breeze to calm. Moderate sea. Cloudy. Started engine 
4 h 30 m a. m. and ran to anchorage in Dutch Harbor at 12 h 40 m p. m. 















Total distance, 2,326 miles. Time of passage, 16.9 days. Average day's run, 137.6 miles. 



146 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Dutch Harbor to Port Lyttelton, New Zealand. 



Date 



Noon position 



Lat. 



Long. 
E. of Gr. 



Day's 
run 



Current 



Dir. 



Am't 



Remarks 



1915 
Aug 5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



12 
13 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



Sep 



Oct 



9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



miles 



miles 



Dutch Harbor . 



56 


16 


N 


57 


22 


N 


58 


02 


N 


57 


54 


N 


59 


07 


N 


59 


32 


N 


58 


47 


N 


57 


11 


N 


56 


36 


N 


55 


35 


N 


53 


57 


N 


, r >l 


49 


N 


51 


16 


N 


49 


24 


N 


48 


14 


N 


46 


53 


N 


45 


25 


N 


44 


50 


N 


44 


37 


N 


41 


42 


N 


38 


54 


N 


36 


35 


N 


35 


00 


N 


33 


50 


N 


31 


52 


N 


30 


06 


N 


29 


08 


N 


28 


21 


N 


26 


10 


N 


22 


36 


N 


20 


22 


N 


21 


28 


N 


21 


19 


N 


21 


01 


N 


20 


39 


N 


19 


56 


N 


18 


52 


N 


17 


00 


N 


15 


18 


N 


14 


15 


N 


13 


52 


N 


13 


35 


N 


12 


10 


N 


11 


17 


N 


10 


12 


N 


8 


55 


N 


8 


03 


N 


7 


01 


N 


5 


22 


N 


4 


18 


N 


3 


58 


N 


3 


40 


N 


3 


23 


N 


3 


07 


N 


2 


23 


N 


1 


57 


N 





25 


N 


2 


06 


S 


4 


12 


S 


5 


07 


s 


5 


48 


s 


6 


21 


s 



192 16 

193 11 
192 25 
190 27 

187 44 
186 52 

182 58 
179 12 

177 05 

175 16 
172 13 

169 51 
168 28 
168 18 
168 22 

166 11 
164 20 
163 03 
163 18 

163 27 

164 02 

164 49 

167 24 

170 05 

170 56 

171 08 
170 39 
170 06 

168 57 
167 15 

167 01 

169 16 

169 26 

168 31 
168 09 
167 20 
166 15 

165 24 

165 18 
164 53 

166 02 
166 14 
164 41 
164 16 
164 03 
163 36 

163 39 

164 10 
164 42 
164 01 
163 54 
163 52 
163 03 
162 07 
161 40 

160 37 
159 53 
159 54 

161 09 

162 09 

163 26 
163 56 



150 
73 
47 
63 

112 
36 

128 
154 

78 

86 
144 
155 

97 
112 

69 
120 
117 

65 

17 
175 
170 
144 
157 
151 
125 
107 

63 

55 
145 
234 
134 
142 

14 
55 
30 
64 

89 

122 

103 

67 

70 

22 

124 

59 

66 

81 

53 

69 

105 

76 

21 

18 

51 

59 

52 

67 

102 

151 

147 

81 

86 

45 



170 
200 
222 
187 
159 
169 

133 

94 

86 

115 

46 

3 

8 

16 

101 

11 

76 

47 

359 

333 

6 

73 

20 

353 

11 

177 

183 

222 

3 

329 

28 

128 

314 
225 
257 
283 
329 
331 
124 
1 
341 
101 
313 
262 
228 
322 

23 
134 
141 
258 
254 
305 
355 
341 
300 
297 
307 
292 
259 
215 
113 

58 



13 
3 

4 
12 
14 

9 

13 

19 



15 

10 

10 

10 

9 

8 

16 

8 

11 

22 

15 

33 

13 

29 

12 

24 

14 

9 

25 

27 

3 

4 

3 
1 

8 
13 

7 
20 

3 

10 
15 

2 
20 
13 
16 
23 
20 

7 
11 
15 
19 
29 
23 
24 
31 
42 
43 
38 
31 

4 
11 
21 



Strong breeze. Smooth sea. 



Crossed 180th 
Swung ship 



Left Dutch Harbor at ll h 18 m a. m. 

Rain. 
Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 
Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Moderate gale to calm. High, choppy sea. Overcast. 
Light air to moderate gale. Moderate, choppy sea. Cloudy, misty. 
Moderate gale to light breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 
Calm to moderate gale. Rough sea. Rain, overcast. St. Matthew 

Island in sight all day. 
Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Clear to overcast. 

meridian. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast to clear. 

all day. 

Moderate breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Clear. Under engine power. 
Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Moderately heavy sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate gale to strong breeze. Heavy sea. Misty, rain. 
Gentle breeze. Heavy sea. Fog, rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Misty, rain, thunder. 
Light breeze. NW swell. Cloudy, lightning. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. 
Light breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Fresh breeze. S swell. Partly cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Calm to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Strong breeze. Choppy sea. Squally. 
Wind increased to whole gale. Heavy sea. Squally, rain. 
Whole gale to gentle breeze. High sea. Squally, rain, lightning. 

Hove to. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Becalmed. Moderate swell. Cloudy, squally, lightning. 
Light airs. Long swell. Cloudy. 

Gentle breeze. Heavy swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. Sighted Wake Island. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 
Light airs. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 
Fresh wind to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, lightning. 
Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light air. Smooth sea. Clear. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 
Moderate breeze to calm. SE swell. Squally, overcast. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Variable light airs. Smooth sea. Clear. 
Light airs and variable winds. Smooth sea. Squally. 
Calm and variable winds. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning, thunder. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 
Fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Gentle breeze. SE swell. Squally, rain. Under engine power. 
Light air. Smooth sea. Cloudy, lightning. Under engine power. 
Variable winds. Smooth sea. Squally, rain, lightning, and thunder. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Dutch Haebok to Port Lyttelton — Concluded. 



147 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1915 


/ 


o / 


miles 


o 


miles 




Oct 8 


7 41 S 


163 15 


90 


346 


5 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning and thunder. 
Sighted Stewart Island from upper topsail yard. 


9 


9 28 S 


162 46 


111 


274 


20 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. Sighted 
Ulawa Island and a waterspout. 


10 


10 23 S 


162 43 


55 


215 


8 


Variable winds. Moderate sea. Squally, thunder and lightning in 
the morning. San Cristoval and Owa Riki Islands sighted. 


11 


11 43 S 


162 04 


89 





19 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


12 


12 52 S 


160 45 


104 


334 


19 


Fresh breeze. Choppy sea. Partly cloudy. Breakers on Indis- 
pensable Reef sighted. 


13 


13 58 S 


159 48 


86 


226 


6 


Moderate breeze and calm. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


14 


16 22 S 


158 24 


166 


351 


19 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


19 29 S 


157 37 


192 


334 


22 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


21 42 S 


157 19 


134 


16 


11 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 


17 


22 20 S 


156 52 


46 


288 


17 


Light breeze. S swell. Partly cloudy. 


18 


23 35 S 


157 00 


75 


66 


4 


Moderate to light breeze. Smooth sea, S swell. Clear. 


19 


24 23 S 


156 26 


58 


281 


15 


Strong breeze. Choppy sea. Squally, overcast. 


20 


26 09 S 


155 15 


127 


331 


22 


Moderate breeze. Rough sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


21 


28 04 S 


154 28 


123 


149 


14 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 


22 


30 10 S 


155 27 


135 


278 


7 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


23 


33 08 S 


157 17 


203 


290 


18 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy. 


24 


35 36 S 


158 17 


155 


352 


23 


Variable winds. Choppy sea. Cloudy. 


25 


36 21 S 


159 50 


88 


311 


16 


Variable winds and calm. SE swell. Cloudy, rain squalls. 


26 


37 12 S 


161 17 


86 


342 


15 


Moderate breeze. Cross swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


27 


38 25 S 


161 50 


78 


71 


7 


Moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy, squally, lightning and 
thunder. 


28 


39 16 S 


161 58 


51 


106 


4 


Light air to moderate breeze. Cross swell. Partly cloudy. Tide rips. 


29 


41 51 S 


162 33 


157 


29 


19 


Fresh breeze. NW swell. Overcast, rain. 


30 


44 51 S 


164 08 


193 


62 


44 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


31 


46 35 S 


167 48 


185 


309 


21 


Strong breeze to light air. Rough sea. Overcast. In Foveaux Strait 
all day. 


Nov 1 


46 16 S 


170 12 


102 


15 


9 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 
Aurora Australis. 


2 


44 44 S 


172 32 


134 


51 


13 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


3 


Lyttelton. 




68 






Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. At 10 h 30 m a. m. alongside of 
dock, Lyttelton Harbor. 















Total distance, 8,865 miles. Time of passage, 89 days. Average day's run, 99.6 miles. 

Port Lyttelton to South Georgia and to Port Lyttelton. 



1916 


o / 


O / 


miles 





miles 




Dec 6 


Lyttelton 










Left Port Lyttelton under tow at ll ll 40 m a. m. Fresh breeze. Moder- 












ate sea. Cloudy. 


7 


46 14 S 


174 44 


189 


318 


12 


Moderate variable wind. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 
Mirage of land, 190 miles distant. 


8 


47 47 S 


176 23 


115 


344 


16 


Fresh breeze to strong gale. Heavy sea. Squally. 


9 


49 10 S 


178 41 


123 


3 


15 


Strong gale to strong breeze. Heavy sea. Squally. Crossed 180th 
meridian. 


9 


50 11 S 


181 42 


132 


321 


8 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally. 


10 


51 15 S 


184 01 


107 


343 


14 


Variable winds. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty. 


11 


53 16 S 


186 54 


160 


317 


19 


Moderate gale to gentle breeze. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally. 


12 


53 54 S 


188 53 


81 


44 


15 


Fresh variable winds. High sea. Overcast, damp. 


13 


54 30 S 


191 44 


104 


351 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea, SE swell. Cloudy, squally, hail. 


14 


55 18 S 


194 51 


119 


293 


11 


Fresh breeze. High sea. Cloudy, showers. 


15 


56 00 S 


197 38 


103 


326 


14 


Moderate variable winds. Moderate sea. Overcast, cloudy. 


16 


57 10 S 


201 58 


159 


209 


24 


Whole gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Rain. Hove to 5 hours. 


17 


58 58 S 


205 25 


152 


326 


16 


Fresh breeze. High sea. Overcast, misty. 


18 


60 18 S 


208 50 


132 


307 


16 


Moderate variable winds. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty, snow. 
Iceberg. 


19 


60 19 S 


214 18 


163 


259 


18 


Strong breeze. High sea. Misty, snow. Icebergs. 


20 


60 30 S 


220 26 


182 


232 


15 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Misty, snow. Icebergs. 


21 


60 14 S 


226 31 


181 


219 


27 


Fresh breeze to fresh gale. High sea. Misty, snow. Icebergs. 


22 


59 40 S 


232 08 


172 


202 


22 


Gentle breezes. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. Icebergs. 


23 


60 43 S 


236 25 


142 


165 


14 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Rain, mist, fog. Iceberg. 


24 


59 59 S 


236 03 


45 


95 


13 


Calm, moderate gale. High sea, northerly swell. Fog, overcast. 
Iceberg. 



148 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Port Lyttelton to South Georgia and to Port Lyttelton — Continued. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 




















Lat 




Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1915 


O 


/ 




o 


, 


miles 


O 


miles 




Dec 25 


59 


112 


s 


242 


17 


195 


297 


8 


Moderate gale. High sea. Overcast, rain. 


26 


59 


07 


s 


249 


20 


217 


248 


23 


Strong breeze. High sea. Drizzling. 


27 


59 


10 


s 


256 


31 


221 


215 


24 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. High sea. Overcast, squally. 


28 


58 


48 


s 


262 


52 


196 


225 


21 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Squally, partly cloudy. 


29 


58 


47 


s 


268 


30 


175 


271 


12 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, southerly swell. Overcast, rain, 
partly cloudy. 


30 


58 


49 


s 


271 


33 


95 


269 


6 


Light breeze. NW swell. Cloudy. 


31 

1916 
Jan 1 


58 


56 


s 


274 


15 


84 


211 


10 


Light air to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, clear. 


59 


17 


s 


279 


59 


178 


251 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate'sea. Cloudy, misty. 


2 


60 


04 


s 


285 


30 


174 


230 


17 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Drizzle, fog, mist. 


3 


59 


41 


s 


291 


00 


167 


215 


22 


Moderate breeze. W swell. Partly cloudy. 


4 


60 


09 


s 


294 


45 


115 


99 


34 


Variable light winds. Smooth sea. Fog. 


5 


59 


16 


s 


297 


18 


119 


299 


28 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


6 


58 


42 


s 


302 


25 


166 


142 


17 


Moderate breeze to strong gale. Moderate to high sea. Cloudy, 
overcast, rain. 


7 


57 


44 


s 


307 


37 


174 


219 


9 


Strong gale to moderate breeze. Heavy sea. Partly cloudy. 


8 


56 


26 


s 


312 


47 


185 


201 


14 


Fresh breeze to calm. Moderate sea. Overcast, cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


9 


55 


32 


s 


315 


22 


104 


243 


7 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 


10 


54 


24 


s 


318 


53 


138 


200 


13 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, drizzle, fog. Icebergs. Hove 
to at night. 


11 


54 


04 


s 


321 


30 


94 


139 


10 


Gentle breeze. NW swell. Fog, mist. Icebergs. Under engine 
power. Sighted South Georgia. 


12 


54 


08 


s 


323 


30 


82 


312 


8 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Misty, foggy. 9 h 40 m a. m. anchored at 
King Edward Cove, South Georgia. Took on water. 


14 


Kine- Edw 


ird Cove 








yhgQm p m j e f£ King Edward Cove under tow. Strong gale. Heavy 




















sea. Squally. 


15 


54 


16 


s 


327 


11 


134 


268 


5 


Strong gale to light breeze. High sea. Cloudy. Icebergs. 


16 


54 40 S 


331 


35 


155 


181 


6 


Fresh breeze. Moderate to high sea. Rain, mist, fog. Icebergs. 




















Hove to at night. 


17 


54 


36 


s 


335 


52 


148 


194 


6 


Moderate breeze to fresh gale. Moderate to high sea. Fog. Icebergs. 


18 


54 


33 


s 


341 


39 


201 


212 


7 


Fresh gale to light breeze. High to moderate sea, NW swell. Misty, 
fog. Icebergs. 


19 


54 


30 


s 


344 


52 


112 


237 


12 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzle, fog. Icebergs. 


20 


54 


18 


s 


349 


59 


179 


236 


24 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, mist, fog. Icebergs. 


21 


54 


20 


s 


356 35 


232 


227 


29 


Moderate gale. High sea. Overcast, fog. Icebergs. 


22 


54 


00 


s 


1 


41 


180 


181 


15 


Fresh breeze to strong gale. High sea. Partly cloudy, misty. Ice- 
bergs. Sighted Lindsay Island. Hove to at night. 


23 


53 


33 


s 


5 


33 


140 


232 


7 


Strong gale to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, misty. Icebergs. 


24 


53 


42 


s 


9 


49 


152 


241 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, fog, snow. Icebergs. 


25 


54 


08 


s 


15 


34 


205 


260 


15 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Snow, partly cloudy. Icebergs. 


26 


54 


30 


s 


21 


18 


202 


225 


15 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Icebergs. 


27 


54 


16 


s 


26 


22 


178 


229 


31 


Strong to light breeze. Moderate sea. Fog, mist, snow. Icebergs. 


28 


53 


40 


s 


30 


57 


165 


198 


22 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, snow. Iceberg. 


29 


52 


40 


s 


36 


39 


214 


202 


26 


Strong breeze to whole gale. High sea. Overcast, drizzling, snow. 
Hove to at night. 


30 


52 


45 


s 


39 


12 


93 


142 


21 


Whole gale to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Squally, rain. Hove to 
at night. 


31 


51 


38 


s 


43 


05 


158 


179 


23 


Moderate gale. Heavy sea. Overcast. Hove to at night. 


Feb 1 


49 


42 


s 


47 


15 


196 


19 


19 


Whole gale to strong wind. High sea. Squally, rain. Hove to at night. 


2 


48 


36 


s 


50 


59 


160 


179 


12 


Fresh breeze. Heavy swell. Partly cloudy. 


3 


48 


33 


s 


55 


13 


168 


301 


22 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


4 


48 


40 


s 


59 


57 


188 


275 


16 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Hove to at night. 


5 


49 


01 


s 


63 


44 


151 


344 


14 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzle, followed by 
clear weather. 


6 


49 


34 


s 


67 


12 


139 


314 


8 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. High sea. Overcast, mist, drizzle. 
Set mail box adrift near Kerguelen Island. Hove to at night. 


7 


51 


01 


s 


70 


48 


163 


352 


21 


Moderate to whole gale. High sea. Cloudy, mist, squally. Hove 
to at night. 


8 


52 


07 


s 


74 


57 


168 


5 


21 


Strong gale to strong breeze. High sea. Squally, overcast, snow. 
Hove to at night. 


9 


51 


04 


s 


77 


52 


125 


314 


13 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Moderately rough sea. Cloudy. 


10 


49 


47 


s 


80 


29 


127 


237 


17 


Gentle variable winds to strong gale. Rough sea. Rain, mist. 


11 


47 


10 


s 


83 


39 


201 


247 


24 


Fresh gale. High sea. Squally, drizzle. 



Abstracts op Logs of the Carnegie 

Port Lyttelton to South Georgia and to Port Lyttelton — Concluded. 



149 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 














Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1916 


O 1 


O 


1 


miles 


O 


miles 




Feb 12 


44 06 S 


86 


30 


219 


230 


17 


Fresh gale. High sea. Squally. 


13 


41 15 S 


88 


32 


195 


203 


28 


Strong winds. Rough sea. Squally, overcast. 


14 


38 18 S 


90 


26 


197 


198 


24 


Strong wind. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


15 


35 48 S 


93 


10 


198 


189 


23 


Moderate wind. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 


16 


34 32 S 


95 


58 


157 


265 


27 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 


17 


34 59 S 


95 


34 


99 


301 


8 


Gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast. 


18 


36 10 S 


95 


23 


71 


358 


8 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 


19 


36 08 S 


97 


09 


85 


243 


10 


Calm. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 


20 


37 26 S 


97 


30 


80 


315 


9 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


21 


39 48 S 


99 


11 


162 


350 


21 


Moderate gale. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy, squally. 


22 


42 18 S 


100 


26 


160 


35 


25 


Strong wind. Rough sea. Overcast. 


23 


46 07 S 


101 


33 


233 


63 


42 


Fresh gale to modern breeze. Rough sea. Mist, drizzle. 


24 


47 52 S 


102 


01 


107 


59 


31 


Gentle breeze to calm. W swell. Overcast. Bronze bobstay carried 


25 


47 49 S 


103 


39 


66 


354 


6 


away. 
Moderate breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Cloudy. 


26 


49 58 S 


104 


51 


137 


26 


29 


Fresh breeze to strong gale. Rough sea. Squally, drizzle. 


27 


52 32 S 


106 


34 


168 


22 


30 


Whole gale. High sea. Squally, drizzle, hail. Hove to at night. 


28 


54 33 S 


107 


33 


126 


46 


25 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Mist, drizzle. Aurora australis. 


29 


57 08 S 


108 


29 


158 


177 


23 


Strong gale. Rough sea. Squally, snow. Aurora australis. 


Mar 1 


59 15 S 


110 


00 


136 


30 


20 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Snow, squally, cloudy. Iceberg. 
Hove to at night. 


2 


56 54 S 


112 


23 


161 


267 


23 


Moderate gale. High sea. Partly cloudy, squally, snow. 


3 


53 45 S 


113 


41 


193 


172 


15 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Aurora australis. 


4 


51 30 S 


116 


26 


169 


198 


16 


Fresh variable winds. Moderate sea. Overcast, mist, drizzle. 
Aurora australis. 


5 


49 13 S 


120 


16 


201 


136 


33 


Fresh gale. High sea. Squally, drizzle, hail. 


6 


46 02 S 


122 


55 


219 


145 


16 


Fresh to whole gale. High sea. Squally, rain, hail. Hove to at night. 
Aurora australis. 


7 


45 09 S 


125 


08 


107 


19 


8 


Storm to strong gale. High sea. Squally, rain, lightning. Hove to all 
day with drift anchor. 


8 


44 58 S 


126 


01 


39 





7 


Strong gale. High sea. Squally, cloudy, hail, rain, lightning. 
Hove to all day with drift anchor. 


9 


44 11 S 


126 34 


53 


349 


12 


Moderate gale. High sea. Squally, rain. Aurora australis. 


10 


41 51 S 


127 


48 


149 


179 


12 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. High sea. Squally, drizzle. 


11 


39 54 S 


129 


14 


135 


188 


14 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea. Squally, overcast. 


12 


40 25 S 


130 


03 


49 


160 


11 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


13 


43 04 S 


131 


01 


165 


175 


19 


Fresh breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


14 


46 28 S 


130 


51 


205 


125 


27 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. High sea. Squally, rain. 


15 


48 42 S 


132 


52 


156 


172 


21 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Moderate sea. Squally, cloudy. 
Passing kelp. 


16 


50 27 S 


132 


55 


106 


122 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, mist, fog. Swung ship 
six points. Aurora australis. 


17 


53 44 S 


131 


51 


200 


115 


29 


Strong breeze to strong gale. High sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


18 


56 35 S 


133 


05 


176 


141 


30 


Whole gale. Rough sea. Squally, hail, drizzle. Hove to. Bright 
aurora australis. 


19 


56 48 S 


135 


36 


84 


83 


25 


Whole gale to moderate breeze. High sea. Squally. Brilliant 
aurora australis. 


20 


57 09 S 


138 


37 


102 


238 


12 


Moderate breeze. NW swell. Clear to overcast. Penguins. 


21 


56 53 S 


143 


00 


144 


229 


12 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, mist, fog. 


22 


56 47 S 


144 


47 


59 


263 


17 


Moderate variable breeze. NE swell. Overcast, fog, mist. Aurora 
australis. 


23 


56 39 S 


147 


07 


77 


159 


5 


Moderate variable breeze. W swell. Overcast, fog, mist. 


24 


54 24 S 


151 


00 


190 


134 


5 


Fresh breeze. High sea. Cloudy, rain. 


25 


52 54 S 


154 


22 


150 


190 


11 


Moderate to light breeze. W swell. Overcast. 


26 


52 37 S 


156 


35 


82 


77 


8 


Gentle variable winds. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzle. 


27 


50 59 S 


160 


47 


184 


252 


19 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy. 


28 


48 31 S 


164 


06 


196 


250 


6 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


29 


47 52 S 


167 


47 


153 


302 


14 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. Sighted Snares and 
Stewart Islands. 


30 


46 08 S 


171 


04 


170 


214 


15 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, overcast. 


31 


44 49 S 


172 


51 


109 


113 


8 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast to partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


Apr 1 


Lyttelton 






73 






Light breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Docked at Lyttelton at 














10 h 25 m a. m. 



Total distance, 17,084 miles. Time of passage, 118 days. Average day's run, 144.8 miles. 



150 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Port Lyttelton to Pago Pago, Samoa. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1916 
May 17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

Jun 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 


o t 

Lyttelton 
43 51 S 

42 54 S 

43 41 S 

43 58 S 

44 03 S 
43 38 S 
41 16 S 
39 49 S 
36 44 S 
33 34 S 
30 46 S 
30 59 S 
30 32 S 
29 09 S 
28 47 S 
26 47 S 
24 42 S 
22 42 S 
19 30 S 

18 33 S 
16 18 S 
Pago Pago 


O / 


miles 


O 


miles 


Left Lyttelton under tow at l h 10 m p. m. Gentle breeze. Moderate 

sea. Clear. 
Light variable winds. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 

power. 
Gentle breeze. Easterly swell. Cloudy, misty, fog. 
Strong breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, fog. 
Light airs and calm. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, fog. 
Calm to strong winds. NE swell. Clear. Crossed 180th meridian. 
Fresh breeze. NE swell." Clear. 
Strong to light breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 
Gentle to strong breeze. SW swell. Clear to overcast. 
Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Fresh breeze. NE swell. Cloudy, squally. 

Fresh gale to moderate breeze. NE swell. Overcast, lightning, thunder. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Squally, lightning and thunder. 
Fresh breeze to calm. Southerly swell. Overcast, drizzle. 
Calm to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally, lightning. 
Strong to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Squally, partly cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, squally. 
Gentle breeze to moderate gale. SSW swell. Overcast, rain. 
Moderate gale to moderate breeze. SE swell. Thunder, lightning, 

rain. Sighted Savage Island. 
Gentle breeze and calm. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 
Fresh variable winds. SE swell. Squally, lightning. Tide rips. 
Fresh breeze. SE swell. Squally, rain, lightning. Started engine 

6 h 30 m a. m. Anchored at 2 h p. m. at buoy C. 


174 34 

174 13 
176 06 
176 44 
178 26 
181 51 

184 21 

185 46 

186 36 

187 20 

185 28 

186 15 

187 53 

188 10 

189 22 
191 35 
191 39 
191 05 

190 06 

189 06 
189 31 


84 

58 

94 

32 

74 

150 

185 

108 

189 

193 

192 

42 

89 

88 

67 

166 

125 

124 

200 

81 
136 
118 


107 

202 
243 
147 
97 
212 
196 
177 
212 
194 
183 
195 
169 
38 
87 
164 
128 
202 
254 

252 
205 
202 


12 

14 
19 

7 
25 
13 
18 
10 
18 
21 
17 
13 
11 

3 
11 

9 
16 
19 
17 

15 

6 

24 



Total distance, 2,595 miles. Time of passage, 22 days. Average day's run, 118.0 miles. 

Pago Pago to Port Apra, Guam. 



1916 


o 


, 




O 


t 


miles 


O 


miles 




Jun 19 


Pago Paco 












Left buoy under power at ll h 10 m a. m. Moderate breeze. Moderate 




















sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


20 


11 


50 


S 


189 


08 


165 


205 


17 


Fresh breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


21 


9 


14 


S 


189 


24 


157 


299 


13 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, rain, lightning.thunder. 


22 


6 


32 


S 


188 


50 


165 


257 


11 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


23 


3 


42 


S 


187 


54 


179 


228 


31 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


24 


1 


26 


s 


186 


55 


149 


227 


38 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


25 





36 


N 


186 


07 


131 


228 


25 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally, drizzling. 


26 


2 


14 


N 


184 


34 


134 


157 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


27 


4 


34 


N 


182 


54 


173 


174 


29 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, lightning. 


28 


7 


31 


N 


181 


44 


190 


166 


7 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


29 


10 


31 


N 


180 24 


197 


186 


17 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally rain. Crossed 




















180th meridian. 


Jul 1 


12 


53 


N 


179 


08 


161 


235 


22 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally. 


2 


14 


54 


N 


176 


53 


177 


174 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


3 


15 


44 


N 


174 


20 


156 


159 


8 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Squally, rain, lightning and thunder. 


4 


16 


20 


N 


172 


11 


129 


166 


19 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning and thunder. 


5 


17 


21 


N 


170 


08 


132 


154 


14 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning and thunder. 


6 


18 


15 


N 


167 


30 


161 


95 


8 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


7 


19 


26 


N 


165 


16 


145 


115 


21 


Moderate breeze. NE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


8 


20 


•_'() 


N 


163 


03 


136 


142 


8 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Squally, cloudy, lightning. 


9 


20 


26 


N 


161 


10 


106 


39 


5 


Gentle breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


10 


19 


56 


N 


159 


24 


103 


16 


22 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


19 


20 


N 


157 


38 


106 


56 


21 


Gentle breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


12 


18 


10 


N 


155 


14 


153 


42 


18 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


13 


17 


03 


N 


152 


54 


150 


28 


14 


Moderate breeze. ESE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


14 


15 


56 


N 


150 


37 


148 


38 


22 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


15 


14 


43 


N 


148 


10 


160 


61 


17 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, squally, lightning. 


16 


14 


03 


N 


145 


58 


134 





6 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. 


17 


Port Apra 


Guam . . 


90 


356 


12 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, heavy rain. Moored to buoy, 




















3 h 15 m p. m. 



Total distance, 3,987 miles. Time of passage, 27.2 days. Average day's run, 146.6 miles. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Port Apra, Guam, to San Francisco. 



151 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1916 


o / 


/ 


miles 


o 


miles 




Aug 7 


Port Apra, 










Left buoy at l b p. m. in tow. Fresh to strong breeze. SW swell. 










Heavy rain squalls. 


8 


15 10 N 


144 17 


107 


176 


17 


Moderate gale. Heavy swell. Squally, rain, lightning, thunder. 


9 


16 45 N 


144 11 


95 


88 


19 


Fresh gale. Heavy swell. Squally, rain. Hove to. 


10 


17 21 N 


144 28 


40 


89 


19 


Fresh gale. Heavy swell. Squally, rain. Hove to. 


11 


17 54 N 


144 27 


32 


134 


9 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. WSW swell. Squally, rain, lightning. 


12 


19 50 N 


143 35 


126 


106 


23 


Fresh gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally, lightning. 


13 


23 35 N 


144 29 


231 


124 


36 


Fresh gale. Heavy sea. Squally, rain. 


14 


27 03 N 


144 25 


208 


163 


26 


Fresh breeze. SSW swell. Cloudy. 


15 


30 08 N 


143 59 


185 


114 


22 


Strong to light breeze. SW swell. Overcast, drizzling. 


16 


30 18 N 


144 20 


20 


100 


12 


Calm to gentle breeze. W then E swell. Cloudy, lightning. Under 
engine power. 


17 


31 58 N 


143 40 


106 


251 


13 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling, lightning, 
thunder. 


18 


34 14 N 


146 09 


185 


251 


13 


Strong breeze. High sea. Rain. 


19 


36 26 N 


150 30 


251 


341 


16 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. High sea. Squally, rain. 


20 


38 38 N 


154 05 


215 


356 


8 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


21 


40 29 N 


156 39 


162 


277 


8 


Gentle breeze. Westerly swell. Overcast. 


22 


42 51 N 


158 26 


134 


241 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


23 


44 57 N 


159 20 


132 


193 


15 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


24 


46 24 N 


160 26 


99 


204 


3 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 


25 


46 56 N 


163 06 


113 


308 


12 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine power. 


26 


47 08 N 


165 22 


93 


306 


7 


Moderate breeze to calm. Westerly swell. Overcast, fog. Swinging 
ship under engine power for H and /. 


27 


47 16 N 


167 49 


100 


170 


5 


Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Swinging ship for D, 5 
headings, 1 helm. 


28 


47 25 N 


169 08 


54 


272 


6 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


29 


47 39 N 


171 22 


92 


275 


10 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. 


30 


48 20 N 


175 20 


164 


274 


14 


Fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. Crossed 180th meridian. 


30 


48 55 N 


180 04 


191 


273 


17 


Gentle breeze. SW swell. Misty and foggy. 


31 


49 30 N 


182 20 


95 


274 


12 


Light breeze. Smooth sea, W swell. Overcast. 


Sep 1 


49 53 N 


184 16 


78 


219 


9 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, foggy. Passed kelp. 


2 


50 59 N 


187 28 


139 


275 


13 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Smooth to high sea. Overcast, rain. 


3 


51 31 N 


192 02 


174 


303 


15 


Fresh gale to moderate breeze. High sea. Overcast, misty, fog. 


4 


51 57 N 


196 07 


154 


237' 


17 


Light breeze. WNW swell. Overcast. 


5 


52 38 N 


199 25 


128 


219 


6 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


6 


53 16 N 


204 16 


180 


230 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


7 


52 55 N 


208 32 


155 


332 


13 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Misty, drizzling, fog. 


8 


51 48 N 


212 24 


157 


335 


22 


Strong breeze. High sea. Misty, foggy, rain. 


9 


49 33 N 


215 51 


187 


359 


20 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Foggy, misty. 


10 


47 14 N 


218 44 


179 


350 


77 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Foggy, misty. 


11 


45 30 N 


220 36 


130 


337 


18 


Moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Foggy, misty. 


12 


43 21 N 


221 43 


134 


307 


22 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


13 


41 18 N 


221 44 


123 


348 


11 


Moderate breeze. NE swell. Overcast. 


14 


40 56 N 


221 46 


23 


224 


7 


Light air and calm. NE swell. Overcast. 


15 


40 47 N 


221 58 


12 


171 


4 


Calm to gentle breeze. NE swell. Overcast. 


16 


40 40 N 


224 54 


134 


316 


15 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


17 


40 08 N 


228 50 


182 


310 


14 


Moderate breeze. SW swell. Overcast. 


18 


39 28 N 


230 44 


97 


314 


13 


Fresh breeze. Westerly swell. Overcast. 


19 


38 37 N 


234 09 


165 


272 


41 


Moderate breeze. NNW swell. Overcast, misty, fog. 


20 


38 17 N 


235 31 


67 


219 


12 


Light air. Smooth sea. Foggy, misty. Under engine power. 


21 


San Franci 


SCO 


109 






Calm. Smooth sea. Misty, foggy. Anchored at Quarantine, 
ll h 30 m a. m. 















Total distance, 5,937 miles. Time of passage, 45.9 days. Average day's run, 129.3 miles. 

San Francisco to Easter Island. 




Of o 


, 


miles 


O 


miles 












35 53 N 


236 


43 


130 


58 


12 


35 19 N 


236 


00 


49 


185 


3 


34 12 N 


236 


25 


71 


111 


7 



Left wharf at l h 45 m p. m. Moderate breeze. Westerly swell. 

Partly cloudy. 
Light breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy. 
Light breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy, overcast, squally. 
Light to moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy, squalls, rain. 



152 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

San Francisco to Easter Island — Concluded. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1916 


o / 


o / 


miles 


o 


miles 




Nov 5 


31 39 N 


237 08 


157 


22 


14 


Moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


6 


29 18 N 


238 22 


155 


334 


11 


Moderate breeze. NW swell. Partly cloudy. 


7 


26 43 N 


240 02 


178 


305 


16 


Fresh breeze. NW swell. Overcast. 


8 


23 40 N 


241 48 


207 


285 


19 


Fresh breeze. NW swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


9 


21 01 N 


243 16 


178 


295 


26 


Fresh to light breeze. NW swell. Partly cloudy. 


10 


20 05 N 


243 46 


62 


233 


7 


Light air. NW swell. Cloudy. 


11 


19 32 N 


243 52 


33 


204 


17 


Calm to light air. NW swell. Partly cloudy. 


12 


18 40 N 


244 26 


61 


244 


3 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


13 


16 46 N 


244 38 


115 


354 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


14 


14 59 N 


244 55 


108 


8 


23 


Light breeze. NW swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


15 


14 13 N 


244 56 


47 


180 


14 


Calm to gentle breeze. NW swell. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


16 


12 17 N 


244 56 


116 


329 


24 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


17 


9 35 N 


246 23 


184 


315 


39 


Fresh to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, thunder showers. 


18 


8 51 N 


246 32 


45 





27 


Light variable winds. SE swell. Overcast, rain, lightning, thunder. 


19 


8 56 N 


247 15 


43 


63 


32 


Calm and light air. SE swell. Overcast, thunder showers. Under 
engine power. 


20 


7 51 N 


248 33 


101 


187 


4 


Light breeze. SE swell. Overcast, thunder showers. Under engine 
power. 


21 


7 37 N 


249 25 


54 


351 


30 


Calm to fresh breeze. SE swell. Overcast, squally, rain. 


22 


7 33 N 


250 30 


66 


30 


20 


Light breeze. SE swell. Overcast, drizzling. 


23 


7 11 N 


251 13 


48 


127 


16 


Light variable winds. SE swell. Overcast, squally, rain. 


24 


7 01 N 


251 03 


14 


39 


13 


Gentle breeze. SE swell. Overcast, cloudy. 


25 


6 53 N 


253 02 


118 


22 


18 


Gentle breeze to calm. SE swell. Partly cloudy, overcast, drizzling. 
Under engine power. 


26 


6 11 N 


253 25 


48 


68 


29 


Calm to fresh breeze. SE swell. Overcast, rain, squalls. Under 
engine power. 


27 


5 26 N 


251 51 


104 


61 


24 


Fresh breeze. SE swell. Overcast, drizzling, squalls. 


28 


5 04 N 


249 21 


151 


287 


13 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Overcast, drizzling. 


29 


4 05 N 


247 06 


146 


5 


17 


Fresh breeze. SE swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


30 


1 52 N 


243 36 


247 


273 


40 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squalls, partly cloudy. 


Dec 1 


17 S 


241 28 


182 


98 


31 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Tide rips. 


2 


1 23 S 


240 45 


79 


287 


23 


Light air and breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


3 


2 16 S 


239 59 


71 


267 


32 


Calm to gentle breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


4 


4 26 S 


239 04 


141 


232 


12 


Gentle to strong breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


5 


6 54 S 


236 55 


196 


30 


10 


Fresh breeze. SE swell/ Partly cloudy. 


6 


9 41 S 


235 00 


203 


330 


17 


Fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


7 


12 38 S 


234 32 


179 


303 


8 


Fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


8 


15 48 S 


234 12 


191 


353 


7 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy, rain squalls. 


9 


17 50 S 


233 55 


123 


325 


12 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Squalls, partly cloudy. 


10 


20 16 S 


233 19 


150 


86 


1 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


22 22 S 


233 30 


126 


343 


8 


Moderate breeze and sea. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


12 


24 49 S 


234 02 


150 


25 


8 


Moderate breeze and sea. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


13 


26 29 S 


235 35 


130 


40 


2 


Gentle breeze. NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


14 


27 20 S 


236 43 


79 


223 


2 


Light breeze to calm. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


15 


27 53 S 


237 26 


51 


137 


17 


Light air. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


16 


28 58 S 


238 32 


86 


150 


7 


Gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


17 


30 30 S 


240 20 


132 


9 


14 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy, squally. 


18 


31 49 S 


242 48 


150 


343 


8 


Moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Overcast, drizzling, squalls. 


19 


32 09 S 


245 28 


137 


27 


1 


Variable winds. SW swell. Partly cloudy, rain. 


20 


32 23 S 


248 10 


139 


168 


6 


Variable winds. SW swell. Squalls, rain, cloudy. 


21 


31 02 S 


250 56 


163 


210 


18 


Moderate breeze to calm. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


22 


30 30 S 


251 02 


32 


207 


6 


Calm to light breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


23 


30 17 S 


251 29 


26 


194 


11 


Light to strong breeze. NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


24 


27 22 S 


250 45 


179 


205 


27 


Strong breeze. NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


21 


Easter Isl 


and 


24 






Dropped anchor in Cook Bay, 3 h 20 m p. m. 







Total distance, 6,155 miles. Time of passage, 53.1 days. Average day's run, 115.9 miles. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Easter Island to Buenos Aires. 



153 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 


















: 


Lat 




Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1917 


o 


i 




o 


f 


miles 


o 


miles 




Jan 2 


Easter 


Island 










Left anchorage in Cook Bay at 7 h 00 m a. m. 


2 


26 


52 


s 


250 


21 


18 


180 


1 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


3 


24 


18 


s 


249 


03 


170 


173 


24 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


4 


21 


24 


s 


248 


50 


174 


186 


22 


Fresh breeze. NE swell. Cloudy, squalls. 


5 


18 


12 


s 


248 


35 


193 


162 


23 


Fresh breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, squalls. 


6 


15 


04 


s 


248 


54 


189 


170 


24 


Fresh breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


7 


12 


28 


s 


248 


38 


156 


160 


26 


Fresh breeze. Easterly swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


8 


12 


30 


s 


245 


51 


163 


97 


10 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


9 


12 


34 


s 


242 


54 


173 


110 


12 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


10 


12 


36 


s 


239 


42 


188 


98 


15 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy. 


11 


12 


41 


s 


236 


44 


173 


106 


18 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell, cast, partly cloudy. 


12 


14 


33 


s 


234 


23 


176 


39 


15 


Moderate breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, overcast, squalls. 


13 


16 


02 


s 


232 


45 


130 


22 


10 


Gentle breeze. Easterly-swell. Partly cloudy. 


14 


17 


27 


s 


231 


22 


116 


59 


15 


Light breeze to moderate gale. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, over- 
cast, drizzling. 


15 


19 


35 


s 


230 


04 


148 


102 


17 


Moderate gale to calm. NW swell. Overcast, squalls. 


16 


19 


42 


s 


229 


45 


18 


254 


14 


Calm and light air. NW swell. Cloudy, lightning. 


17 


20 


10 S 


229 


04 


48 


216 


5 


Light air to gentle breeze. SE swell. Thunder showers. 


18 


21 


42 


s 


227 


06 


144 


68 


16 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


19 


23 


26 


s 


225 


03 


154 


19 


26 


Fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. Passed Gambier Island. 


20 


26 


44 


s 


223 


27 


216 


70 


12 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


21 


29 


35 


s 


221 


06 


212 


59 


27 


Fresh breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


22 


32 


16 


s 


220 


23 


165 


25 


17 


Moderate breeze and sea. Partly cloudy, overcast, rain. 


23 


34 


46 


s 


220 


02 


150 


359 


15 


Gentle to strong breeze. SW swell. Overcast. 


24 


37 


21 


s 


218 


05 


181 


67 


8 


Strong breeze to strong gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, drizzling. 
Hove to. 


25 


37 


35 


s 


217 


09 


46 


315 


4 


Strong gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, misty, rain. Hove to. 


26 


37 


46 


s 


216 


14 


46 


270 


15 


Strong to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, squalls. Hove to. 


27 


37 


52 


s 


215 


38 


29 


269 


15 


Strong to light breeze. SE swell. Overcast, squalls. 


28 


37 


54 


s 


217 


18 


79 


338 


12 


Gentle breeze. SE swell. Overcast, partly cloudy, misty. 


29 


38 


26 


s 


220 


16 


144 


308 


14 


Moderate breeze to fresh gale to moderate breeze. Southerly swell. 
Overcast, squalls, partly cloudy. 


30 


38 


31 


s 


221 


43 


69 


341 


13 


Moderate breeze to calm. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


31 


39 


34 


s 


222 


23 


70 


86 


4 


Light air to moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


Feb 1 


41 


58 


s 


222 


02 


145 


352 


17 


Moderate breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


2 


43 


40 


s 


221 


31 


103 


328 


12 


Light to fresh breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast. 


3 


42 


35 


s 


225 


40 


192 


271 


31 


Fresh to light breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


4 


43 


09 


s 


228 


38 


135 


300 


25 


Light to fresh breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


5 


45 


10 


s 


232 


25 


204 


335 


21 


Strong breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast, squally, rain. 


6 


46 


27 


s 


236 


43 


195 


305 


22 


Fresh breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast, squally. 


7 


46 


59 


s 


241 


28 


198 


288 


18 


Moderate gale. Southerly swell. Overcast, squalls. 


8 


48 


58 


s 


244 


09 


160 


344 


19 


Moderate gale. Heavy sea, southerly swell. Overcast, squalls. 


9 


51 


59 


s 


247 


38 


224 


27 


27 


Moderate to fresh gale. High sea. Overcast, misty. 


10 


54 


05 


s 


252 


12 


209 


330 


24 


Moderate gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, misty. 


11 


54 


37 


s 


257 


54 


202 


7 


21 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, hail, squalls. 


12 


55 


17 


s 


264 


35 


234 


323 


20 


Moderate gale. Heavy sea. Cloudy, squalls, hail. 


13 


56 


10 S 


271 


20 


234 


325 


24 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. Heavy sea. Cloudy, squalls, hail. 


14 


56 


52 


s 


277 


23 


205 


328 


22 


Variable winds. Southwest swell. Overcast, squalls, drizzling, fog. 


15 


57 


38 


s 


283 


22 


200 


331 


6 


Strong breeze. Westerly swell, rough sea. Overcast, rain, drizzling. 


16 


56 


42 


s 


289 


55 


220 


195 


19 


Strong breeze to fresh gale to light breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, 
squalls. Passed Diego Ramirez Island. 


17 


55 


58 


s 


293 


50 


137 


176 


7 


Moderate breeze. SW swell. Overcast, rain, partly cloudy. Sighted 
Cape Horn. 


18 


55 


03 


s 


295 


47 


86 


79 


17 


Calm to strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, drizzling. 


19 


53 


29 


s 


296 


52 


102 


27 


20 


Moderate breeze to light air to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, 
overcast. 


20 


52 


16 


s 


296 


00 


79 


259 


5 


Variable winds. NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


21 


50 


08 


s 


298 


36 


161 


153 


9 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


22 


47 


55 


s 


300 


01 


144 


26 


7 


Light variable winds and calm. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


23 


46 


18 


s 


300 


32 


100 


335 


18 


Calm and light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. Under 
engine power. 


24 


45 


33 


s 


301 


00 


48 


358 


15 


Calm and light air. Smooth sea. Overcast, foggy. Under engine 
power. 



154 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Easter Island to Buenos Aires — Concluded. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Ain't 




1917 


/ 


/ 


miles 





miles 




Feb 25 


43 34 S 


301 41 


122 


335 


17 


Calm to strong breeze. Easterly swell, heavy sea. Overcast, driz- 
zling, rain. Under engine power. 


26 


39 57 S 


302 58 


225 


342 


20 


Strong to gentle breeze. Rough sea. Rain, mist. 


27 


38 13 S 


304 04 


116 


10 


5 


Light variable winds and calm. SE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning 
and thunder, rain, hail. 


28 


37 09 S 


304 31 


68 


27 


28 


Calm to fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy, lightning, rain. 


Mar 1 


35 07 S 


303 24 


133 


72 


16 


Moderate variable winds. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power in the River Plate. 


2 


Buenos A 


res 


100 






Light breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. Docked at Buenos Aires at 














10 h 45 m a. m. 



Total distance, 8,619 miles. Time of passage, 59.1 days. Average day's run, 145.8 miles. 
Table 21. — Summary of Passages for Cruise IV of the Carnegie. 



Brooklyn to Cristobal, Canal Zone 

Cristobal to Balboa 

Balboa to Honolulu 

Honolulu to Dutch Harbor 

Dutch Harbor to Port Lyttelton . . 
Port Lyttelton to Port Lyttelton . . 

Port Lyttelton to Pago Pago 

Pago Pago to Guam 

Guam to San Francisco 

San Francisco to Easter Island. . . . 
Easter Island to Buenos Aires. . . . 



Length of 

passage 



miles 
2,487 
42 
5,303 
2,326 
8,865 
17,084 
2,595 
3,987 
5,937 
6,155 
8,619 



Time of 
passage 



days 
16.4 
0.5 
39.0 
16.9 
89.0 
118.0 
22.0 
27.2 
45.9 
53.1 
59.1 



Average 
day's run 



miles 
152 

136 
138 
100 
145 
118 
147 
129 
116 
146 



Length of Cruise IV, 63,400 miles. Time at sea, 487.1 days. Average day's run, 130 miles. 

H. M. W. Edmonds: Abstract of Log, Cruise V, 1917-1918. 

Buenos Aires to Talcahuano, Chile. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1917 
Dec 4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 


o / 

Buenos A 

34 44 S 

35 32 S 

35 47 S 

37 50 S 

39 21 S 

38 58 S 

40 04 S 

42 02 S 

43 26 S 


o / 


miles 


O 


miles 


Left dock under tow at ll h 45 m a. m. Gentle breeze to moderate 

gale. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Anchored overnight. 
Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Under 

engine power. Anchored overnight. 
Gentle to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. Under 

engine power. 
Moderate breeze and sea. Partly cloudy. 

Light variable winds. NE swell. Partly cloudy, drizzling, lightning. 
Gentle to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Strong breeze to calm. Moderate sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. 
Light variable winds. SE swell. Overcast, drizzling. 
Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Strong breeze to strong gale. Heavy sea. Partly cloudy, rain, 

lightning. 


302 27 

303 29 

304 07 

305 02 
304 59 
303 04 
302 23 
300 31 
299 11 


42 

71 

67 

131 

92 

93 

73 

145 

103 














26 
30 
20 
67 
80 
36 


14 
36 
18 
7 
14 
16 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Buenos Aires to Talcahuano, Chile — Concluded. 



155 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1917 


o / 


O / 


miles 





miles 




Dec 14 


43 06 S 


298 51 


25 


35 


41 


Moderate gale to calm. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


15 


44 35 S 


297 28 


107 


43 


12 


Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


47 31 S 


296 59 


177 


36 


22 


Moderate breeze and sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 


49 52 S 


297 26 


143 


17 


14 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


18 


51 29 S 


297 52 


98 


18 


14 


Fresh to strong breeze. Rough sea. Squally, rain, hail. 


19 


53 07 S 


299 59 


125 


273 


10 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squalls, hail, snow. 


20 


53 09 S 


300 28 


18 


33 


14 


Light to fresh breeze. S swell. Partly cloudy, squalls, hail. Sighted 
Beauchene Island. 


21 


53 33 S 


299 38 


38 


93 


20 


Strong to gentle breeze. SE swell. Overcast, squalls. Under engine 
power. 


22 


54 58 S 


297 07 


123 


60 


21 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Cloudy, drizzling, rain. 


23 


56 07 S 


295 40 


84 


93 


24 


Light breeze. Easterly swell. Partly cloudy, rain. 


24 


57 30 S 


292 31 


133 


112 


15 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, misty, 


25 


58 49 S 


288 25 


152 


116 


21 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squalls, 
drizzling. 


26 


58 17 S 


285 44 


90 


131 


8 


Fresh breeze, calm to storm. Rough sea. Overcast, rain, hail. 
Hove to. 


27 


57 37 S 


286 30 


47 


35 


19 


Whole gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squalls, 
hail. Hove to. 


28 


58 32 S 


284 48 


77 


147 


10 


Fresh to gentle breeze. Westerly swell, rough sea. Partly cloudy, 
rain, squally. 


29 


59 10 S 


284 22 


40 


162 


17 


Calm to moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Overcast. Under 
engine power. 


30 


58 32 S 


281 06 


108 


62 


16 


Moderate breeze. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy, rain, squally. 


31 
1918 
Jan 1 


55 55 S 


279 45 


163 


134 


14 


Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


52 37 S 


279 58 


198 


136 


11 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, rain. 


2 


52 08 S 


279 07 


42 


226 


9 


Strong breeze to strong gale. High sea. Overcast, misty. 


3 


52 02 S 


279 08 


6 


89 


8 


Strong to moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squalls. 


4 


50 24 S 


279 54 


102 


29 


12 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, rain, squally. 


5 


47 38 S 


279 23 


168 


51 


4 


Strong breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy, hail. 


6 


44 42 S 


280 21 


180 


77 


9 


Moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy, squally. 


7 


42 52 S 


281 22 


119 


114 


5 


Light breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


8 


41 34 S 


283 26 


88 


51 


9 


Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


9 


39 24 S 


283 26 


141 


311 


6 


Moderate to strong breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


10 


36 54 S 


286 20 


203 


320 


15 


Strong to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


11 


Talcahuano 




51 






Light breeze. Southerly swell. Clear. Dropped anchor at 8 h 42 m 
a. m. 







Total distance, 3,863 miles. Time of passage, 37.9 days. Average day's run, 101.9 miles. 

Talcahuano to Callao, Peru. 



1918 


O 


, 


O 


/ 


miles 





miles 


















Left anchorage at 9 h 00 m a. m. Light to gentle breeze. SW swell. 
Partly cloudy, foggy. 


















24 


35 


18 S 


286 


03 


97 


212 


7 


Gentle to moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


25 


33 


03 S 


284 


52 


147 


179 


8 


Moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


26 


31 


25 S 


284 


09 


104 


111 


6 


Moderate to light breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


27 


30 


47 S 


283 


35 


48 


51 


5 


Calm to moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


28 


29 


04 S 


281 


34 


147 


121 


14 


Moderate to fresh breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


29 


27 


28 S 


278 


50 


174 


101 


14 


Strong breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


30 


28 


07 S 


275 


33 


178 


44 


10 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally. Topgallantmast 
carried away. 


31 


29 


35 S 


273 


04 


157 


15 


12 


Fresh breeze. Rough head sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


Feb 1 


31 


29 S 


271 


20 


145 


13 


10 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 


2 


33 


07 S 


269 


16 


144 


11 


12 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


3 


35 


27 S 


268 


11 


150 


18 


9 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


4 


36 


55 S 


268 


45 


92 


176 


8 


Light breeze to light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


5 


36 


56 S 


270 


08 


67 


100 


15 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 



156 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Talcahuano to Callao, Peru — Concluded. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1918 

Feb 6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
22 


o / 

36 59 S 
36 58 S 
36 08 S 
34 12 S 

31 58 S 
30 16 S 
28 04 S 
25 39 S 
23 58 S 
22 30 S 
20 53 S 
19 44 S 
18 18 S 
16 25 S 
14 18 S 
13 14 S 
12 21 S 


o t 

272 06 
275 07 

278 28 
278 43 

278 36 
278 24 
278 11 
278 12 
278 31 

278 58 

279 47 

280 33 

281 40 

281 52 

282 10 
282 36 
282 34 


miles 
94 
145 
169 
117 

134 

102 

133 

144 

102 

92 

107 

81 

107 

113 

129 

69 

53 

27 


o 

207 

234 
206 
186 

199 

255 
236 
219 
297 
313 
328 
343 
331 
309 
285 
328 
350 


miles 
10 
13 
14 

7 

19 
10 
14 
13 
14 
12 
13 
14 
5 
12 
18 
12 
* 19 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 

Moderate to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 

Fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, drizzling. 

Fresh breeze. SW swell. Misty, partly cloudy. Sighted Mas 

Afuera Islands. 
Moderate to light breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. SW swell. Partly cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. SW swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 
Moderate to gentle breeze. SW swell. Overcast, partly cloudy. 
Gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast. 
Gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Overcast. 
Light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Light to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Gentle to light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Light air. Smooth sea. Foggy, partly cloudy. 
Anchored at Callao 6 h 10 m p. m. 











Total distance, 3,568 miles. Time of passage, 30.4 days. Average day's run, 117.4 miles. 















Callao 


to Balboa, Canal Zone. 


1918 


o / 




O 


/ 


miles 


o 


miles 




Mar 29 


Callao 














Left anchorage 9 h 16 m a. m. Calm to light breeze. Southerly swell. 
Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


















30 


11 00 


S 


281 


28 


102 


212 


2 


Light to gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy, foggy. 


31 


10 00 


S 


279 


28 


133 


344 


7 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


Apr 1 


10 14 


s 


277 


75 


131 


140 


2 


Moderate breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


2 


11 24 


s 


274 


58 


152 


318 


7 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


3 


12 28 


s 


273 


21 


114 


277 


3 


Gentle to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squalls, rain. 


4 


14 10 


s 


271 


06 


167 


305 


6 


Fresh to strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squalls, rain. 


5 


15 59 


s 


268 


52 


170 


272 


6 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 


6 


16 09 


s 


266 


19 


147 


359 


1.3 


Moderate to strong breeze. Southerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


7 


15 34 


s 


263 


29 


167 


295 


6 


Strong to moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


8 


13 43 


s 


264 


12 


119 


304 


10 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, drizzling, squalls. 


9 


12 07 


s 


265 


01 


107 


304 


3 


Gentle breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


10 


10 35 


s 


266 


00 


109 


229 


1 


Moderate breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


11 


8 47 


s 


267 


24 


136 


304 


11 


Moderate to fresh breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


12 


7 28 


s 


268 


46 


113 


254 


13 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy. 


13 


6 22 


s 


270 


01 


100 


239 


22 


Moderate to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 


14 


5 18 


s 


272 


01 


135 


198 


15 


Strong to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, partly cloudy. 


15 


3 35 


s 


273 


38 


142 


145 


7 


Fresh to gentle breeze. SE swell. Overcast, rain, squalls. 


16 


2 06 


s 


274 


28 


102 


239 


13 


Gentle to light breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


17 


1 12 


s 


275 


20 


75 


345 


10 


Light to gentle breeze. SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


18 


12 


N 


276 


56 


128 


12 


28 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


19 


1 41 


N 


278 


27 


127 


19 


26 


Gentle to light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


20 


2 29 


N 


280 


00 


106 


53 


20 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, lightning. 


21 


3 29 


N 


280 


42 


73 


56 


23 


Light to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


22 


5 12 


N 


281 


27 


113 


57 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain, drizzle. 


23 


7 09 


N 


281 


38 


117 


22 


29 


Gentle breeze to light air. SW swell. Overcast, rain. Under 
engine power. 


24 


8 26 


N 


280 


27 


104 


324 


36 


Light breeze. SW swell. Overcast, rain. Under engine power. 


24 


Off BalK 


a . . . 




23 






At 5 h 05 m p. m. anchored off Taboguilla Island. 
Towed 14 miles from anchorage to dock at 5 h 15 m p. m. 


25 


Balbo 


ji 

























Total distance, 3,212 miles. Time of passage, 26.3 days. Average day's run, 122.1 miles. 
1 The Carnegie left Balboa under tow at 6 h 23 m a. m., May 2, and arrived at Cristobal at 7 b 45 n 



p. m. the same day. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Cristobal to Newport News. 



157 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1918 


o / 


o t 


miles 


O 


miles 




May 11 


Cristobal . 










Left Cristobal dock at ll h 55 m a. m. Light breeze to calm. N swell. 














Overcast, lightning, thunder. 


12 


10 17 N 


280 26 


65 


49 


28 


Calm to moderate breeze to calm. NE swell. Overcast, squally, 
lightning. Under engine power. 


13 


11 45 N 


280 24 


88 


7 


37 


Light air to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


14 


13 31 N 


280 13 


106 


314 


16 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


14 02 N 


279 38 


47 


278 


21 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


16 01 N 


278 29 


136 


328 


24 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 


18 02 N 


277 19 


138 


314 


46 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


18 


20 15 N 


276 14 


147 


331 


50 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


19 


21 21 N 


274 41 


109 


302 


33 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


20 


23 38 N 


273 44 


147 


335 


69 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


21 


23 45 N 


274 38 


51 


108 


23 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


22 


23 20 N 


276 16 


93 


78 


36 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, lightning, thunder. 


23 


24 02 N 


277 02 


59 


116 


44 


Fresh to strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squalls, rain, lightning, 
thunder. 


24 


23 48 N 


278 08 


62 


57 


28 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squalls, rain. 
Sighted American Shoal light. 


25 


24 16 N 


279 10 


63 


57 


57 


Strong to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, rain. Sighted 
Alligator Reef light. 


26 


25 19 N 


280 10 


83 


39 


67 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Sighted Carysfort 
light. 


27 


28 58 N 


280 09 


219 


355 


75 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


28 


30 39 N 


281 00 


110 


352 


48 


Gentle breeze to light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


29 


31 12 N 


281 50 


54 


24 


9 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


30 


31 50 N 


282 17 


45 


354 


21 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


31 


32 44 N 


284 01 


103 


118 


10 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


Jun 1 


33 54 N 


284 34 


105 


44 


8 


Light breeze to calm. Westerly swell. Partly cloudy. 


2 


34 29 N 


285 59 


40 


79 


23 


Light to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


3 


36 06 N 


285 09 


105 


71 


29 


Moderate breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


4 


36 40 N 


284 12 


57 


195 


11 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


4 


Newport 


Mews . . . 


43 






At ll h p. m. anchored off docks. 


8 


Newport 


News . . . 








Left ancorage at ll^SO"" a. m. Under engine power. 

Swinging ship under engine power. Proceeding up Potomac River. 

Docked at 8 h 30 m p. m. Under engine power. 


9 


Chesapeak 


5 Bay . . . 








10 


Washingto 


i 

















Total distance, 2,275 miles. Time of passage, 24.4 days. Average day's run, 93.0 miles. 



Table 22. — Summary of Passages for Cruise V of the Carnegie. 



Length of 
passage 



Time of 
passage 



Average 
day's run 



Buenos Aires to Talcahuano 

Talcahuano to Callao 

Callao to Balboa Anchorage 

Balboa Anchorage to Balboa to Cristobal 

Cristobal to Newport News 

Newport News to Chesapeake Bay to Washington. 



miles 
3,863 
3,568 
3,212 
58 
2,275 
219 



days 
37.9 
30.4 
26.3 

0.5 
24.4 

2.4 



miles 
102 
117 
122 



93 



Length of Cruise V, 13,195 miles. Time at sea, 121.9 days. Average day's run, 108 miles. 



158 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



J. P. Ault: Abstract of Log, Cruise VI, 1919-1921. 
Washington, D. C, to Dakar, French West Africa. 







^oon position 




Current 














Day's 








Date 










run 






Remarks 








Long. 














L>at. 


E. of Gr. 




Dir. 


Am't 




1919 


o 


, 


O 


, 


miles 


O 


miles 




Oct 9 


Washingto 


n, D. 


c 








Left dock at 12 h 46 m p. m. Anchored overnight. 

Anchored off Old Point Comfort at l h 10 m p. m. Partly cloudy. 


15 1 


Old Point 


Comf 


ort 








19 
19 


Old Point 
36 S3 N 


Comf 

284 


08 








Left Old Point Comfort at 7 h 50 m a. m. 

Gentle breeze. E swell. Partly cloudy. 

Moderate to strong breeze. Rough sea, easterly swell. Partly 


23 






20 


35 


36 N 


286 


14 


128 


141 


18 


















cloudy, squally. 


21 


36 


50 N 


287 


11 


87 


45 


35 


Fresh breeze to whole gale. Rough sea, E swell. Squally, rain. 


22 


38 


24 N 


291 


37 


231 


48 


40 


Fresh breeze to strong gale. Heavy sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy, 


23 


38 


31 N 


295 


47 


196 


106 


15 


Strong breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Cloudy, lightning. 


24 


37 


41 N 


297 


34 


98 


105 


51 


Light air to moderate breeze. Moderate sea, E swell. Overcast. 


25 


36 


49 N 


297 


58 


55 


118 


19 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Cloudy. 


26 


38 


48 N 


298 


56 


127 


225 


15 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Heavy sea, southerly swell. Cloudy. 


27 


39 


19 N 


302 


38 


175 


193 


11 


Strong to gentle breeze. Heavy sea, SW swell. Overcast, rain. 


28 


38 


53 N 


306 


26 


179 


108 


29 


Moderate breeze to calm. Long E swell. Partly cloudy, rain. 


29 


38 


26 N 


309 


17 


136 


99 


34 


Light breeze to fresh gale. Moderately heavy sea, W swell. Partly 
cloudy. 


30 


38 


52 N 


314 


14 


236 


143 


31 


Moderate gale increasing to storm. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally. 
Hove to at night. 


31 


38 


47 N 


315 


56 


78 


178 


29 


Storm. Very rough sea. Overcast, hail squalls. Hove to. 


Nov 1 


38 


25 N 


316 


21 


28 


139 


30 


Storm to fresh breeze. Very rough and high sea. Overcast, squally, 
hail. Hove to. 


2 


38 


27 N 


319 


27 


146 


240 


16 


Fresh to gentle breeze. Rough sea, N swell. Cloudy. 


3 


38 


27 N 


321 


46 


109 


204 


6 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


4 


39 


06 N 


323 


10 


77 


224 


8 


Light to strong breeze. Moderate sea, E swell. Partly cloudy, 
rain squalls. 


5 


38 


54 N 


327 


30 


202 


217 


26 


Fresh breeze to light air. Long N swell. Partly cloudy. 


6 


38 


48 N 


329 


28 


92 


124 


10 


Light breeze to calm. Long N swell. Partly cloudy. Sighted Flores 
Island. Under engine power. 


7 


37 


15 N 


329 


47 


94 


320 


6 


Light to strong breeze. Moderate choppy sea. Cloudy. 


8 


35 


35 N 


329 


41 


100 


348 


6 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, drizzling. 


9 


35 


37 N 


331 


56 


110 


65 


6 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


10 


35 


12 N 


334 


08 


110 


188 


3 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


34 


13 N 


335 


49 


103 


220 


10 


Light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


12 


33 


03 N 


338 


01 


129 


13 


13 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain squalls. 


13 


30 


18 N 


340 


13 


199 


45 


20 


Strong breeze. Moderate sea, W swell. Overcast. 


14 


27 


22 N 


340 


44 


179 


63 


20 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


25 


37 N 


340 


35 


105 


76 


13 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


16 


25 


13 N 


340 


23 


27 


268 


13 


Gentle breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 


24 


45 N 


340 


29 


28 


296 


16 


Gentle breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy, drizzling, 
thunder, lightning. 


18 


21 


57 N 


340 


24 


168 


294 


7 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


19 


19 


10 N 


341 


06 


172 


8 


10 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Harmattan, partly cloudy, foggy. 


20 


16 


30 N 


341 


54 


166 


191 


5 


Moderate breeze. Cross sea. Harmattan, partly cloudy. 


21 


15 


10 N 


342 


28 


87 


340 


12 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Harmattan, partly cloudy. 


22 


14 


38 N 


342 


32 


31 


352 


10 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Harmattan, partly cloudy. Hove to 
all night. 


22 


Da 








6 






Dropped anchor in Dakar Harbor at 2 h 30 m p. m. Under engine power. 











Total distance, 4,217 miles. Time of passage, Old Point Comfort to Dakar, 34.3 days. Average day's run, 122.9 mile 
1 From October 10 to October 14 the Carnegie was at Solomons Island and in Chesapeake Bay, to swing ship and for 
atmospheric-electric observations. Under engine power. ,. 



Dakar to Buenos Aires, Argentina. 



1919 


o t 


O / 


miles 





miles 




Nov 26 


Dakar. . . . 










Left anchorage at 2 h 15 m p. m. Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. 
Under engine power. 












27 


12 40 N 


342 22 


122 


351 


15 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. Tide rips. 


28 


10 28 N 


343 07 


138 


289 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Tide rips. 


29 


9 28 N 


343 51 


74 


201 


13 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning, thunder. 
Tide rips. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Dakar to Buenos Aires, Argentina — Concluded. 



159 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1919 


O / 


O / 


miles 


o 


miles 




Nov 30 


8 40 N 


344 42 


69 


95 


9 


Gentle breeze to light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Tide rips. 
Under engine power. 


Dec 1 


7 43 N 


345 50 


88 


274 


8 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea. Clear. Tide rips. Under engine 
power. 


2 


7 10 N 


346 38 


58 


326 


31 


Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


3 


6 48 N 


346 34 


23 


332 


22 


Calm to light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


4 


6 22 N 


346 52 


32 


140 


4 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


5 


5 56 N 


348 05 


78 


113 


4 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally, lightning, 
thunder. Under engine power. 


' 6 


5 13 N 


349 09 


77 


341 


2 


Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


7 


4 50 N 


350 29 


84 


11 


5 


Light air. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine power. 


8 


4 19 N 


351 52 


88 


307 


8 


Light air. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 
Cape Palmas abeam at 4 h 20 m p. m. 


9 


3 40 N 


352 19 


48 


334 


11 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


10 


4 05 N 


354 16 


120 


319 


9 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


4 06 N 


355 20 


64 


63 


16 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


12 


4 02 N 


356 17 


57 


90 


19 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


13 


3 34 N 


358 02 


109 


310 


8 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


14 


2 55 N 


359 22 


89 


283 


11 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


1 58 N 


20 


82 


284 


9 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


59 N 


1 42 


100 


289 


19 


Light to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


17 


00 


3 48 


140 


282 


31 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


18 


1 32 S 


5 01 


117 


314 


22 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain, lightning. 


19 


46 S 


3 31 


101 


330 


18 


Light breeze to calm. Moderate sea. Overcast, light rain, lightning. 


20 


18 S 


3 06 


37 


17 


15 


Light breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


21 


32 S 


1 31 


96 


91 


7 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


22 


1 13 S 


05 


95 


241 


20 


Light air to moderate breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


23 


1 58 S 


357 59 


133 


274 


14 


Light to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


24 


3 20 S 


355 49 


153 


176 


3 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


25 


4 54 S 


353 28 


169 


80 


6 


Fresh breeze. Choppy sea. Cloudy. 


26 


6 54 S 


351 09 


183 


92 


7 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


27 


9 06 S 


348 54 


189 


104 


14 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


28 


11 05 S 


346 40 


178 


34 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


29 


13 04 S 


344 27 


176 


77 


7 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


30 


15 16 S 


342 14 


185 


13 


10 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, drizzling. 


31 
1920 
Jan 1 


17 27 S 


340 06 


180 


3 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


19 11 S 


338 25 


135 


11 


12 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


2 


20 41 S 


336 54 


125 


23 


1 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


3 


22 12 S 


335 22 


125 


14 


15 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


4 


23 47 S 


333 41 


132 


6 


12 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


5 


24 51 S 


332 51 


78 


113 


10 


Light breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


6 


26 32 S 


330 36 


159 


87 


22 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate choppy sea. Cloudy, squally. 


7 


28 04 S 


329 25 


112 


23 


10 


Gentle breeze to calm. Choppy sea. Overcast, rain. 


8 


28 51 S 


326 35 


155 


93 


8 


Moderate to strong breeze. Long swell. Overcast, rain. 


9 


30 07 S 


323 04 


199 


92 


24 


Strong to light breeze. Long swell. Overcast, rain. 


10 


31 01 S 


321 40 


90 


100 


8 


Gentle breeze. Long swell. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


11 


32 42 S 


319 31 


149 


18 


15 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


12 


32 57 S 


317 57 


80 


18 


5 


Moderate breeze to calm. Moderate sea, long swell. Clear to 
overcast. 


13 


33 48 S 


316 05 


106 


23 


5 


Fresh breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Cloudy to clear. 


14 


34 10 S 


315 10 


51 


115 


11 


Calm to strong breeze. Moderate choppy sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


33 36 S 


311 54 


162 


91 


8 


Strong wind to light breeze. Long swell. Cloudy. 


16 


34 06 S 


309 43 


112 


53 


12 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, "pampero" with 
heavy rain, hail, thunder, and lightning. 


17 


34 36 S 


306 02 


185 


141 


20 


Fresh breeze to calm. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally. Sighted 
Cape Polonio light at 8 h 05 m a. m. 


18 


35 05 S 


304 05 


105 






Fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Squally, changeable. Picked up pilot 
at Recalada at 2 h 40 m p. m. Under engine power. 














19 


Buenos Ai 

1 


res 


138 






Anchored off Buenos Aires at 7 h 15 m a. m. Docked at 5 h 20 m p. m. 







Total distance, 6,130 miles. Time of passage, 53.7 days. Average day's run, 114.1 miles. 



160 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Buenos Aires to Jamestown, St. Helena. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 














Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1920 


o / 





/ 


miles 


o 


miles 




Feb 21 












Left Buenos Aires under tow at 2 h 05 m p. m. 


22 


In River Plate 








Under pilot's orders. Under engine power. Gentle breeze to moderate 
gale. Anchored overnight. 
















23 


35 10 S 


303 


41 


114 






Passed Recalada Lightship at noon. Gentle to strong breeze. 
















Choppy sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


24 


37 20 S 


305 


17 


152 


138 


5 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, lightning. 


25 


39 29 S 


307 


40 


170 


139 


28 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, thunder and lightning. 


26 


40 25 S 


310 


16 


132 


309 


26 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


27 


41 34 S 


311 


53 


100 


294 


10 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


28 


44 00 S 


313 


38 


166 


31 


21 


Gentle breeze to fresh gale. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly 
cloudy, lightning and thunder. 


29 


46 02 S 


317 


51 


216 


5 


23 


Whole gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


Mar 1 


45 55 S 


323 


04 


217 


329 


18 


Whole gale to strong breeze. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


2 


45 02 S 


327 


19 


187 


329 


23 


Strong to light breeze. Moderately rough sea. Overcast, squally. 


3 


45 27 S 


330 


16 


127 


338 


11 


Moderate to light breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Icebergs. 


4 


45 45 S 


334 


57 


198 


248 


8 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Iceberg. 


5 


44 10 S 


339 


57 


232 


188 


12 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. 


6 


42 17 S 


344 


33 


230 


196 


14 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


7 


40 48 S 


348 


19 


191 


224 


9 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, westerly swell. Overcast. 


8 


40 08 S 


350 


04 


89 


302 


5 


Gentle breeze to light air. Smooth sea, W swell. Overcast. Passed 
Gough Island. 


9 


38 44 S 


351 


48 


117 


242 


11 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Smooth sea, E and W swell. Cloudy. 


10 


36 56 S 


353 


04 


123 


189 


10 


Fresh breeze to light air. Choppy sea, E swell. Overcast, misty. 


11 


36 10 S 


354 


02 


66 


45 


12 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea, E swell. Overcast, misty, hazy, and 
foggy. 


12 


35 47 S 


356 


21 


114 


157 


9 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


13 


35 00 S 





12 


194 


168 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate choppy sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


14 


32 56 S 


2 


06 


156 


203 


12 


Moderate breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


32 10 S 


2 


36 


52 


337 


7 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


16 


30 59 S 


3 


26 


83 


268 


7 


Light air to fresh breeze. Smooth sea, WSW swell. Partly cloudy. 


17 


28 07 S 


5 


12 


195 


270 


23 


Fresh to strong breeze, SE trades. Moderately rough sea. Partly 
cloudy. 


18 


25 10 S 


7 


17 


209 


233 


16 


Fresh SE trades. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


19 


22 13 S 


7 


36 


178 


222 


23 


Moderate SE trades. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


20 


19 39 S 


7 


52 


155 


242 


18 


Moderate SE trades. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


21 


16 41 S 


8 


03 


178 


230 


16 


Moderate SE trades. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


22 


13 59 S 


7 


28 


165 


218 


11 


Moderate SE trades. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


23 


13 35 S 


4 


45 


160 


336 


9 


Moderate SE trades. Moderately smooth sea. Cloudy. 


24 


14 02 S 


2 


06 


157 


4 


3 


Moderate to light SE trades. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 


25 


14 41 S 


359 


29 


158 


351 


5 


Gentle to fresh SE trades. Smooth sea, SSW swell. Cloudy. 


26 


15 46 S 


356 


15 


198 


333 


10 


Moderate SE trades. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


27 


St. Helena 






112 






Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. Anchored off James- 














town, St. Helena, at 9 h a. m. 



Total distance, 5,291 miles. Time of passage, 34.8 days. Average day's run, 152.0 miles. 

Jamestown, St. Helena, to Cape Town. 



1920 


o t 


O / 


miles 


O 


miles 




Apr 3 












Left St. Helena at 3 h 20 m p. m. Moderate breeze. Moderately 
smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 












4 


17 25 S 


351 49 


168 


245 


1 


Moderate SE trades. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


5 


19 35 S 


349 24 


190 


245 


6 


Moderate SE trades. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


6 


21 37 S 


347 33 


161 


329 


3 


Moderate to light SE trades. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


7 


22 43 S 


346 38 


75 


202 


6 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


8 


24 16 S 


345 42 


107 


99 


4 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


9 


25 10 S 


345 36 


54 


284 


5 


Strong breeze and calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


10 


26 46 S 


344 22 


117 


33 


8 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, 
rain. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Jamestown, St. Helena, to Cape Town — Concluded. 



161 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1920 


O / 


O f 


miles 





miles 




Apr 11 


29 10 S 


342 37 


170 


290 


9 


Strong to light breeze. Cross sea, E swell. Overcast. 


12 


31 04 S 


342 39 


114 


288 


12 


Light air to fresh breeze. Moderately smooth sea, E swell. Partly 
cloudy. 


13 


33 55 S 


344 11 


170 


28 


13 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, lightning, 
thunder, rain. 


14 


35 59 S 


346 29 


183 


57 


21 


Gentle breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Overcast, lightning, thunder, 


15 


36 22 S 


349 00 


124 


15 


19 


Moderate breeze to calm. Rough sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 
Sighted Tristan da Cunha Island. 


16 


37 04 S 


353 13 


207 


357 


11 


Fresh breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Clear to overcast. 


17 


37 26 S 


357 58 


227 


337 


13 


Fresh to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. 


18 


37 06 S 


2 30 


218 


196 


19 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, rain. 


19 


35 56 S 


6 14 


192 


356 


7 


Strong to moderate breeze. Moderately rough sea, SW swell. 
Cloudy. 


20 


37 31 S 


7 47 


120 


135 


5 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally. 


21 


37 30 S 


10 39 


136 


157 


10 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


22 


36 41 S 


12 59 


122 


84 


7 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


23 


35 25 S 


15 47 


155 


111 


21 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, drizzling. 


24 


Cape Tow 




160 






Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Clear. Under engine power. 












Docked at Cape Town at l h 10 m p. m. 



Total distance, 3,170 miles. Time of passage, 20.9 days. Average day's run, 151.7 miles. 

Cape Town to Colombo. 



1920 


o 


/ 




o 


, 


miles 


O 


miles 




May 20 


Cane 


Town 










Left Cape Town at 3 h p. m. Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 
Under engine power. 


















21 


35 


50 


S 


17 


51 


125 


7 


11 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, W swell. Cloudy. 


22 


38 


22 


s 


18 


49 


159 


346 


23 


Moderate breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squalls, rain, 
lightning. 


23 


39 


40 


s 


22 


05 


172 


44 


28 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, lightning, 
thunder. 


24 


39 4i 


25 


18 


149 


36 


40 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, 




















lightning. 


25 


39 


21 


s 


29 


01 


173 


198 


17 


Fresh gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, lightning. 


26 


38 


32 


s 


32 


10 


155 


199 


12 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 


27 


36 


25 


s 


34 


54 


182 


285 


13 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


28 


34 


43 


s 


37 


45 


172 


328 


19 


Moderate breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


29 


33 


47 


s 


40 


42 


157 


276 


11 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


30 


33 


09 


s 


44 


09 


177 


180 


7 


Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


31 


34 


54 


s 


47 


15 


186 


199 


11 


Strong breeze to calm. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


Jun 1 


34 


21 


s 


47 


30 


35 


2 


12 


Calm to strong breeze. Moderate sea, E swell. Overcast, squally, 
rain, lightning, thunder. 


2 


32 


33 


s 


48 


32 


119 


312 


14 


Strong breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain, 
lightning. 


3 


31 


23 


s 


52 


08 


196 


311 


13 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


4 


30 


38 


s 


56 


22 


223 


333 


28 


Moderate to fresh gale. Rough to heavy sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


5 


30 


08 


s 


60 


49 


232 


350 


33 


Moderate gale. Heavy to rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


6 


28 


00 


s 


63 


22 


185 


302 


23 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


7 


26 


06 


s 


65 


27 


159 


99 


14 


Gentle breeze and calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 


8 


23 


52 


s 


66 


05 


139 


96 


2 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


9 


20 


53 


s 


65 


55 


179 


32 


13 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


10 


17 


49 


s 


65 


29 


186 


289 


8 


Fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 


11 


14 


24 


s 


65 


03 


206 


212 


22 


Strong SE trades. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


12 


10 


39 


s 


64 


32 


227 


259 


29 


Strong SE trades. Cross sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


13 


7 


21 


s 


64 


06 


200 


249 


34 


Moderate trades. Cross sea. Partly cloudy. 


14 


5 


04 


s 


63 


29 


142 


232 


37 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


3 


11 


s 


63 


34 


113 


138 


18 


Gentle breeze and calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


16 


2 


02 


s 


63 


11 


72 


197 


15 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 





03 


s 


62 


56 


121 


134 


16 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 



162 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Cape Town to Colombo — Concluded. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1920 
Jun 18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 

27 
28 
29 

30 


o r 

1 57 N 
3 49 N 

6 19 N 
9 20 N 

12 50 N 
12 25 N 
11 04 N 

9 40 N 

8 39 N 

8 07 N 

7 39 N 
7 25 N 


/ 

62 35 

61 44 
60 43 
59 26 
59 16 

62 50 
66 02 

68 57 

71 37 

73 50 

75 35 
78 46 


miles 
121 
124 
162 
196 
225 
228 
205 

191 

170 

136 

107 
190 

69 


o 

116 
87 
59 
147 
105 
38 
26 

77 

304 

39 

197 

71 


miles 
23 
9 
11 
11 
24 
11 
13 

10 

5 

4 
9 
9 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 

Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 

Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 

Strong breeze. Choppy sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 

Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 

Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 

Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, 

squally. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally, thunder, 

lightning, rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally, rain. Passed 

Minikoi Island. 
Gentle breeze, calm. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain, thunder, lightning. 
Gentle to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. Hove to 

overnight. 
Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally, rain. Anchored in 

Colombo Harbor at 10 h a. m. 











Total distance, 6,665 miles. Time of passage, 40.8 days. Average day's run, 163.4 miles. 

Colombo to Fremantle. 



1920 





/ 




/ 


miles 


o 


miles 




Jul 24 

24 


Colombo , 
6 52 N 










Left Colombo Harbor at 9 h a. m. 

Light breeze. Choppy sea, NW swell. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


79 40 


12 






















25 


4 


37 


N 


80 08 


137 


66 


17 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


26 


4 


24 


N 


83 16 


188 


35 


18 


Strong to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


27 


3 


17 


N 


86 35 


210 


85 


9 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


28 


2 


11 


N 


89 52 


207 


52 


7 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 


29 


1 


28 


N 


92 12 


147 


318 


11 


Moderate breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 
Under engine power. 


30 


1 


06 


N 


93 22 


73 


323 


10 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Overcast. Under engine power. 


31 





10 


S 


94 02 


85 


310 


11 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine power. 


Aug 1 


1 


44 


S 


94 06 


95 


240 


17 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. Under engine 
power. 


2 


3 


30 S 


94 22 


107 


209 


10 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine power. 


3 


4 


57 


S 


95 13 


101 


105 


13 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. Under 
engine power. 


4 


6 


29 


S 


95 36 


95 


166 


2 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea. Overcast, rain. Under engine 
power. 


5 


8 


05 


s 


95 35 


96 


230 


6 


Calm and light airs. Smooth sea, S swell. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


6 


9 2i 


94 56 


84 


198 


24 


Calm. Smooth sea, southerly swell. Clear. Under engine power. 


7 


10 


22 


s 


94 20 


72 


207 


27 


Calm to gentle breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Clear. Under 
engine power. 


8 


12 


10 


s 


93 03 


132 


238 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Overcast, squally, rain. 


9 


14 


42 


s 


90 37 


207 


60 


3 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


10 


17 


26 


s 


88 01 


223 


113 


6 


Strong breeze. Moderately rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


11 


20 


05 


s 


85 37 


209 


272 


2 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, rain, squally. 


12 


22 


24 


s 


83 36 


179 


54 


3 


Fresh to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


13 


24 


26 


s 


81 41 


161 


49 


14 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally. 


14 


26 


09 


s 


79 23 


163 


71 


6 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally. 


15 


25 


49 


s 


80 03 


41 


321 


8 


Moderate to strong breeze. Choppy sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


16 


27 


07 


s 


78 08 


130 


90 


5 


Moderate breeze. Choppy sea. Cloudy, squally. 


17 


28 


08 


s 


76 41 


98 


90 


2 


Light breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


18 


29 


16 


s 


75 01 


111 


348 


6 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


19 


30 


29 


s 


74 06 


87 


220 


4 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


20 


32 


27 


s 


75 48 


147 


336 


10 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, heavy dew. 


21 


33 


45 


s 


79 22 


196 


343 


8 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Colombo to Fremantle — Concluded. 



163 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1920 


/ 


o / 


miles 


o 


miles 




Aug 22 


34 40 S 


83 23 


207 


239 


9 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, heavy dew. 


23 


35 06 S 


87 09 


187 


204 


6 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, foggy, rain. 


24 


35 18 S 


91 38 


220 


226 


10 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


25 


35 40 S 


95 24 


186 


323 


9 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy. 


26 


35 30 S 


99 20 


192 


172 


7 


Strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. 


27 


35 04 S 


102 56 


178 


211 


15 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


28 


34 38 S 


106 55 


198 


256 


15 


Strong breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


29 


33 51 S 


110 07 


166 


135 


8 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain, 
lightning. 


30 


32 21 S 


113 11 


179 


275 


14 


Moderate gale to light air. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


31 


32 21 S 


115 10 


100 


193 


7 


Gentle breeze to light air. Moderate to smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


31 


Gage Roac 


s 


44 






Anchored off Fremantle at 9 ll 55 m p. m. Under engine power. 


Sep 1 


Fremantle 










Docked at Fremantle at 9 h 45 m a. m. 











Total distance, 5,650 miles. Time of passage, 38.5 days. Average day's run, 146.8 miles. 

Fremantle to Port Lyttelton. 



1920 





/ 


1 


miles 





miles 




Oct 1 


Fremantle 










Left Fremantle at 10 h 20 m a. m. under tow. Gentle breeze. Smooth 
sea. Partly cloudy. 










2 


33 


53 S 


114 45 


141 


69 


13 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 
Under engine power to clear Cape Leeuwin. 


3 


35 


23 S 


116 09 


113 


112 


23 


Strong breeze to calm. Long rolling sea, W swell. Partly cloudy. 


4 


37 


25 S 


117 24 


137 


112 


12 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea, W swell. Cloudy, heavy dew. 


5 


40 40 S 


119 42 


222 


27 


6 


Strong breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Overcast, hazy. 


6 


43 


14 S 


121 46 


180 


231 


3 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, foggy, lightning. 


7 


44 


25 S 


125 58 


195 





18 


Moderate gale to calm. Rough sea. Overcast, squally. 


8 


44 


44 S 


127 29 


67 


328 


9 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea, W swell. Overcast, drizzling. 


9 


46 


38 S 


130 18 


164 


277 


9 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty. 


10 


48 


45 S 


134 46 


221 


162 


7 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty, 
rain. Sighted considerable kelp. Aurora australis all night. • 


11 


49 


58 S 


138 41 


170 


149 


8 


Moderate gale to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. Aurora 
australis all night. 


12 


50 


22 S 


143 35 


190 


171 


15 


Strong breeze to strong gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain, hail. 


13 


50 


33 S 


148 03 


171 


206 


32 


Strong to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


14 


49 


48 S 


152 08 


164 


160 


21 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain, snow. 


15 


48 


07 S 


155 45 


175 


157 


17 


Moderate to strong gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain, hail. 


16 


47 


30 S 


160 04 


177 


325 


20 


Fresh gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, hail. 


17 


48 


00 S 


164 46 


192 


313 


12 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. Sighted Snares 
Islands. 


18 


47 


03 S 


169 28 


197 


205 


5 


Moderate gale to calm. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 
Sighted Stewart Island. 


19 


45 24 S 


171 28 


130 


36 


15 


Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


20 


44 


29 S 


172 48 


79 


112 


11 


Light airs. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


21 


Port 


jlton. . . . 


72 






Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Anchored off Port Lyttelton 
at 3 h 15 m a. m. Docked at 12 h 30 m p. m. 

















Total distance, 3,157 miles. Time of passage, 19.7 days. Average day's run, 160.3 miles. 

Port Lyttelton to Papeete. 



1920 


o / o / 


miles 





miles 




Nov 19 


Port Lyttelton 






















Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, heavy dew. 


20 


44 43 S 


175 32 


140 


238 


9 


Fresh breeze to light air. Moderate sea, S swell. Cloudy. 


21 


44 56 S 


176 54 


60 


336 


4 


Calm to light breeze. Smooth sea. Hazy, foggy. 


22 


46 08 S 


178 14 


92 


205 


6 


Light breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Overcast, misty, rainy. 
Crossed 180th meridian. 


22 


46 13 S 


182 37 


182 


179 


6 


Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, foggy. 



164 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Port Lyttelton to Papeete — Concluded. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 


















Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1920 


O 


/ 





t 


miles 


O 


miles 




Nov 23 


46 


26 S 


187 


02 


183 


216 


17 


Strong to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 


24 


46 


29 S 


190 


12 


131 


265 


10 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, misty. 


25 


46 


44 S 


195 


07 


203 


208 


19 


Fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, foggy, hazy. 


26 


46 


43 S 


199 


46 


192 


260 


12 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty. 


27 


46 


54 S 


204 


26 


192 


176 


13 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain, 
foggy. 


28 


45 


30 S 


207 


47 


162 


227 


7 


Moderate gale to light breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 


29 


44 


12 S 


209 


48 


116 


287 


13 


Light to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


30 


43 


22 S 


211 


40 


95 


314 


11 


Calm to strong breeze. Smooth sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


Dec 1 


43 


28 S 


216 


02 


191 


165 


9 


Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Moderately rough sea. Over- 
cast, misty. 


2 


41 


40 S 


217 


41 


131 


172 


13 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, heavy dew. 


3 


39 


30 S 


219 


28 


152 


185 


4 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 


4 


37 


23 S 


222 


28 


190 


214 


9 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, heavy dew. 


5 


36 


11 S 


225 


45 


174 


178 


9 


Moderate to strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy. 


6 


34 


50 S 


226 


51 


89 


67 


12 


Moderate gale to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


7 


33 


14 S 


227 


33 


102 


345 


9 


Gentle breeze to calm. Long sea from SW. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


8 


32 


12 S 


227 


35 


62 


56 


7. 


Light airs. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


9 


30 


57 S 


228 


15 


82 


47 


28 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


10 


30 


20 S 


228 


15 


38 


53 


15 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


30 


08 S 


227 


30 


41 


117 


15 


Fresh breeze to calm. Choppy sea, SW swell. Cloudy, squally. 


12 


29 


30 S 


226 


16 


74 


281 


13 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


13 


28 


07 S 


224 


12 


137 


177 


11 


Moderate breeze and calm. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 
Under engine power. 


14 


27 


25 S 


222 


58 


78 


175 


9 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


15 


26 


18 S 


221 


31 


101 


161 


16 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


24 


09 S 


219 


18 


176 


163 


23 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 


22 


17 S 


217 


00 


169 


175 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


18 


20 


50 S 


215 


04 


138 


181 


18 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 


19 


19 


31 S 


213 


34 


116 


169 


4 


Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, thunder, 
lightning, rain. 


20 


18 


43 S 


212 


01 


101 


219 


6 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, thunder, lightning, 


21 


18 


16 S 


212 


30 


39 


155 


11 


rain. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning, thunder. 
Under engine power. 


22 


17 48 


211 


20 


72 


50 


7 


Light air and calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 


















power. 


23 


Paneete . . 






61 






Calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. Anchored 
















in Papeete harbor at 8 h 30 m a. m. 



Total distance, 4,262 miles. Time of passage, 34.8 days. Average day's run, 122.5 miles. 

Papeete to San Francisco. 



1921 


o / 


O 


f 


miles 


O 


miles 




Jan 3 


Papeete . . 












Left anchorage at 2^ p. m. Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Squally, 


4 


16 30 S 


209 


26 


82 


201 


11 


rain. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


5 


14 29 S 


208 


56 


125 


235 


15 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


6 


12 09 S 


208 


47 


140 


235 


20 


Moderate to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, light- 
ning, rain. 


7 


10 28 S 


208 


16 


105 


184 


12 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


8 


8 09 S 


207 


34 


146 


218 


14 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


9 


5 28 S 


207 


06 


163 


236 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, heavy 

dew. 
Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


10 


3 36 S 


206 


04 


127 


236 


25 


11 


57 S 


204 


42 


179 


224 


33 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Smooth sea, NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


12 


2 12 N 


204 


09 


191 


249 


14 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


13 


3 35 N 


201 


39 


172 


146 


18 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Hove to 
overnight. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Papeete to San Francisco — Concluded. 



165 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 












Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1921 


/ 


O f 


miles 


o 


miles 




Jan 14 


3 55 N 


200 43 


60 


105 


21 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


14 


Fanning I 


sland. . . . 


8 






Hove to at Whaler Anchorage from l h 25 m p. m. to 3 h 40 m p.m. 


15 


5 52 N 


200 25 


119 


213 


13 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


8 24 N 


200 06 


153 


159 


8 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


17 


10 55 N 


199 35 


154 


175 


7 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain, 
lightning. 


18 


13 56 N 


198 35 


190 


264 


19 


Moderate to strong breeze. Moderately rough sea. Overcast, 
squally, rain. 


19 


16 16 N 


197 28 


155 


257 


27 


Fresh breeze to calm. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 


20 


17 38 N 


196 10 


111 


224 


17 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


21 


19 04 N 


195 21 


97 


194 


16 


Gentle to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


22 


21 05 N 


194 08 


140 


114 


25 


Fresh to light breeze. Smooth sea, N swell. Overcast, rain. 


23 


22 24 N 


192 07 


137 


145 


5 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea, N swell. Cloudy, rain. 


24 


23 19 N 


190 32 


103 


295 


11 


Light air to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally, 


25 


25 25 N 


188 39 


163 


179 


7 


rain. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. Passed Laysan 
Island. 


26 


27 12 N 


187 24 


126 


265 


12 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea, NE swell. Partly cloudy. 


27 


29 05 N 


186 36 


121 


102 


21 


Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, heavy dew. 


28 


31 16 N 


186 22 


131 


179 


16 


Strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


29 


32 36 N 


188 50 


148 


237 


14 


Moderate breeze to light air. Moderate sea, long westerly swell. 
Partly cloudy. 


30 


34 25 N 


189 15 


111 


115 


9 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


31 


36 23 N 


191 35 


165 


216 


13 


Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


Feb 1 


38 20 N 


194 20 


176 


215 


4 


Moderate gale to calm. Rough to long rolling sea. Overcast, rain. 


2 


38 40 N 


195 48 


71 


27 


12 


Calm to gentle breeze. Moderate to long rolling sea. Cloudy, heavy 

dew. 
Light breeze to moderate gale. Smooth to rough sea, SW swell. 


3 


39 01 N 


198 04 


109 


310 


10 














Cloudy, misty. 


4 


40 02 N 


201 44 


181 


319 


11 


Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, misty, 
foggy. 


5 


39 56 N 


204 51 


143 


307 


26 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Moderately rough sea. Overcast, 
misty, foggy, rain. 


6 


40 06 N 


208 56 


187 


29 


17 


Fresh gale to light breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


7 


39 54 N 


211 33 


121 


351 


7 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Smooth to rough sea, W swell. 
Overcast, foggy, rain. 


8 


39 26 N 


214 57 


160 


21 


12 


Moderate gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, foggy, rain. 


9 


39 02 N 


218 24 


163 


299 


19 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, misty, foggy. 


10 


38 42 N 


221 35 


150 


277 


8 


rain. 
Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, misty, foggy. 


11 


38 26 N 


223 51 


108 


276 


8 


rain. 
Moderate gale to light air to strong gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, 
squally, rain. Vessel hove to. 


12 


38 00 N 


225 19 


73 


278 


8 


Fresh to strong gale. Heavy sea. Overcast, squally, rain, hail. 
Vessel hove to. 


13 


37 43 N 


226 19 


51 


140 


18 


Fresh to moderate gale. Heavy sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain, 
hail. Vessel hove to. 


14 


37 29 N 


227 06 


39 


180 


12 


Strong to light breeze. Heavy to long rolling sea. Cloudy, squally, 


15 


38 01 N 


230 12 


151 


270 


12 


Fresh breeze to fresh gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 
Vessel hove to. Sudden sharp squall of hurricane force at 7 b 20 m 
p. m. carried away two sails. 


16 


38 50 N 


230 49 


56 


261 


16 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 
Vessel hove to. 


17 


38 36 N 


231 00 


17 


182 


4 


Calm to light breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


18 


38 19 N 


233 34 


122 


332 


10 


Light to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


19 


37 54 N 


236 30 


141 


314 


19 


Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, misty. Under engine 
power. 


19 


San Franc 

1 


SCO 


58 






Anchored at 10 h 40 m p. m. in San Francisco Bay. 







Total distance, 6,099 miles. Time of passage, 47.3 days. Average day's run, 128.9 miles. 



166 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

San Francisco to Honolulu. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1921 
Mar 28 

29 

30 

31 

Apr 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


o t 

San Fram 

36 08 N 
33 34 N 
31 56 N 
30 30 N 
29 04 N 
27 04 N 
26 10 N 
25 34 N 
25 14 N 
25 06 N 

23 41 N 
23 02 N 
22 15 N 
21 46 N 


o / 

isco 


miles 


O 


miles 


Left dock under tow at 4 p. m. Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. 

Overcast, foggy. 
Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Fresh to gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Gentle to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Moderate to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Gentle to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast. 
Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 
Strong to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 
Moderate to light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Calm to fresh breeze. Moderate to long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, 

rain. 
Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Cloudy. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 
Fresh to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 
Strong breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Docked at 8 h 40 m a. m. 


235 26 
232 54 
230 46 
228 56 
227 10 
224 47 
221 13 
218 19 
216 03 
214 43 

211 55 
209 30 
207 07 
204 18 


149 
198 
145 
128 
126 
174 
199 
161 
125 
72 

175 
139 
140 
159 
132 


136 
122 
104 

89 
114 

98 
125 

63 

41 
358 

146 

104 

143 

93 


14 
28 
13 
14 
11 
14 
18 
11 
14 
15 

16 
13 
12 
17 











Total distance, 2,222 miles. Time of passage, 14.7 days. Average day's run, 151.2 miles. 

Honolulu to Pago Pago. 



1921 


o 


/ 







/ 


miles 


o 


miles 




Apr 28 


Honolulu 












Left dock under tow at ll h 10 m a. m. 


28 


21 


11 


N 


202 


04 


9 






Moderate breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under 




















engine power. 


29 


23 


02 


N 


200 


24 


143 


180 


8 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


30 


25 


04 


N 


198 


44 


153 


177 


13 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


May 1 


27 


18 


N 


198 


04 


138 


188 


10 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


2 


29 


32 


N 


197 


25 


139 


227 


16 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


3 


32 


M 


N 


197 


18 


161 


265 


11 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 


4 


33 


51 


N 


199 


38 


153 


267 


16 


Moderate gale to calm. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, drizzling, 
lightning. 


5 


34 


00 


N 


200 


27 


42 


331 


4 


Calm to gentle breeze. Smooth sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


6 


34 


07 


N 


202 


25 


98 


233 


11 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy, squally. 


7 


34 


ID 


N 


204 


12 


88 


220 


9 


Light breeze. Smooth sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


8 


34 


11 


N 


205 


40 


73 


212 


5 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


9 


33 


41 


N 


207 


16 


86 


241 


15 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea, SE swell. Partly cloudy. 


10 


33 


36 


N 


209 


50 


128 


293 


12 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate to rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


11 


34 


08 


N 


213 


05 


165 


213 


20 


rain. 
Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


12 


34 


16 


N 


215 


55 


141 


294 


12 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain. 


13 


33 


44 


N 


217 


09 


69 


347 


3 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine power. 


14 


32 


53 


N 


218 


47 


97 


290 


11 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. Under engine 


15 


30 


39 


N 


220 


12 


153 


314 


21 


power. 
Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


16 


28 


31 


N 


221 


36 


147 


319 


16 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


17 


26 


19 


N 


222 


30 


141 


306 


11 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


18 


24 


19 


N 


223 


39 


135 


308 


19 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, drizzling, 
squally. 


19 


21 


59 


N 


224 


38 


150 


304 


20 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


20 


20 


09 


N 


225 


44 


126 


314 


17 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


21 


18 


07 


N 


226 


34 


130 


310 


14 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


22 


16 


24 


N 


225 


50 


111 


322 


18 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Cloudy. 


23 


14 


28 


N 


224 


34 


138 


335 


13 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


24 


12 


23 


N 


222 


57 


156 


325 


10 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain. 


25 


10 


30 


N 


220 


57 


163 


20 


7 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 


26 


9 


05 


N 


219 


19 


129 


5 


12 


Fresh breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, lightning. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie 

Honolulu to Pago Pago — Concluded. 



167 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 


















L>at. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1921 


o 


/ 


o 


/ 


miles 


O 


miles 




May 27 


7 


55 N 


217 


59 


105 


43 


9 


Gentle breeze to calm. Smooth sea, NE swell. Cloudy, squally, 
lightning. Under engine power. 


28 


6 


54 N 


217 


31 


67 


61 


19 


Light breeze and calm. Smooth sea, NE swell. Cloudy, squally, 
lightning. 


29 


5 


49 N 


217 


09 


68 


69 


33 


Light breeze and calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, lightning, thunder, 
drizzling. Under engine power. 


30 


5 


09 N 


216 


20 


63 


48 


30 


Light variable breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, lightning, thunder, 
rain. Under engine power. 


31 


4 


35 N 


215 


26 


64 


31 


24 


Light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Swinging ship under 
engine power. 


Jun 1 


3 


59 N 


214 


42 


56 


31 


16 


Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


2 


2 


40 N 


213 


03 


127 


3 


16 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


3 





27 N 


211 


30 


162 


58 


16 


Fresh to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


4 


44 S 


210 


28 


95 


56 


19 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


5 


1 


45 S 


209 


35 


81 


60 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


6 


2 


59 S 


208 


10 


112 


18 


16 


Moderate to light breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


7 


3 


42 S 


207 


10 


74 


302 


20 


Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


8 


5 


11 S 


205 


49 


121 


309 


18 


Moderate breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


9 


6 


40 S 


204 


32 


118 


335 


16 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


10 


7 47 S 


203 


37 


86 


339 


4 


Gentle breeze. Long rolling sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


11 


8 


44 S 


202 


45 


76 


146 


6 


Gentle breeze to calm. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, squally, 
rain. Under engine power. 


12 


8 


56 S 


201 


56 


50 


346 


6 


Calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. Hove 
to off Penrhyn Island from 9 h a. m. to 7 h 0o m p. m. 


13 


9 


29 S 


201 


03 


62 


337 


6 


Light breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain, light- 
ning. Under engine power. 


14 


10 


12 S 


200 0' 


72 


187 


11 


Light to moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, 


















lightning. 


15 


10 


24 S 


198 


56 


67 


331 


11 


Moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Cloudy, squally, lightning, 
thunder, rain. Hove to off Manihiki Island from noon to 4 h p. m. 


16 


11 


06 S 


197 


20 


104 


243 


5 


Moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, lightning, squally, 


17 


11 


39 S 


195 


52 


92 


334 


5 


rain. 
Calm to fresh breeze. Long rolling sea. Cloudy, squally, rain, 
lightning. 


18 


12 


14 S 


194 


24 


92 


354 


12 


Light to fresh breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. 


19 


13 


21 S 


192 


17 


141 


346 


10 


Moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. 


20 


14 


07 S 


190 


02 


139 


315 


14 


Moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. 


20 1 


Pago Pa co 






48 






Moored in Pago Pago Harbor, Samoa, at 6 h 20 m p. m. Under engine 
power. 

















Total distance, 5,904 miles. Time of passage, 53.3 days. Average day's run, 110.8 miles. 

1 The Carnegie left Pago Pago at 4 h p. m., June 28, under her own power and anchored in Apia Harbor at 9 h 10 m a. m. 
June 29. 













Apia 


to Balboa, Canal Zone. 


1921 


o / 


O t 


miles 


O 


miles 




Jul 25 


Apia 
























breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


26 


13 18 S 


187 32 


53 


329 


3 


Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


27 


14 25 S 


187 03 


73 


77 


13 


Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


28 


15 11 S 


187 56 


69 


18 


13 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea, long swell. Partly cloudy. 


29 


16 49 S 


188 01 


98 


235 


6 


Moderate breeze to light air. Smooth sea, long swell. Partly cloudy, 
heavy dew. 


30 


17 29 S 


188 31 


50 


104 


3 


Calm to light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


31 


18 18 S 


188 32 


49 


273 


15 


Light breeze. Smooth, long rolling sea. Partly cloudy, heavy dew. 


Aug 1 


19 21 S 


187 51 


71 


284 


12 


Light to moderate breeze. Smooth sea, long swell. Partly cloudy. 


2 


20 54 S 


187 31 


96 


172 


12 


Light air. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


3 


21 49 S 


187 31 


55 


156 


3 


Light air to calm. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy, heavy dew. 


4 


23 17 S 


187 38 


88 


50 


11 


Light air. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy, foggy, lightning. 


5 


24 20 S 


188 04 


67 


160 


17 


Light breeze to calm. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 



168 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Apia to Balboa, Canal Zone — Continued. 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 


Current 


Remarks 


















] 


[At 




Long. 
E. of Gr. 


run 


Dir. 


Am't 




1921 


O 


/ 




o 


r 


miles 





miles 




Aug 6 


25 


21 


S 


188 


14 


62 


135 


3 


Gentle variable breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Overcast, squally. 


7 


27 


26 


s 


188 


31 


126 


141 


17 


Fresh to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


8 


29 


06 


s 


191 


06 


170 


9 


12 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Cloudy. 


9 


30 


14 


s 


192 


35 


103 


39 


9 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Overcast, rain, squally. 


10 


29 


22 


s 


194 


32 


.114 


287 


13 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. 


11 


27 


03 


s 


196 


15 


165 


265 


10 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, drizzling. 


12 


25 


07 


s 


197 


38 


138 


349 


15 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, squally. 


13 


23 


01 


s 


199 


49 


175 


307 


12 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


14 


Rarotoncra 






117 






Strong breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally. Anchored off 
Avarua, Rarotonga, at 9 h 15 m a. m. 




















15 


Rarotonea 












Left Avarua at l h 50 m p. m. Strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly 
cloudy. 


/ 


















16 


22 


59 


s 


199 


59 


112 


116 


4 


Light to fresh breeze. Moderately rough sea, SE swell. Partly 
cloudy. 


17 


24 


13 


s 


200 


32 


79 






Gentle breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy, rain. 
Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy. 


18 


24 


37 


s 


202 


58 


136 


327 


18 


19 


25 


2S 


s 


206 


04 


176 


358 


13 


Fresh to strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


20 


26 


59 


s 


208 


52 


175 


16 


16 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


21 


28 


11 


s 


211 


54 


177 


338 


11 


Moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


22 


29 


02 


s 


214 


47 


160 


332 


17 


Moderate gale to moderate breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, 
squally. 


23 


28 


59 


s 


216 


35 


95 


343 


13 


Gentle breeze to calm. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 
Rudder stock splintered. 


24 


28 


58 


s 


216 


31 


4 


305 


5 


Calm to gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Rigged jury 
steering gear. 


25 


30 


08 


s 


218 


18 


117 


202 


6 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Smooth to rough sea, SW swell. 
Partly cloudy, drizzling. 


26 


30 


34 


s 


221 


32 


170 


210 


8 


Moderate gale to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 


27 


29 


51 


s 


224 


30 


159 


298 


13 


Strong to fresh breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


2S 


28 


22 


s 


227 


14 


169 


293 


12 


Strong to moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


29 


27 


14 


s 


228 


34 


98 


251 


15 


Gentle breeze. Moderate sea, SSE swell. Partly cloudy. 


30 


28 


58 


s 


228 


25 


104 


230 


13 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, SSE swell. Cloudy. 


31 


30 


30 


s 


230 


22 


137 


220 


8 


Moderate to strong breeze. Moderate sea, SSE swell. Overcast, 
misty. 


Sep 1 


31 


36 S 


233 


14 


162 


213 


6 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, rain, misty. 


2 


32 


01 


s 


235 


25 


114 


204 


6 


Moderate gale to light air. Rough sea. Cloudy, misty, rain. 


3 


31 


42 


s 


236 


34 


61 


36 


16 


Light air. Smooth sea, N swell. Partly cloudy. Under engine power. 


4 


31 


47 


s 


238 


25 


94 


164 


6 


Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 


5 


31 


39 


s 


241 


15 


145 


186 


4 


Moderate to light breeze. Smooth sea. Cloudy, foggy, misty. 


6 


31 


27 


s 


242 


40 


74 


26 


4 


Calm to moderate breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Overcast, rain. 
Under engine power. 


7 


31 


39 


s 


245 


54 


166 


182 


12 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, 
misty. 


8 


31 


30 


s 


249 


43 


195 


182 


12 


Moderate gale to gentle breeze. Rough sea. Overcast, squally, rain. 


9 


31 


32 


s 


251 


33 


94 


186 


9 


Calm to strong breeze. Smooth sea, W swell. Overcast, rain. 


10 


31 


22 


s 


254 


44 


163 


135 


12 


Strong breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally, 
drizzling. 


11 


30 


36 


s 


257 


46 


163 


303 


6 


Strong to gentle breeze. Moderately rough sea. Partly cloudy, 
squally, drizzling. 


12 


29 


38 


s 


259 


12 


95 


31 


2 


Light breeze. Smooth sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


13 


27 


50 


s 


259 


02 


109 


246 


14 


Light to fresh breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


14 


25 


17 


s 


258 


25 


156 


205 


14 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea, SW swell. Partly cloudy. 


15 


22 


07 


s 


258 


14 


190 


236 


15 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


16 


19 


11 


s 


257 


58 


177 


243 


14 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. 


17 


16 


11 


s 


257 


41 


181 


256 


14 


Fresh breeze. Rough sea. Overcast. 


18 


13 


21 


s 


257 


23 


171 


256 


17 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast. 


19 


10 


01 


s 


257 


40 


200 


268 


21 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


20 


7 


29 


s 


258 


40 


164 


258 


14 


Strong breeze. Rough sea. Cloudy, squally. 


21 


5 


19 


s 


259 


58 


151 


269 


16 


Fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


22 


3 


17 


s 


261 


12 


143 


251 


22 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, rain, squally. 


23 


1 


33 


s 


262 


01 


115 


267 


27 


Moderate breeze. Moderately smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


24 





03 


s 


262 


40 


99 


289 


32 


Gentle breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, squally. 


25 





50 


N 


264 


23 


115 


287 


42 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, misty. 



Abstracts of Logs of the Carnegie, 1915-21 

Apia to Balboa, Canal Zone — Concluded. 



169 



Date 


Noon position 


Day's 
run 


Current 


Remarks 


Lat. 


Long. 
E. of Gr. 


Dir. 


Am't 


1921 
Sep 26 
27 

28 

29 

30 

Oct 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 


O / 

1 20 N 

2 01 N 

2 21 N 
2 44 N 
2 24 N 
2 01 N 

2 51 N 

3 50 N 

4 43 N 

6 32 N 

7 52 N 
Balboa. . . 


266 41 

268 22 

270 23 

272 14 

273 42 
275 49 
277 50 
279 50 
281 19 

281 38 

281 06 


miles 

141 

109 

122 
113 
90 
129 
132 
132 
103 

111 

86 
74 


O 

270 
293 

357 

87 
213 
243 
298 
352 
158 

129 

105 


miles 
34 
22 

18 
3 
9 
15 
30 
27 
12 

18 

10 


Moderate to fresh breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 
Moderate breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Overcast. Sighted 

Culpepper Island. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, drizzling. 
Gentle breeze to light air. Smooth sea. Cloudy. 
Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Overcast, drizzling. 
Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea. Cloudy, drizzling. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 
Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Overcast, rain, lightning. 
Moderate breeze to calm. Smooth sea. Cloudy, lightning, thunder. 

Under engine power. 
Light air. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. Under engine 

power. 
Light air to calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. Under 

engine power. 
Calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Moored in Balboa Harbor at 

10 h 30 m a. m. 











Total distance, 8,846 miles. Time of passage, 71.5 days. Average day's run, 123.7 miles. 

Balboa to Old Point Comfort. 



1921 


o 


f 







/ 


miles 


O 


miles 




Oct 20 














Left dock at 7 ll 40 m a. m. under tow. Passed through Panama Canal. 


20 


Cristobal . 




39 






Arrived at Cristobal at 2 h 40 m p. m. and proceeded at once to sea. 




















Moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. 


21 


11 


28 


N 


281 


20 


181 


35 


24 


Fresh breeze to light air. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Under engine power. 


22 


12 


17 


N 


284 


02 


112 


95 


12 


Light air to moderate breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. 
Under engine power. 


23 


14 


38 


N 


284 


30 


142 


341 


49 


Fresh to light breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


24 


17 


21 


N 


284 


47 


163 


344 


39 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea. Partly cloudy, squally. Sighted 
Navassa Island light. 


25 


19 


01 


N 


285 


32 


109 


346 


7 


Light breeze and calm. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy. Under engine 
power. 


26 


20 41 


N 


286 


05 


104 


175 


15 


Light to fresh breeze. Smooth sea. Partly cloudy, lightning. In 




















Windward Passage. Sighted Cape Mayse. 


27 


23 


00 


N 


286 


43 


144 


28 


9 


Moderate breeze to moderate gale. Smooth to rough sea. Partly 
cloudy, squally. Sighted Flat Cays. 


28 


24 


36 


N 


286 


38 


96 


207 


2 


Moderate gale to strong breeze. Rough sea. Partly cloudy, squally, rain. 


29 


24 


57 


N 


285 


25 


70 


249 


11 


Strong to gentle breeze. Rough, long rolling sea. Cloudy, squally, rain. 


30 


26 


41 


N 


284 


41 


111 


332 


20 


Gentle to moderate breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. 


31 


28 


38 


N 


284 


59 


119 


214 


15 


Moderate breeze. Moderate sea, NE swell. Partly cloudy, squally, 
lightning. Seaweed. 


Nov 1 


31 


06 


N 


285 


15 


148 


283 


9 


Light breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea, S swell. Cloudy, squally, 
rain, lightning. 


2 


33 


14 


N 


286 


18 


139 


125 


9 


Fresh gale to calm. Rough, long rolling sea. Squally, rain, lightning. 
Vessel hove to. 


3 


33 


44 


N 


286 


04 


32 


238 


16 


Calm to strong breeze. Long rolling sea. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


4 


35 


11 


N 


286 


11 


88 


141 


18 


Strong breeze to calm. Moderate sea, NE swell. Partly cloudy, 
squally. Under engine power. 


5 


36 


31 


N 


285 


24 


89 


69 


30 


Fresh breeze to moderate gale. Rough sea. Partly cloudy. Under 
engine power. 


6 1 


Old Point 


Comf 


ort 


89 






Gentle breeze. Moderate sea. Clear. Hove to off Old Point Comfort 
at ll h a. m. At l h p. m. proceeded up Chesapeake Bay. Under 
























engine power. 



Total distance, 1,975 miles. Time of passage, 17.1 days. Average day's run, 115.5 miles. 

1 From November 6 to November 10 the Carnegie was swinging ship in Chesapeake Bay and at Solomons Island. Docked 
at Washington at 5 h 20 m p. m., November 10. 



170 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



Table 23. — Summary of passages for Cruise VI of the Carnegie. 



Washington to Solomons Island to Old Point Comfort. 

Old Point Comfort to Dakar 

Dakar to Buenos Aires 

Buenos Aires to Jamestown, St. Helena 

Jamestown, St. Helena, to Cape Town 

Cape Town to Colombo 

Colombo to Fremantle 

Fremantle to Port Lyttelton 

Port Lyttelton to Papeete 

Papeete to San Francisco 

San Francisco to Honolulu 

Honolulu to Pago Pago 

Pago Pago to Apia 

Apia to Balboa 

Balboa to Old Point Comfort 

Old Point Comfort to Solomons Island to Washington. 



Length of 
passage 



miles 
220 
4,217 
6,130 
5,291 
3,170 
6,665 
5,650 
3,157 
4,262 
6,099 
2,222 
5,904 
90 
8,846 
1,975 
220 



Time of 
passage 



days 
2.6 
34.3 
53.7 
34.8 
20.9 
40.8 
38.5 
19.7 
34.8 
47.3 
14.7 
53.3 
0.7 
71.5 
17.1 
2.6 



Average 
day's run 



miles 



123 
114 
152 
152 
163 
147 
160 
122 
129 
151 
111 



124 
116 



Length of Cruise VI, 64,118 miles. Time at sea, 487.3 days. Average day's run, 132 miles. 
Table 24. — Final Summary for Cruises of the Carnegie, 1915-1921. 



Cruise 


Length of 
passage 


Time of 
passage 


Average 
day's run 


IV, 1915-17 


miles 
63,400 
13,195 
64,118 


days 
487 
122 
487 


miles 
130 
108 
132 


V, 1917-18 


VI, 1919-21 





Total length of cruises 1915 to 1921, 140,713 miles. 

Total time at sea, 1,096 days. Average day's run, 128 miles. 

The total number of days the Carnegie was in commission from March 5, 1915, to 
November 12, 1921, counting out the periods March 3, 1917, to December 4, 1917, when 
the vessel was at Buenos Aires, June 10, 1918, to October 8, 1919, when the vessel was 
at Washington and Baltimore, is 1,681 days. Since 1,096 days were spent at sea, the 
remaining days, 585, are to be ascribed to the time spent in ports, making shore observa- 
tions and comparisons of instruments, computations, repairs, and outfitting. It is 
thus seen that about two-thirds of the time the vessel is in commission is spent at sea. 



AUXILIARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE CARNEGIE. 

In addition to observations in terrestrial magnetism, the scientific work on 
board the Carnegie included a regular program of observations in atmospheric 
electricity. An account of this work will be found in the special report on results 
in atmospheric electricity (see pp. 195-286). 

Furthermore, observations were made regularly to determine the amount of 
atmospheric refraction by measuring the dip of the horizon with two dip-of-horizon 
measurers, by Carl Zeiss of Jena. The atmospheric refraction was measured also 
by means of sextant observations of the altitude of the Sun or of Venus when these 
celestial objects were near the zenith, measurements of the altitude being made 
alternately from the north and from the south horizons. A future special report 
will deal with this subject. 

Meteorological observations were made to the following extent: Every 4 hours 
at sea the wind direction and force' were noted. At the same time, temperatures 
of the sea-surface and of the air were recorded and readings of the wet-bulb ther- 
mometer were taken. In addition to these usual meteorological notes, special 
observations were made at Greenwich mean noon according to the forms prepared 
by the United States Weather Bureau for observations at sea. The ship's aneroids 
were controlled, from time to time, by special boiling-point observations at sea 
and by port comparisons with standard barometers, whenever opportunity afforded. 
Beginning at Dutch Harbor, Alaska, August 1915, special attention was also paid 
to occurrences of thunder at sea (see pp. 325 and 326, Vol. Ill, Res. Dep. Terr. Mag.). 

The Greenwich mean noon observations, together with notes on more or less 
closely allied phenomena (storms, polar lights, unusual meteorological events, etc.), 
were regularly transmitted to the United States Weather Bureau for discussion 
along with the ocean data received by that bureau from other sources. 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Numerous investigations have been made with reference to various matters which 
have come up, from time to time, in connection with the many interesting problems pre- 
sented in the course of the scientific work on the Carnegie. Among these may be men- 
tioned, (1) the observations with the auto roll-and-pitch recorder, to measure the 
amount of rolling and pitching of the vessel during magnetic observations; (2) measure- 
ments of the amount of rise and fall of the vessel by means of a sensitive statoscope; (3) 
determination of ocean currents by means of accurate navigation methods (see Abstracts 
of logs, pp. 144-170) and by means of the hydrogen-ion content of sea-water, devised by 
A. G. Mayor; (4) correcting geographic positions of outlying islands and supplying notes 
of geographical interest concerning remote and comparatively unknown places; (5) 
supplying information concerning icebergs sighted during the circumnavigation cruise in 
sub- Antarctic regions (see special report, pp. 171-174); and (6) measurement of tempera- 
ture of sea-surface every hour during the circumnavigation cruise in sub- Antarctic regions, 
December 6, 1915, to April 1, 1916 (see special report, pp. 174-178). 

REPORT ON ICEBERGS SEEN FROM THE CARNEGIE DURING THE SUB-ANTARCTIC VOYAGE. 

DECEMBER 6, 1915. TO APRIL I, 1916. 

Table 25 gives the details regarding icebergs seen from the Carnegie during her cruise 
around the south pole in sub- Antarctic regions, December 6, 1915, to April 1, 1916, from 
Lyttelton (New Zealand) to South Georgia to Lyttelton. Icebergs to the number of 

171 



172 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 25. — Report on Icebergs seen from the Carnegie, 1915-1916. 







Position 






















of 
iceberg 


Distance 

and 
direction 


Dimensions 


Wind 


Temperature 




No. 


Date 


















Remarks 






















Lat. 


Long. 


from 
vessel 






True 














South 


East 


Height 


Length 


Direc- 


Force 


Air 


Water 










of Gr. 








tion 












1915 


o . 


o ( 


miles 


feet 


feet 


o 




"C 


°C 




1 


Dec 18 


60 13 


209 17 


0.1 S 


15 


50 


141 


4 


0.2 


-0.5 


A small piece of rotten ice, irregular shape, blue and white in color. 


2 


Deo 19 


60 14 


211 41 


0.1 s 


10 


30 


219 


5 


-0.5 


-0.2 


Irregular shape, blue and white. 


3 


Do. 


60 16 


211 55 


0.5 S 


300 


1 .5 mi. 


219 


5 


-0.5 


-0.2 


Flat-topped table berg with numerous cavities and arches. 


4 


Do. 


60 17 


212 09 


1.0 s 


300 


1.0 mi. 


219 


5 


-0.5 


-0.2 


Flat-topped table berg with thousands of small pieces to leeward. 


5 


Do. 


60 17 


212 31 


0.2 N 


200 


3000 


219 


5 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Table. 


6 


Do. 


60 17 


212 31 


0.2 N 


200 


3000 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Table. 


7 


Do. 


60 18 


212 47 


0.1 N 


150 


600 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Irregular. 


8 


Do. 


60 18 


212 47 


0.1 N 


150 


600 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Pinnacled. 


9 


Do. 


60 18 


212 47 


0.1 N 


150 


600 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Pinnacled. 


10 


Do. 


60 18 


212 47 


0.1 N 


30 


100 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Pinnacled. 


11 


Do. 


60 18 


212 47 


0.1 S 


50 


100 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Pinnacled. 


12 


Do. 


60 19 


212 58 


1.5 S 


50 


200 


231 


6 


-0.6 


-0.3 


Pinnacled. 


13 


Do. 


60 20 


213 03 


1.5 S 


50 


200 


231 


6 


-0.6 


-0.2 


Vertical strata, narrow overturned berg. 


14 


Do. 


60 18 


213 17 


0.5 S 


5 


100 


231 


6 


-0.6 


-0.2 


Low, flat iceberg, blue color. 


15 


Do. 


60 18 


213 28 


0.2 N 


10 


50 


231 


6 


-0.6 


-0.3 


Irregular. 


16 


Do. 


60 20 


213 35 


2.0 S 


50 


200 


231 


6 


-0.5 


-0.3 


Pinnacled top. From 9 h to ll h passed several small pieces of various 
shapes and sizes. 


17 


Do. 


60 22 


214 09 


3.5 S 


300 


200 


231 


6 


0.0 


0.0 


Flat table iceberg, blue color. 


18 


Do. 


60 22 


214 22 


3.0 S 


100 


300 


231 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Irregular. 


19 


Do. 


60 19 


215 02 


1.0 N 


250 


200 


231 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Flat table collapsed. Two layers of snow formation on top. Upper 
part of berg well stratified. 


20 


Do. 


60 21 


215 04 


1.5 S 


60 


100 


231 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Irregular. 


21 


Do. 


60 18 


215 26 


2.0 N 


60 


100 


253 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Irregular. 


22 


Do. 


60 24 


215 29 


3.5 S 


115 


1500 


253 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Table. Blue color. 


23 


Do. 


60 18 


215 33 


3.0 N 


100 


200 


253 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Two separate pinnacles, blue color. 


24 


Do. 


60 19 


216 11 


2.5 N 


400 


350 


276 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Pinnacled, blue. Sloping from highest point to water's edge. Snow 
formation on top. 


25 


Do. 


60 21 


216 37 


1.0 N 


80 


200 


276 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Irregular. 


26 


Do. 


60 24 


217 09 


2.0 S 


200 


600 


287 


6 


0.2 


0.0 


Too dark and misty to see full outline. 


27 


Do. 


60 20 


217 23 


3.0 N 


200 


250 


287 


6 


0.1 


0.0 


Flat top, perpendicular sides. 


28 


Dec 20 


60 23 


219 07 


3.2 N 


260 


500 


343 


5 


0.2 


0.1 


One large irregular pinnacle and one small pinnacle, blue color. 


29 


Do. 


60 29 


219 50 


1.0 S 


15 


10 


343 


5 


0.2 


0.0 


One small pinnacle on each end, blue color. 


30 


Do. 


60 30 


219 57 


1.0 S 


20 


30 


343 


5 


0.2 


0.0 


One small pinnacle on each end, blue color. 


31 
32 


Do. 
Do. 


60 31 
60 34 


220 07 
220 07 


4.5 S 

4.5 S 


200 
200 


150 

150 


343 
343 


5 
5 


0.2 
0.2 


0.0 
0.0 


(Two bergs close together, pyramidal shape. 


33 


Dee 21 


60 18 


225 11 


1.5 N 


200 


800 


343 


6 


0.1 


0.0 


One pinnacle on top. 


34 


Dec 22 


59 47 


230 52 


4.6 S 


200 


800 


338 


4 


2.6 


2.0 


Pyramidal shape. Blue color. 


35 


Do. 


59 37 


232 33 


1.7 N 


40 


100 


22 


2 


5.2 


3.8 


Two pinnacles and one obelisk. 


36 


Do. 


59 37 


232 33 


1.7 N 


40 


100 


22 


2 


5.2 


3.8 


One pinnacle and one pyramid. 


37 


Do. 


59 45 


232 52 


5.5 S 


350 


600 


338 


3 


5.0 


3 


One large table berg. 


38 


Dee 23 


60 14 


234 49 


1.0 S 


95 


200 


34 


4 


5.2 


4.3 


Irregular shape, blue color, hollowed out in the middle. 


39 


Deo 24 
1916 


59 37 


236 29 


3.5 S 


225 


1425 


326 


5 


3.5 


4.7 


Appeared as a black rocky island at first. Very precipitous, westerly 
side partly broken down. 


40 


Jan 10 


54 42 


317 59 


1.0 N 


140 


200 


270 


3 


4.0 


3.3 


Large table inclined. Top crusted with snow. 


41 


Do. 


54 41 


318 02 


1.0 N 






270 


3 


4.1 


3.4 


About 90 small bergs, largest 4 feet high. 


42 


Do. 


54 34 


318 24 


0.1 S 


50 


200 


270 


3 


4.5 


3.0 


Irregular shape, hollowed out in middle. 


43 


Do. 


54 26 


318 32 


5.0 N 


60 


250 


270 


3 


4.6 


3.5 


One pinnacle. 


44 


Do. 


54 27 


318 45 


0.1 N 


35 


150 


270 


3 


4.8 


3.6 


One pinnacle and hollowed out in middle. 


45 


Do. 


54 25 


318 48 


1.5 N 


60 


150 


270 


3 


4.8 


3.6 


Irregular. 


46 


Jan 10 


54 23 


318 57 


0.5 N 


70 


200 


338 


3 


5.0 


3.7 


Irregular. 


47 


Do. 


54 23 


319 00 


0.1 S 


120 


250 


338 


3 


4.9 


3.8 


Inclined table. 


48 


Do. 


54 OS 


320 16 


0.2 S 


120 


600 


349 


4 


3.5 


2.8 


Numerous pinnacles. Too foggy to see complete outline. 


49 


Jan 11 


54 01 


321 39 


2.0 N 


80 


300 


338 


5 


4.4 


1.8 


Table top. 


50 


Do. 


54 03 


321 42 


0.2 N 


70 


250 


338 


5 


4.4 


1.8 


Irregular table. 


51 


Do. 


54 03 


321 42 


0.2 N 


70 


250 


338 


5 


4.4 


1.8 


Inclined table. 


52 


Do. 


54 03 


321 44 


0.1 N 


50 


200 


33S 


5 


4.4 


1.8 


Irregular. 


53 


Do. 


54 03 


321 47 


0.5 S 


50 


100 


33S 


5 


4.3 


1.8 


Table top. Off northwest end of South Georgia. 


54 


Do. 


54 03 


321 47 


0.5 S 


50 


150 


338 


5 


4.3 


1.8 


Table top. Off northwest end of South Georgia. 


55 


Do. 


54 03 


321 47 


0.5 S 


100 


200 


338 


5 


4.3 


1.8 


Table top. Off northwest end of South Georgia. 


56 


Jan 15 


54 17 


325 45 


3.0 S 


100 


300 


298 


8 


3.2 


2.0 


Table top. Pinnacle at one end. 


57 


Do. 


54 12 


325 47 


1.8 N 


80 


200 


298 


8 


3.2 


2.0 


Sloping down on two sides. 


58 


Do. 


54 11 


326 41 


5.0 N 


400 


800 


264 


6 


3.4 


2.2 


Pinnacle at one end. 


59 


Do. 


54 23 


327 38 


6.0 S 


200 


600 


264 


6 


3.4 


2.0 


Table top with two pinnacles. 


60 


Do. 


54 18 


328 05 


0.2 S 


40 


100 


264 


6 


3.4 


2.0 


Two pinnacles. • 


61 


Do. 


54 16 


328 16 


1.8 N 


122 


400 


264 


6 


3.2 


3.2 


Table top crusted with snow. 


62 


Do. 


54 15 


328 17 


2.5 N 


65 


80 


264 


6 


3.2 


2.0 


Sloping berg. 


63 


Do. 


54 16 


328 26 


3.5 N 


80 


120 


264 


6 


3.0 


2.0 


Irregular. 


64 


Jan 16 


54 30 


330 30 


1.5 N 


120 


800 





4 


2.2 


2.2 


Table top, blue. Numerous small pieces drifting to leeward. 


65 


Do. 


51 36 


331 18 


2.0 N 


100 


300 


34 


5 


2.7 


2.0 


Irregular, blue. 


66 


Do. 


54 40 


331 22 


1.5 S 


75 


180 


34 


5 


2.7 


2.0 


Pinnacle at one end. 


67 


Do. 


54 42 


332 25 


.0.2 S 


140 


3.0 mi. 


326 


4 


3 5 


2.1 


Irregular. 



Auxiliary Observations on the Carnegie 

Table 25. — Re-port on Icebergs seen from the Carnegie, 1915-1916 — Concluded. 



173 







Position 


























3f 




Dimensions 


Wind 


Temperature 










iceberg 


Distance 


















No. 


Date 






and 
direction 














Remarks 


























Long. 


from 






True 
















Lat. 


East 
of Gr. 


vessel 


Height 


Length 


direc- 
tion 


Force 


Air 


Water 








1916 


o / 


o / 


miles 


feet 


feet 


a 




°C 


°C 






68 


Jan 17 


54 34 


334 38 


0.3 N 


25 


100 


338 


5 


3.5 


2.0 


Low ice, hollowed out in middle. 




69 


Jan 18 


54 34 


341 13 


0.5 S 


30 


100 


287 


7 


4.1 


2.7 


One pinnacle, hollowed out in middle, blue color. 




70 


Jan 19 


54 34 


343 40 


4.0 S 


150 


250 


276 


2 


2.9 


3.0 


One pinnacle at one end, blue color. 




71 


Do. 


54 28 


343 53 


1.5 N 


220 


300 


264 


2 


3.0 


2.8 


One large and one small pinnacle. 




72 


Do. 


54 30 


345 16 


1.3 S 


30 


120 


264 


4 


3.8 


2.3 


Low flat berg with numerous small pieces. 




73 


Do. 


54 30 


345 16 


1.3 S 


40 


120 


264 


4 


3.8 


2.3 


High pinnacle at one end. 




74 


Do. 


54 25 


345 21 


4.0 N 


200 


300 


264 


4 


3.8 


2.3 


Irregular, pinnacled, blue. 




75 


Do. 


54 32 


345 36 


4.0 S 


250 


350 


264 


4 


3.5 


2.4 


High at center, sloping down to three sides. Pinnacle at one end, blue. 


76 


Do. 


54 31 


346 30 


4.5 S 


200 


400 


264 


4 


3.0 


2.6 


Large table with numerous small pieces, blue. 




77 


Jan 20 


54 26 


347 26 


1.4 S 


30 


150 


259 


4 


2.4 


2.0 


Table top. 




78 


Do. 


54 25 


347 55 


0.5 S 


30 


100 


270 


4 


1.9 


1.8 


Low flat berg. 




79 


Jan 21 


54 15 


357 00 


3.0 N 


300 


5.0 mi. 


315 


7 


2.2 


0.5 


Table top. Located at a distance by a white blink in the fog bank. 


80 


Do. 


54 15 


357 00 


Ice stream 














Passed through what appeared to be an ice stream 
sighted to southward, fog preventing details. 


Several bergs 














81 


Jan 22 


53 37 


358 45 


4.0 N 


300 


3.0 mi. 


267 


5 


1.1 


0.5 


Table with snow on top. 




82 


Do. 


53 44 


358 48 


3.0 S 


350 


1.0 mi. 


267 


5 


1.1 


0.5 


Table top with numerous pieces to leeward. 




83 


Do. 


53 3S 


359 52 


2.7 N 


300 


1.0 mi. 


267 


5 


1.2 


0.6 


Table top, very regular outline. 




84 


Do. 


54 10 


1 55 


1.5 S 


120 


500 


267 


6 


2.7 


1.0 


Table top, very regular outline. 




85 


Do. 


54 27 


2 14 


7.0 S 


300 


350 


267 


6 


2.6 


1.0 


Irregular. 




86 


Do. 


54 23 


2 35 


1.0 S 


150 


4.5 mi. 


267 


6 


2.2 


0.8 


Table top, very regular outline. 




87 


Do. 


54 26 


2 42 


4.0 S 


50 


200 


267 


6 


2.1 


0.8 


Sloping table. 




88 


Do. 


54 30 


3 21 


4.0 S 


100 


200 


259 


7 


1.8 


0.2 


Table top, off west end of Lindsay Island. 




89 


Do. 


54 30 


3 21 


4.0 S 


120 


250 


259 


7 


1.8 


0.2 


Pinnacled, off west end of Lindsay Island. 




90 


Do. 


54 26 


3 29 


1.0 S 


50 


300 


259 


7 


1.6 


0.2 


Table top, off west end of Lindsay Island. 




91 


Do. 


54 26 


3 29 


1.0 S 


50 


300 


259 


7 


1.6 


0.2 


Wrecked table off west end of Lindsay Island. 




92 


Do. 


54 26 


3 29 


1.0 S 


50 


300 


259 


7 


1.6 


0.2 


Wrecked table off west end of Lindsay Island. 




93 


Do. 


54 26 


3 29 


1.0 s 


50 


300 


259 


7 


1.6 


0.2 


Pinnacled. Off west end of Lindsay Island. 




94 


Do. 


54 28 


3 36 


3.0 S 


100 


200 


259 


9 


1.5 


0.2 


Irregular. Off east end of Lindsay Island. 




95 


Do. 


54 28 


3 36 


3.0 S 


100 


200 


259 


9 


1.5 


0.2 


Irregular. Off east end of Lindsay Island. 




96 


Do. 


54 28 


3 36 


3.0 S 


100 


200 


259 


9 


1.5 


0.2 


Numerous small pieces all over the sea. Off east 
Island. 


end of Lindsay 


97 


Jan 23 


53 55 


3 15 


2.0 S 


300 


1.0 mi. 


304 


8 


1.5 


0.2 


Table top. 




98 


Do. 


53 36 


5 06 


2.0 S 


170 


250 


267 


6 


1.8 


1.0 


Irregular. 




99 


Do. 


53 30 


6 15 


1.4 N 


80 


180 


292 


4 


2.4 


1.0 


Two pinnacles. 




100 


Do. 


53 30 


6 50 


0.1 S 


8 


40 


332 


4 


1.3 


1.0 


Three pinnacles. 




101 


Jan 24 


53 44 


9 32 


4.0 S 


100 


250 


276 


4 


2.0 


1.0 


Inclined table. 




102 


Do. 


53 35 


9 41 


6.0 N 


150 


3000 


276 


4 


2.0 


1.0 


Regular table. 




103 


Do. 


53 35 


10 42 


10.7 N 


150 


3000 


276 


4 


2.5 


1.0 


Table top. 




104 


Do. 


53 50 


12 09 


2.4 N 


100 


300 


298 


5 


1.7 


0.4 


Pinnacled at one end. 




105 


Jan 25 


53 56 


13 16 


0.8 S 


160 


500 


309 


5 


1.2 


0.1 


Table top. 




106 


Do. 


53 54 


13 19 


3.0 N 


100 


300 


309 


5 


1.2 


0.0 


Pinnacled at one end. 




107 


Do. 


53 56 


13 24 


0.5 N 


100 


800 


309 


5 


1.2 


0.0 


Large flat berg crusted with snow. Numerous pieces 


to leeward. 


108 


Do. 


53 53 


14 02 


6.0 N 


500 


600 


321 


5 


1.0 


0.2 


Three large pinnacles. 




109 


Do. 


53 54 


14 07 


5.0 N 


350 


500 


321 


5 


1.0 


0.1 


Large pinnacle at one end. 




110 


Do. 


54 12 


15 12 


5.0 S 


150 


1400 


321 


5 


1.7 


0.2 


Table top 




111 


Do. 


54 02 


15 14 


4.5 N 


175 


300 


321 


5 


1.7 


0.3 


Irregular. Hollowed out in middle. 




112 


Do. 


54 10 


15 52 


0.5 N 


20 


50 


309 


5 


2.1 


1.0 


Two small pinnacles. 




113 


Do. 


54 16 


15 56 


5.0 S 


70 


150 


309 


5 


2.0 


1.0 


A pinnacle at one end. 




114 


Do. 


54 14 


16 14 


0.2 S 


70 


3000 


309 


5 


1.9 


1.0 


Table top. A number of small pieces to leeward. 




115 


Do. 


54 10 


16 41 


7.0 N 


200 


250 


309 


5 


1.7 


1.0 


Table top. 




116 


Do. 


54 10 


16 41 


7.0 N 


150 


200 


309 


5 


1.7 


1.0 


Pyramid. 




117 


Do. 


54 18 


17 35 


4.5 N 


350 


700 


309 


5 


0.7 


0.3 


A large flat berg, terraced at one end. 




118 


Jan 26 


54 25 


18 45 


3.0 N 


80 


300 


304 


5 


0.9 


0.2 


Table top. 




119 


Do. 


54 33 


19 20 


2.0 S 


50 


150 


304 


5 


0.9 


0.4 


Table top, sloping to water's edge on one side. 




120 


Do. 


54 35 


19 37 


2.5 S 


100 


280 


304 


5 


0.9 


0.5 


Pinnacle at one end. 




121 


Do. 


54 31 


19 40 


2.0 N 


110 


200 


304 


5 


1.0 


0.5 


Hollowed out in middle. 




122 


Do. 


54 28 


19 56 


5.0 N 


256 


700 


315 


5 


1.2 


0.8 


Table top, terraced at one end. 




123 


Do. 


54 29 


20 26 


2.5 N 


275 


600 


315 


5 


1.5 


0.8 


Two separate tables, about 50 feet apart, apparently , 
water line. 


oined below the 


124 


Do. 


54 36 


21 05 


5.0 S 


70 


200 


338 


5 


1.8 


1.0 


Irregular, sloping down to water at one end. 




125 


Do. 


54 38 


21 29 


0.8 N 


110 


180 


338 


5 


2.0 


1.0 


One very tall slender pinnacle. 




126 


Do. 


54 32 


21 48 


4.0 S 


160 


250 


338 


5 


2.0 


1.0 


Three high pinnacles. 




127 


Do. 


54 30 


21 51 


2.0 S 


80 


900 


338 


5 


2.0 


1.0 


Table top. 




128 


Do. 


54 18 


22 12 


9.5 N 


400 


300 


338 


5 


2.0 


1.0 


One pinnacle. 




129 


Do. 


54 21 


23 01 


4.0 N 


280 


600 


349 


5 


1.7 


1.0 


Pyramid, sloping down on two sides. 




130 


Do. 


54 18 


23 55 


3.0 N 


100 


300 


349 


6 


1.2 


1.0 


Irregular. 




131 


Jan 27 


54 16 


25 48 


0.3 N 


70 


200 


349 


6 


1.4 


0.9 


Irregular, a number of small pieces to leeward. 




132 


Jan 28 


53 39 


31 09 


1.0 S 


60 


150 


315 


5 


2.2 


1.8 


Irregular. 




133 


Mar 1 


58 31 


109 06 


1.2 W 


60 


80 


270 


9 


2.0 


2.2 


Irregular with large round top. 





174 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

133 were recorded and described. Many others were seen at night and during the day 
at distances too great for accurate measurements. The distances from the vessel of those 
measured ranged from one-eighth mile to 10 miles, and these distances were estimated 
by the usual navigation methods, noting the change in the bearing or direction of the 
iceberg with the corresponding change in time and in the distance the vessel had tra- 
versed. The height and length of the iceberg were computed from sextant angles in 
connection with the estimated distance of the iceberg from the observer. The largest 
iceberg sighted was 300 feet in height and 5 miles long. The highest one sighted was 500 
feet in height. 

The positions of the icebergs have been corrected for chronometer error as determined 
after arrival at Lyttelton at the end of the trip. 

For further information regarding conditions encountered on this sub-Antarctic 
voyage, and for explanation of symbols used in Table 25, see the narrative of the trip, 
pages 139 to 143, and the report on sea surface-temperatures and meteorological obser- 
vations made on the Carnegie during her sub- Antarctic cruise, pages 174 to 178. The 
majority of the icebergs were white in color. When the iceberg was definitely blue in 
color, it is noted in the remarks column. 

SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE SUB- 
ANTARCTIC CRUISE. 1915-1916. 

Table 26 contains the results of sea-surface temperature and meteorological obser- 
vations made on board the Carnegie during her sub- Antarctic cruise, December 6, 1915 to 
April 1, 1916, from Lyttelton (New Zealand) to South Georgia and Lyttelton. Reports 
that have thus far come from this region are few and incomplete, and as the part of the 
Southern Ocean traversed is the scene of such rapid and extreme changes in meteorologi- 
cal conditions, any additional information on the subject will be of interest. 

The Carnegie made a complete circumnavigation of the globe from west to east, 
mainly between the parallels of latitude 50° and 60° south, in one season, the southern 
summer of 1915-16, during which Sir Ernest Shackelton's expedition was meeting with 
such serious reverses. The meteorological observations made by the two parties of his 
expedition and those obtained on the Carnegie are especially valuable because they are 
contemporaneous records of the conditions prevailing in different parts of the southern 
regions at that time. 

The geographic positions given in the table are the corrected noon positions, all 
resulting from good observations. The longitudes have been corrected for an error of 22 
seconds in the chronometers at the end of a four-months' cruise. 

The various symbols used to describe the conditions of the weather show the changes 
that took place in the weather during the day, given in chronological order; they have 
the following significance : 



b. 


Clear blue sky. 1. 


Lightning. 


s. 


Snow, snowy weather, or snow fall- 


c. 


Cloudy weather. m 


. Misty, or hazy weather. 




ing. 


d. 


Drizzling, or light rain. o . 


Overcast. 


t. 


Thunder. 


f. 


Fog, or foggy weather. p. 


Passing showers of rain. 


u. 


Ugly appearance, or threatening 


g- 


Gloomy, or dark stormy-looking q. 


Squally weather. 




weather. 




weather. r. 


Rainy weather, or continuous rain. 


V. 


Variable weather. 


h. 


Hail. 




w. 


Wet, or heavy dew. 



The true direction from which the wind was blowing and the force are next tabulated, 
the different directions being the important shifts in the wind during the day, given in 
chronological order, the day being reckoned from midnight to midnight throughout the 



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Auxiliary Observations on the Carnegie 175 

table. The Beaufort scale is used in denoting the force of the wind, the figures having the 
following significance: 

0. Calm 5. Fresh wind. 9. Strong gale. 

1. Light air. 6. Strong wind. 10. Whole gale. 

2. Light breeze. 7. Moderate gale. 11. Storm. 

3. Gentle breeze. 8. Fresh gale. 12. Hurricane. 

4. Moderate breeze. 

The barometric pressure was scaled from the various sheets of an aneroid barograph 
and corrected by comparisons with readings made daily at Greenwich mean noon on a 
closed cistern-type mercurial barometer. Twenty readings were always taken on the mer- 
curial barometer, ten highs and ten lows. These readings were reduced to standard, 
corrected for temperature, and reduced to sea-level. In the next two columns are tabu- 
lated the amount and duration of change between a high barometric pressure and the next 
low barometric pressure, or a low and the next high, as the case may be. The change is 
considered positive if the mercury is rising or pressure is increasing. Considering these 
changes in connection with the changes as indicated in the column containing the " true 
direction of the wind," it will be noticed that almost invariably during the entire four 
months, with a high and decreasing barometric pressure a northerly wind shifted to the 
west, blowing a gale, then shifted to the southwest as the barometric pressure began to 
increase and blew hard if the rise was rapid. 

A thermograph, placed in the usual type of open-air meteorological shelter-house on 
deck, kept a continuous record of the temperature of the air. Wet-bulb and dry-bulb ther- 
mometers were kept in the same shelter-house and were read every four hours during 
both day and night. The results given in the " Relative humidity " column were taken 
from " Landolt-Bornstein, Physikalisch-Chemische Tabellen," using the temperature of 
the dry bulb and the difference between wet and dry bulb. 

The temperature of the sea-water was recorded every hour while at sea, both day 
and night. A small canvas bucket was used, water was taken from about 2 feet under 
the surface, and the temperature was read with the thermometer in the water. A 
plain glass thermometer divided into degrees centigrade and without guard was used. 
In the next column headed "T a — T B " is given the difference in centigrade degrees between the 
air temperature and that of the sea, the difference being reckoned positive if the air is 
warmer than the water and negative if it is colder. 

The results of observations for ocean current, as the continuous rough sea caused the 
log to overrun, are not very reliable. The true directions towards which the current was 
flowing are given and the amount column gives the number of nautical miles per day. 
All directions are given in degrees, reckoned from 0° at north, through 90° at east, 180° at 
south, and 270° at west. 



176 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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SOME DISCUSSIONS OF THE OCEAN MAGNETIC WORK. 
ABSENCE OF MAGNETIC DEVIATIONS ON THE CARNEGIE. 

As explained in Volume III, Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
pages 435 to 437, every precaution possible was taken in the construction of the Carnegie 
and her equipment and with regard to the installations of the various instruments to 
insure that, at the various places where the magnetic observations were to be made, 
there would be no magnetic effects of the kind known as "ship deviations," of sufficient 
magnitude to be taken into account. Throughout the work of the Carnegie no effort has 
been spared to insure this result. All stores, tools, and magnetic instruments not in use 
have been stored aft. Heating stoves for use in cold weather were specially constructed 
of bronze and sheet copper and lined with special fire-brick. The spaces beneath the 
observation domes were kept free of magnetic material, and before each day's 
observations the locality near the domes and the bridge was closely inspected to insure 
the absence of any disturbing material. The quarters of officers and men were inspected 
frequently and every one on board was instructed to assist in keeping sheath-knives, 
marlinspikes, and any magnetic material away from the positions of the magnetic instru- 
ments. The cooks were allowed to keep only one day's supply of tinned food in the 
galleys, and their meat cleavers and large knives were stored aft except when special per- 
mission was given to use them in the galleys. In the installation of the electric-light 
equipment special care was used to provide nonmagnetic fittings, and the generator used 
in charging the storage batteries was not operated during magnetic observations. The 
forms on which the observations are recorded call for a statement by the observer that 
all magnetic material has been removed from his clothing and from the vicinity of the 
instrument he is using. 

In addition to all these precautionary measures, which were a part of the daily pro- 
gram, the vessel was swung as opportunity offered, both in port and at sea, as heretofore, 
in order to control this matter observationally. 

Thus in 1915, after the new atmospheric-electric observatory and equipment were 
installed, the Carnegie was swung in Gardiners Bay to control any disturbing effect 
which might have been introduced accidentally. Likewise in 1919, after the generator, 
storage batteries, and electric-light fixtures were installed, the vessel was swung in Chesa- 
peake Bay. Swings were made at the beginning of a cruise, when the vessel was heavily 
loaded with supplies, and at the end of a cruise, when possible disturbing effects due to 
tinned food and other supplies were at a minimum. 

The results of all these "swing observations," obtained during the period 1909 to 
1921, have been grouped under two general headings: (1) swings in or near port and (2) 
swings at sea, far from land, where the local disturbance due to the nearness of mag- 
netic material in the Earth is absent. The results for each heading of the ship are the 
means from the observations of both port-helm swing and starboard-helm swing, in 
general. Occasionally, however, a swing on only one helm could be made, while at other 
times the results are the mean of swings on four helms. 

The vessel was swung by her own engine or with the aid of a tow-boat, using a tow- 
line of 600 feet or more in length, to insure that the machinery of the tow-boat would have 
no disturbing effect on the magnetic instruments. If no interruption occurred because 
of unfavorable conditions, the total time consumed for a complete swing of 8 headings, 
with both helms, averaged about 2 hours for declination and 4 to 5 hours for inclination 
and intensity. 

For cruises I and II, 1909 to 1913, W. J. Peters was in command of the Carnegie, for 
cruises III, IV, and VI, 1914 to 1917, and 1919 to 1921, J. P. Ault was in command, 
and for Cruise V, 1917 to 1918, H. M. W. Edmonds was in command. 

179 



180 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



Table 27. — Residuals from Magnetic Observations on the Carnegie during Sivings of Vessel in Ports, 1909-1921. 

[The residuals are expressed in minutes of arc for declination and inclination, and in units of the fourth decimal c. G. a. 
for horizontal intensity. A plus sign means a deflection of the north-seeking end of the magnetic needle towards the east 
or downwards; it also signifies an increased value of the horizontal intensity.] 



Declination (D). Marine collimating-compass. 


Station 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


Means 


Ship's head 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


. ' 


' 


/ 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


N 

NE 


- 1 
+ 1 

- 5 
+ 1 
+ 3 
+ 4 
+ 2 

- 5 


+ 1 

+ 1 

.+ 1 

- 1 
+ 2 
+ 2 

- 7 

- 1 


- 2 
+ 1 

- 5 
_ 2 

- 1 
+ 5 
+ 4 




- 3 


+ 7 

- 4 

- 1 
+ 5 

- 1 

- 2 


+ 6 

- 7 
_ 2 

- 2 
+ 1 
+ 4 


- 7 
+ 7 
+ 4 
-12 


+ 5 
+ 7 

- 3 


+ 4 
-11 

+ 8 

- 8 

- 7 
+ 13 

- 6 
+ 9 


- 4 

- 2 
+ 5 

- 1 

- 3 
+ 6 

- 2 



- 1 




- 2 
+ 10 

+ 7 

- 4 

- 8 


- 1 
+ 6 
+ 2 

- 2 

- 7 
+ 4 

- 2 



+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 5 

- 4 
-10 
+ 3 

- 1 
+ 3 


- 2 
+ 4 

- 2 

- 3 

2 

+.2 
+ 4 

- 1 


+ 2 
+ 4 

- 1 

- 4 
+ 4 
_ 2 
_ 2 

- 1 


2 

+ 3 
+ 7 
+ 3 

- 5 
+ 1 



- 7 


+ 1 

- 1 

- 1 

- 3 
+ 4 

- 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 


- 1 

+ 1 
+ 2 

- 3 

- 1 
+ 4 

- 1 

- 1 


E 


SE 


S 


sw 


w 


NW 


Range 


9 


9 


10 


11 


13 


19 


24 


10 


18 


13 


15 


7 


8 


14 


7 


13\7 


Declination (D). Deflector. 


N 


2 

- 8 

- 3 
+ 8 


+ 8 
+ 5 

- 6 


- 7 


+ 7 
+21 

- 2 

- 9 

- 8 
2 


- 3 

- 1 
-13 
-10 

+ 8 
+ 11 
+ 8 

- 1 


+ 3 
+ 6 
+ 8 

- 4 
-16 
+ 2 

- 1 
+ 2 


+ 17 

- 8 

- 8 

- 6 
+ 5 


_ 2 
+ 3 

- 4 
-10 

- 3 
+ 3 
+ 7 
+ 4 


- 5 

- 4 
+ 17 
+ 5 
-13 


- 7 


- 7 

- 7 
+ 2 
+ 8 
+ 8 




+ 10 
+ 4 
+ 2 

- 6 
+ 4 

- 5 

- 4 

- 1 


+ 13 

+ 7 

- 1 

- 1 

- 4 

- 7 

- 7 
+ 1 


- 7 
+ 1 
+ 9 
+ 1 


+ 3 
+ 1 

- 5 


+ 4 

- 3 

- 2 

- 8 
+ 1 
+ 8 
+ 4 

- 4 


+ 2 
+ 5 

- 4 
-11 

- 4 
+ 8 
+ 1 
+ 1 


+ 1 
+ 5 
+ 5 

- 9 


+ 4 
+ 3 

- 8 


+ 2 
+ 11 
+ 3 

- 2 



- 5 
-10 




+ 2 
+ 1 

- 3 

- 2 
+ 3 
+ 1 

- 2 


NE 


E 

SE 


S 

SW 

W 

NW 


Range 


16 


30 


24 


24 


25 


17 


30 


15 


16 


20 


16 


10 


19 


14 


21 


20\6 


Inclination (/). Sea dip-circle. 


N 


- 4 
+ 2 
+ 1 



- 1 

- 3 

- 1 
+ 5 


+ 8 
+ 2 

- 5 

- 5 
-14 

- 2 

- 2 
+ 19 


_ 9 



+ 4 

+ 2 





- 2 

- 4 


_ 2 
+ 8 
+ 8 

- 1 

- 7 

- 1 

- 4 

- 1 


+ 9 
+ 9 
+ 6 
+ 2 
- 5 
-11 
-13 
+ 2 


+ 1 



+ 1 

- 5 
+ 2 
+ 2 

- 2 


- 2 
+ 2 
+ 1 

- 1 

- 3 

- 1 
+ 2 
+ 2 


- 1 

- 1 

- 1 

- 1 


- 1 
+ 3 
+ 2 




+ 4 
+ 7 
+ 2 

- 1 

- 5 

- 5 

- 3 


+ 6 


- 8 

- 5 
_ 2 


+ 3 
+ 7 


+ 4 
+ 1 
_ 2 


+ 1 

- 2 

- 4 
+ 2 


- 1 

+ 2 



+ 1 

- 1 

- 1 
+ 1 

- 1 


- 2 
+ 3 
+ 1 

- 1 

- 1 

- 1 
+ 1 




+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 4 

- 1 
2 

- 5 
+ 1 




_ 2 
+ 2 
+ 4 

- 1 
+ 1 

- 1 
+ 2 

- 2 


+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 

- 1 
2 

- 2 

- 1 
+ 2 


NE 


E 


SE 


S 


SW 


W 


NW 


Range 


9 


33 


8 


15 


22 


7 


5 


4 


12 


15 


8 


3 


5 


9 


6 


11\4 


Horizontal intensity (H). Deflector. 


Ship's head 


Units of fourth decimal c. g. s. 


N 


+ 3 

- 2 
+ 2 

- 2 
+ 6 
+ 2 

- 4 

- 4 




+ 1 

- 1 

- 8 

- 4 
+ 2 
+ 4 
+ 1 
+ 6 


+ 4 

- 4 

- 8 
+ 10 

- 8 
+ 5 

- 8 
+ 6 


_ 2 



- 4 
+ 5 
+ 4 
_ 2 



+ 2 

- 4 

- 2 

- 1 
+ 3 

- 2 

- 2 
+ 6 


- 1 

- 1 

- 1 

+ 3 
+ 3 
+ 1 

- 3 

- 1 


- 4 
+ 3 


+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 3 

- 1 

- 4 


_ o 

- 3 

- 2 
+ 6 
+ 2 
+ 3 

- 2 

- 2 


2 

+ 9 

- 1 


+ 8 
+ 1 

- 9 

- 5 


+ 9 

- 2 

- 8 
+ 6 
+ 4 

- 5 

- 8 
+ 4 


+ 2 
+ 2 

- 2 



- 1 

- 3 
+ 2 




+ 2 

- 2 

- 6 

+ 2 
+ 2 
+ 1 
+ 2 


+ 3 
+ 7 

- 1 

- 7 
+ 3 

- 3 
+ 1 

- 3 






- 1 



+ 2 



+ 1 


+ 1 


2 


+ 2 
+ 1 
- 3 
+ 1 


NE 


E 


SE 


S 


SW 

W 


NW 


Range 


10 




14 


18 


9 


10 


6 


7 


9 


18 


17 


5 


8 


14 


3 


11\5 


Horizontal intensity (H). Sea dip-circle. 


N 


- 2 

- 1 


+ 2 
+ 1 



- 2 

- 1 




+ 1 

+ 1 



- 1 




- 2 

3 


+ 9 
+ 7 

+ 12 
-11 
- 6 
+ 7 
-15 


+ 3 

+ 1 
_ 2 

- 6 

_ 2 
+ 3 
+ 1 
+ 3 


+ 3 

- 2 

- 6 
+ 2 
+ 6 
+ 2 

- 6 
+ 4 


+ 1 
+ 1 

- 2 
+ 1 
+ 3 



- 2 

- 1 



+ 1 

- 2 


- 2 

- 3 
+ 2 




+ 3 
+ 1 
+ 1 
+ 4 


- 3 

- 1 

- 3 


- 8 

- 8 

- 1 
+ 6 
+ 7 
+ 10 

- 8 
+ 3 


+ 1 
2 

- 5 

+ 4 



_ 2 

- 2 
+ 3 


+ 3 

+ 2 

- 7 

- 6 
+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 
+ 1 


+ 1 

+ 1 



- 1 

- 2 

- 1 


- 1 


- 1 

- 2 
+ 1 







+ 2 

+ 2 


+ 2 

- 2 
+ 2 
+ 4 

- 2 


- 4 



+ 1 


- 2 
+ 2 




- 1 



NE 


E 


SE 


S 


SW 


W 

NW 


Range 


4 




27 


9 


12 


5 


5 


7 


18 


9 


10 


3 


4 


8 


9\4 



Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 

Table 27a. — Description of Stations in Table 27. 



181 



Station 
No. 


Date 


Place 


Remarks 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 


1909 

Aug 31, Sept. 1, 2 

Oct. 18 


Gardiners Bay, N. Y 

Falmouth Bay, England 

Gardiners Bay, N. Y 

Off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Falmouth Bay, England 

Gardiners Bay, N. Y 


D. v. from Cheltenham data. 

D. v. from Falmouth data. Residuals from 

deflector H rejected on account of small 

deflection angle. Roll 2° to 4°. 

D. v. from Cheltenham. 

D. v. from Pilar data. Roll 7° to 15°. 

No d. v. data available. 

D. v. from Cheltenham data. 

ID d. v. from simultaneous shore observations. 
\H and I d. v. from Sodankyla data. 
D. v. from Cheltenham data. 

D. v. from Cheltenham data. Roll 7°. 
D. v. from Honolulu data. Roll 5° to 27°. 

D. v. from Christchurch 1910 and 1920 data for 

D and H. No. / d. v. data. Roll 1°. 
D. v. from Tucson, Sitka, and Honolulu data. 

D. v. from Cheltenham data. 

Do. 

D. v. from Cheltenham data of 1919 and 1920. 

* 


1910 

June 22, 23,25 

Dec. 23, 24 


1913 

Oct. 4, 6 

Dec. 15, 16 


1914 
July 15, 18, 25 

Oct. 15, 16, 18, 19, 20.. 

1915 
Mar. 7, 8 


Soro Sund, Hammerfest, Nor- 
way. 
Gardiners Bay, N. Y 


Gardiners Bay, N. Y 


June 29, July 3 

1916 
May 10 


Off Pearl Harhor, Honolulu 

Off New Brighton Beach, New 
Zealand. 

Chesapeake Bay 


Sept. 25 


1918 
June 9 


1919 
Oct. 11 


Do 


1921 
Nov. 7 


Do 







The residuals given in Tables 27 and 28 have been obtained by subtracting the 
mean value of the observed magnetic element for the 8 headings of the ship from the 
values for the individual headings. The plus sign is given the declination (D) when east 
and the inclination (7) when the north-seeking end of the dip needle is below the horizon ; 
the horizontal intensity is always positive. Diurnal-variation corrections were applied 
to the observations on the various headings, obtained during the swings in port, in order 
to refer all values to the same time. These corrections were obtained from the data of 
nearby observatories, as indicated in the remarks. Results of swings at sea have not 
been corrected for diurnal variation. 

An inspection of the figures in Tables 27 and 28 shows that the residuals are small; 
for D and I they generally are less than 0?1, and for H , usually less than 0.0005 c. g. s. 
The residuals are, in fact, on the order of the error of observation. 

In Table 27 the results have been tabulated according to the different positions of 
the instruments. The declination results with marine collimating-compass No. 1 were 
obtained on the bridge; the declination and horizontal-intensity results with deflector 
were obtained in the after observation dome ; and the horizontal intensity and inclination 
results with sea dip-circle were obtained in the forward dome. 

This method of tabulation and the use of more exact diurnal-variation corrections 
will explain the differences in the Gardiners Bay residuals as published in Table 101, Vol- 
ume III, Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, and those published 
herewith in Table 27. 

An inspection of Tables 27 and 28 shows that the results obtained from the sea 
swings are practically of the same order as those obtained from the port swings. The 
declination residuals, in general, are larger and more irregular for the deflector than for 
the marine collimating compass, a result to be expected in view of the difference in the 
two methods of observation. 



182 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



Table 28. — Residuals from Magnetic Observations on the Carnegie during Swings of Vessel at Sea, 1909-1921. 

[The residuals are expressed in minutes of arc for declination and inclination, and in units of the fourth decimal c. G. s. 
for horizontal intensity. A plus sign means a deflection of the north-seeking end of the magnetic needle towards the east 
or downwards; it also signifies an increased value of the horizontal intensity.] 



I. Declination Swings 






Declination (D) 








Position 






Marine eollimating-compass 




Deflector 




















Station 
No. 


Date 






Roll 






























Station 


1 


2 


3 




4 


5 


Means 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Means 






Lat. 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 
































Ship's 










, 


. 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 












head 






































N 


+ 2 




-1 












-8 




+ 2 




+ 1 


-2 




1913 


o / 


O f 


o 


NE 


+ 4 




-4 






+ 3 


+ 1 


+5 




-8 




+ 2 





1 


Apr 17 


12 44 S 


334 05 


14 


E 






+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+3 






-5 


+ 4 


+ 1 







1916 








SE 




+ 8 


+ 2 




-5 


-1 


+ 1 




+ 4 


-5 


-14 


+ 1 


-4 


2 


Apr 15 


4 18 N 


279 35 


2 


S 


-1 


+ 2 


-1 




-3 


_2 


-2 


+7 


+6 


+ 2 


+ 8 


+ 5 


+6 


3 


Aug 15 


56 37 N 


176 59 


10 


SW 


+2 


+ 4 


-2 




-1 





+ 1 


-5 


+ 4 


-6 


+ 2 


+2 


-1 




1916 








W 


-3 


-7 





+ 5 





-1 


+ 6 


-2 


+ 8 




-6 


+2 


4 


Aug 27 


47 15 N 


167 13 


12 


NW 


-2 


-7 


+ 1 






-1 


-2 


-5 


-11 


+ 12 




-5 


-2 


5 


1921 
May 31 


4 26 N 


215 17 


5 to 15 


Range 


7 


15 


8 


10 


5 


9\5 


15 


17 


20 


22 


11 


17\10 


II. Horizontal-Intensity and Inclination Swings 




Horizontal intensity (H) 




Deflector 


Sea dip-circle 


Station 


2 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Means 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Means 


Ship's 
head 


Units of fourth decimal c. a. s. 


Units of fourth decimal c. G. s. 


N 





+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 1 




-3 




-3 




+ 1 








+5 


-5 


+ 1 


-1 




-3 




+ 3 





NE 


+ 4 


-6 


+ 1 


-13 




-3 




-3 




+ 2 


-3 




+9 


+3 


+ 3 


-1 




-5 




+ 3 


+ 2 


E 


+ 12 


+ 3 


-1 


- 9 


-3 


-2 


+ 2 


-2 


+ 11 


- 4 


+ 1 


-1 


-3 


+4 


-4 


-3 


-3 


-2 





+ 3 


-1 


SE 


+ 18 








-5 


+ 3 


-3 


-2 





+ 10 


+ 3 


+ 1 


-1 


-5 




+ 1 


-2 


-3 


-3 





-2 


S 


- 4 


+ 4 






-1 


+ 1 


+9 


+6 


- 4 


- 6 


+ 1 


-7 


+ 1 


-6 


+ 1 


+ 2 


+ 5 


+6 


+ 2 


+ 4 


+ 1 


SW 




-6 


+ 1 


+ 6 


+ 4 


-2 


-6 


+ 4 


- 6 


- 6 


-1 









-3 


-1 


+ 3 


+2 


+ 3 


-4 





W 


-14 





-1 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+4 


-5 


-3 


- 7 


+ 2 


-2 


+ 6 


-8 


+3 


+ 1 


+ 1 


-1 


+2 


+ 2 


-8 





NW 
Range 


-19 


+ 1 


-1 


+ 13 


+ 4 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+2 


+ 5 


+ 1 


+ 1 








+ 5 


+ 1 


+ 1 





+ 1 


-2 


-4 





37 


10 


2 


26 


9 


7 


15 


9 


18 


16 


15\6 


13 


17 


11 


7 


5 


8 


11 


6 


12 


10\i 






Inclination (J) 




Station 


Date 


Position 


Roll 




Long. 










No. 




Lat. 


East 
of Gr. 




Station 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Means 


1 

2 


1911 
May 14 
May 20 


O ' 

39 29 S 
33 50 S 


O t 

73 53 

77 46 


11 

16 
























Ship's 


. 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


3 


Jun 1 


5 07 S 


75 45 


12 


head 






















4 


1912 
Aug 15 

1913 


58 N 


247 24 


10 
























N 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 3 




-4 




-2 




-4 


-1 


5 


Mar 21 


35 35 S 


7 23 


10 


NE 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 11 




+ 2 




-2 




-6 


+ 1 


6 


Aug 15 


31 59 N 


320 02 




E 


+ 8 


-5 


+ 13 


+ 2 


+ 2 


-5 


+ 2 


-1 


+ 2 


+2 


7 


Aug 18 


33 28 N 


320 00 


4 


SE 








+ 3 


+ 1 


-4 





+5 


+ 4 


+ 1 




1914 








S 


-1 






-1 





+3 


-1 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 1 


8 


Aug 7 


77 11 N 


4 53 


4 


SW 


-6 


-2 


, -11 





+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+2 


-1 


-1 




1915 








w 


-5 


+ 4 


- 8 


-4 


-1 


+6 


-1 


+ 1 


-2 


-1 


9 


Apr 15 


4 08 N 


279 35 


2 


NW 


-1 





- 8 


-2 


-1 


-3 


+ 2 


-8 


+5 


-2 


10 


Aug 15 

1916 
Mar 16 


56 28 N 


177 02 


10 
























11 


50 23 S 


132 54 


12 


Range 


14 


9 


24 


7 


6 


11 


6 


13 


11 


ll\4 


12 


Aug 26 


47 05 N 


165 22 


9 



Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 183 

The same general conclusions as given in Volume III, Researches of the Department 
of Terrestrial Magnetism, page 437, can be made from a study of all the swings of the 
Carnegie both in port and at sea. The residuals are mainly due to observational error, 
and if there are any outstanding effects to be ascribed to any magnetic material on the 
vessel, they are of such a subordinate magnitude as not to require being taken into 
account in the observational or in the computational work. Thus it can be stated, 
without any doubt or reservation, that the nonmagnetic feature of the Carnegie's con- 
struction and operation has been maintained in a practical way throughout all her 
work and cruises. 

MAGNETIC-CHART DIFFERENCES AS SHOWN BY THE CARNEGIE RESULTS. 1915-1921. 

In the earlier cruises of the Galilee and Carnegie there were disclosed in the mariner's 
charts giving the compass direction (magnetic declination), chart differences amounting 
to 3°, 5°, 10°, and even as much as 16° in certain parts of the oceans, the differences at 
times continuing in the same direction for several thousand miles. Equally serious 
differences were found in the magnetic charts showing inclination or dip of the magnetic 
needle and strength of the Earth's magnetic field; the differences in dip not infrequently 
amounted to over 9° and the chart values of the Earth's magnetic intensity were found 
to differ at times by amounts reaching and even exceeding 10 per cent. However, the 
improvement in the magnetic charts due to the data supplied promptly from time to 
time to the leading hydrographic establishments by the Carnegie Institution and by 
other organizations is shown by the fact that, during Cruise VI of the Carnegie, for the 
1920 United States magnetic charts, the chart differences in declination were usually less 
than 1° and reached 2?5 only once, in the Indian Ocean; the chart differences in dip 
exceeded 3° only once; and the chart differences in horizontal intensity rarely exceeded 
4 per cent. 

Table 29 will show the magnitude of the chart differences as determined from a 
comparison of the Carnegie observed values of the magnetic elements with values scaled 
from the most recent British and United States magnetic charts. Secular variation cor- 
rections were applied to the magnetic declinations scaled from the charts to reduce the 
values to the epoch of the Carnegie observations. 

If we compare the mean ranges and the means for cruises IV and V, omitting the sub- 
Antarctic portion of Cruise IV, with those for Cruise VI, we see that they differ very little 
in declination, due mainly to the large chart differences obtained on Cruise VI in the 
South Atlantic and Indian oceans, regions not covered during cruises IV and V; for 
inclination and horizontal intensity a marked improvement is shown in the magnetic 
charts. For the North Atlantic Ocean, the values of the magnetic declination observed 
on Cruise IV in 1915 en route from New York to Cristobal gave a mean chart difference 
of 0?8 W, compared with United States Hydrographic Office chart for 1910; on Cruise V, 
1918, the values of the magnetic declination observed en route from Cristobal to Newport 
News gave a mean chart difference of 0?4 E, compared with United States Hydrographic 
Office chart for 1915; on Cruise VI, 1921, the values of the magnetic declination observed 
en route from Cristobal to Newport News gave a mean chart difference of 0?0, compared 
with United States Hydrographic Office chart for 1920; thus showing a steady improve- 
ment in the magnetic charts covering this region. The mean ranges for these three 
periods were 2?4, 1?7, and 1?4, respectively, which again serves to point out the steady 
improvement in the charts. 

It is significant that the regions of greatest variation in the annual change, the 
South Atlantic and the Indian oceans, show the largest chart differences, thus emphasiz- 
ing the need for further control in these regions. Only two cruises have been made in 
the South Atlantic and Indian oceans, Cruise II in 1911, and Cruise VI in 1920. Cruise 



184 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 185 

IV was planned to cover a portion of the South Atlantic, but the plans were changed on 
account of the war. 

The magnitude of the chart differences can be ascribed, for the most part, to the 
uncertain knowledge of the annual change in these regions. Thus special effort should 
be made in future cruises of the Carnegie to cover the Atlantic and Indian oceans, in an 
effort to control the annual changes in the magnetic elements. 

PRELIMINARY VALUES OF THE ANNUAL CHANGES OF THE MAGNETIC ELEMENTS AS 
DETERMINED FROM THE GALILEE AND CARNEGIE RESULTS. 1905-1921. 

The following tables contain the average annual change values of the magnetic ele- 
ments as deduced from the final results of the observations on the Galilee and Carnegie in 
the vicinity of the intersections of their various tracks. As it is practically impossible to 
repeat observations at precisely the same spot, and since, to eliminate the observational 
error, it is desirable to utilize as large a number of observations as is practicable, some 
scheme for reducing a number of observations to one central geographic position must 
be devised. This has been accomplished in a graphical and preliminary way as 
follows : 

All values utilized have been compared with values as shown on the United States 
Hydrographic Office magnetic charts for 1920. The difference in the chart corrections 
thus obtained for two groups of values, divided by the time-interval in years, was taken 
as the average annual change for the mean position of the two groups under considera- 
tion. This serves in a graphical way to avoid the errors introduced in a region where the 
change in the magnetic elements with their change in geographic position may not be 
considered linear. 

The results thus obtained are sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes in view 
of the large number of values utilized in the formation of groups for the various track 
intersections. A mathematical discussion and least-square reduction of all secular- 
variation data obtained by the Department both on land and at sea will be published in 
a future volume of the Department's researches. 

For a more detailed discussion of the difficulties encountered in determining the 
annual changes of the magnetic elements at sea, reference can be made to Volume III, 
Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, pages 430-433. The present 
tables are based on different groupings than those found on pages 432 and 433 of Volume 
III, and more values have been utilized in each group. 

The number of observational results from which the annual change is deduced is 
given for each date and also the least number that occurs in any group. These numbers, 
together with the time-interval, are some indication of the relative reliability of the cor- 
responding annual change. The observations were not corrected for diurnal variation 
of the magnetic elements, since this variation is usually eliminated in the methods of 
observation. 

The annual changes for the declination and inclination are referred invariably to 
the north-seeking end of the magnetic needle. Thus 6' E means that the north-seeking 
end of the compass moved to the east at the average annual rate of 6' during the period 
shown in the third column of the tables; 3' S means that the north-seeking end of the dip 
needle moved upwards at the average annual rate of 3' during the period in the third 
column. The progressive annual change, or variation in the annual change with time, 
is given for many of the intersections where the Galilee or Carnegie passed over the region 
more than twice. The intersections have been arranged in accordance with decreasing 
northerly latitude for the three large oceans. 



186 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 30. — Average Annual Changes for the Atlantic Ocean. 



Latitude 



Longitude 
East of Gr. 



Approximate 
dates 



Time- 
interval 



Average annual change 



Declination 



Inclination 



Horizontal 
intensity 



Number of values 
utilized 



First 
date 



Second 
date 



49.4 N 

48.9 N 

47.0 N 

47.1 N 

44.5 N 
44.8 N 

40.6 N 



40.0 N 

39.7 N 

38.8 N 

38.1 N 

38.3 N 

37.8 N 

37.4 N 
37.3 N 

37.2 N 

33.6 N 

33.8 N 

29.1 N 
28.8 N 

24.5 N 

24.0 N 

20.6 N 
20.6 N 

15.2 N 

14.6 N 

9.6 S 

9.7 S 

14.2 S 

14.3 S 
15.6 S 
15.2 S 



333.7 

333.0 

309.1 
308.5 
345.8 
346.0 

298.0 



298.5 
290.8 

289.9 

310.3 

309.4 

322.2 
322.3 
334.7 
333.9 

285.9 

286.0 

340.2 
340.0 

291.7 

290.6 

325.6 
325.6 

282.9 

282.2 

347.5 
347.7 
344.0 
343 . 8 
324.2 
324.5 



1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1910 
1914 
1910 
1909 
1909 
1910 
1915 
1910 
1910 
1914 
1910 
1914 
1910 
19lt) 
1913 
1910 
1914 
1910 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1915 
1918 
1915 
1915 
1918 
1915 
1909 
1909 
1910 
1910 
1910 
1915 
1910 
1910 
1915 
1910 
1909 
1909 
1915 
1918 
1915 
1915 
1918 
1915 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1910 
1910 



.8-1913.7 
.8-1914.5 
.8-1913.7 
.8-1914.5 
.8-1914.8 
.7-1914.7 
.8-1913.7 
.8-1913.7 
.8-1914.6 
.6-1919.8 
.8-1919.8 
.1-1914.6 
.6-1919.8 
.1-1919.8 
.9-1913.9 
.9-1914.7 
.0-1914.3 
.2-1919.8 
.0-1915.2 
.0-1919.8 
.3-1919.8 
.5-1913.9 
.4-1919.8 
.5-1914.4 
.5-1919.8 
.9-1919.8 
.5-1914.2 
.2-1919.8 
.5-1919.8 
.6-1919.8 
.6-1919.8 
.8-1919.8 
.8-1919.8 
.2-1918.4 
.4-1921.8 
.2-1921.8 
.2-1918.4 
.4-1920.8 
.2-1920.8 
.9-1919.9 
.9-1919.9 
.0-1915.2 
.6-1915.2 
.6-1921.8 
.2-1921.8 
.0-1921.8 
.4-1915.2 
.2-1921.8 
.4-1921.8 
.9-1913.6 
.9-1913.6 
.2-1918.4 
.4-1921.8 
.2-1921.8 
.2-1918.4 
.4-1921.8 
.2-1921.8 
.6-1920.0 
.6-1920.0 
.3-1920.0 
.3-1920.0 
.9-1913.4 
.9-1913.4 



years 
3.9 
4.7 
3.9 
4. 
5. 
5. 
3. 
3. 
4.8 
5.2 

10.0 
4.5 
5.2 
9.7 
4.0 
4.8 
4.3 
4.6 
5.2 
9.8 
5.5 
3.4 
5.4 
3.9 
9.3 
5.9 
3.7 
5.6 
9.3 
6.2 
6.2 
6.0 
6.0 
3.2 
3.4 
6.6 
3.2 
2.4 
5.6 

10.0 

10.0 
5.2 
4.6 

11.2 
6.6 

11.8 
4.8 
6. 

11. 
3. 



.6 
.4 

.7 
3.7 
3.2 



6.4 
6.7 
6.7 
2.5 
2.5 



6 E 
4 E 



7 E 
6 E 



5 W 

8 W 
7 W 



4 W 
6 W 



2 W 

4 W 

4 W 

4 W 

4 W 







1 


W 


2 


E 


5 
4 
4 


W 
W 

w 






4 


E 



12 W 

15. W 

7 W 

2 W 

6 W 



4 W 



2 W 
2 E 




2 W 
4 W 
8 W 



3 S 

1 S 



3 S 
6 S 



1 S 







2 N 

4 S 

6 N 

2 N 

1 N 



6 S 

1 N 

2 S 

4 S 
5S 



3 S 

4 N 




8 S 



6 N 

4 N 

5 N 



9 S 



4 N 
11 N 

8 N 



18 S 
16 S 
13 S 



c. g. s. 



0.0000 
+ .0001 



.0000 
+ .0002 



.0004 
.0003 
.0004 



.0007 
.0004 
.0009 
.0006 
.0007 



+ .0004 
- .0001 
+ .0001 

.0000 

+ .0005 



- .0004 

- .0007 

- .0005 



+ .0005 



- .0008 

- .0011 

- .0010 



+ .0001 



- .0019 
+ .0004 

- .0007 



- .0003 

- .0004 

- .0006 



5 

5 

4 

4 

8 

6 

20 

13 

8 

17 

8 

6 

9 

6 

13 

13 

12 

2 

12 

12 

15 

6 

5 

6 

6 

6 

4 

6 

4 

14 

9 

8 

12 

5 

15 

5 

3 

7 

3 

11 

6 

6 

13 

13 

9 

6 

9 



17 
9 
9 

15 

9 

7 



11 

6 

10 

9 



7 

8 

8 

5 

17 

10 

22 

19 

17 

6 

6 

9 

4 

4 

6 

11 

15 

2 

2 

2 

2 

6 

7 

5 

7 

7 

6 

5 

5 

13 

9 

11 

7 

15 

9 

9 

7 

6 

6 

12 

7 

9 

9 

12 

12 

12 

6 

5 

5 

11 

6 

15 

10 

10 

8 

4 

4 

11 

6 

12 

6 

22 

18 



Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 

Table 30. — Average Annual Changes for the Atlantic Ocean — Concluded. 



187 



Latitude 



Longitude 
East of Gr. 



Approximate 
dates 



Time- 
interval 



Average annual change 



Declination 



Inclination 



Horizontal 
intensity 



Number of values 
utilized 



First 
date 



Second 
date 



17.0 
17.1 

25.4 
26.0 
26.4 
24.8 
31.4 
31.4 
35.7 
36.3 



36.8 S 



36.8 S 



37.1 S 



37.5 S 



37.8 S 



37.1 S 



41 
41 

48 
48 
63 



53.3 S 



353.6 

353.9 

329.8 

330.4 

5.7 

5.8 

344.4 

345.1 

16.1 

15.5 

353.1 



352.2 



306.5 



306.5 



6.7 



6.4 

348.0 
345.2 
298.8 
299.1 
324.2 
324.4 



1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1913. 

1911. 

1911. 

1911. 

1912. 

1911. 

1913 

1911 

1913 

1911 

1911 

1917 

1917 

1911 

1911 

1917 

1911 

1917 

1917 

1911 

1911 

1917 

1911 

1913 

1911 

1911 

1913 

1911 

1911 

1911 

1917 

1917 

1913 

1913 



3-1920.2 
3-1920.2 
4-1920.0 
4-1920.0 
2-1920.2 
2-1920.2 
5-1920.3 
4-1920.3 
2-1920.3 
.2-1920.3 
.2-1913.4 
.3-1920.2 
.2-1920.2 
.4-1920. 
.2-1913. 
.4-1920. 
.2-1920. 
.1-1917. 
.1-1917.9 
.9-1920.1 
.1-1917.9 
.1-1920.1 
.1-1920.1 
.1-1917.2 
.1-1917.9 
.9-1920.1 
.1-1917.9 
.1-1920.1 
.1-1920.1 
.2-1913.2 
.2-1920.3 
.2-1920.3 
.2-1913.2 
.2-1920.3 
.2-1920.3 
.2-1920.2 
.2-1920.2 
.1-1917.9 
.1-1918.0 
.1-1916.0 
.1-1916.0 



years 
6.9 
6.9 
6.6 
6.6 
7.0 
7.0 
6.8 
6. 



9. 

2. 

7. 

9. 

6.8 

2.2 

6.8 

9.0 

6.0 

0.8 

2.2 

6.8 

9.0 

3.0 

6.1 

0.8 

2.2 

6.8 

9.0 

3.0 

2.0 

7.1 

9.1 



1 


W 


8 


w 


4 


E 


8 


W 


11 


E 



15 S 



c. g. s. 
-0.0009 



12 S 

13 S 



.0004 
.0006 



12 S 
9 S 



.0007 
.0014 



4 E 

5 W 
4 W 

6 W 



17 S 
11 S 
13 S 



- .0008 

- .0009 

- .0009 



10 W 

11 W 
10 W 
10 w 
10 w 
10 w 



4 N 
8 S 

24 S 
2 N 
4 S 

19 S 



- .0003 

- .0008 

- .0010 

- .0004 

- .0005 

- .0009 



10 E 

2 E 



27 S 
13 S 
16 S 



- .0012 

- .0013 

- .0013 



9.0 
0.8 
0.9 
2.9 
2.9 



7 W 

5 W 

11 W 



9 S 

3 N 
7 N 



- .0010 
+ .0003 

- .0004 



18 

11 

8 

6 

9 

7 

9 

9 

3 

2 

5 

11 

5 

6 

4 

5 

4 

19 

9 

19 

19 

19 

9 

16 

5 

8 

16 

16 

5 



5 

5 

7 

10 

7 
2 

7 



14 

6 

15 

9 

13 

6 

16 

7 

7 

4 

6 

20 

20 

20 

5 

10 

10 

9 

19 

21 

19 

21 

21 

5 



6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

8 

4 

4 

9 

6 

20 

10 

12 

7 







Table 31. — Average Annual 


Changes for 


the Indian Ocean. 






o 

10.9 N 

10.6 N 
5.3 N 

5.2 N 

24.4 S 
23.8 S 
31.0 S 

30.8 S 

35.0 S 

35.5 S 

38.9 S 

38.7 S 
45 S 
45.3 S 


O 

63.9 
64.6 
80.3 

80.5 

63.2 
63.0 
77.9 
77.5 

95.0 

95.7 

31.3 

31.4 

128.4 

128.4 


1911.7-1920.5 

1911.7-1920.5 

1911.6-1920.5 

/ 1911.7-1920.5 

\ 1911.5-1920.5 

1911.6-1920.4 

1911.6-1920.4 

1911.4-1920.6 

1911.4-1920.6 

{ 1911.9-1916.1 

\ 1916.1-1920.6 

1 1911.9-1920.6 

f 1911.9-1916.1 

| 1916.1-1920.6 

[ 1911.9-1920.6 

1911.3-1920.4 

1911.3-1920.4 

1916.2-1920.8 

1916.2-1920.8 


years 
8.8 
8.8 
8.9 
8.8 
9.0 
8.8 
8.8 
9.2 
9.2 
4.2 
4.5 
8.7 
4.2 
4.5 
8.7 
9.1 
9.1 
4.6 
4.6 


2 W 


i 


c. g. s. 


18 

10 

26 

6 

12 

14 

10 

6 

7 

15 

19 

15 

8 

9 

8 

3 

6 

25 

12 


17 
7 

11 
6 
6 

14 
7 

18 
9 

19 

10 

10 
9 
5 
5 
8 
6 

13 
7 


8 N 


+0.0004 


4 E 


2 N 
1 N 


+ .0004 
+ .0006 




13 W 


6 N 


+ .0004 


18 W 


1 S 


- .0003 


7 W 
14 W 
10 W 










1 S 

2 S 
2 S 


- .0010 

- .0005 

- .0007 






8 E 


2 S 


- .0009 


8 W 


2 N 


- .0001 





188 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 32. — -Average Annual Changes for the Pacific Ocean. 



Latitude 


Longitude 
East of Gr. 


Approximate 
dates 


Time- 
interval 


Average annual change 


Number of values 
utilized 


Declination 


Inclination 


Horizontal 
intensity 


First 
date 


Second 
date 


o 

52.4 N 
51.1 N 

49.8 N 

45.4 N 

46.1 N 

42.9 N 

43.5 N 

40.8 N 

40.7 N 

37.7 N 
37.7 N 

35.0 N 

34.5 N 

32.5 N 

32.1 N 

31.0 N 

32.1 N 

27.7 N 

27.7 N 

27.6 N 

27.7 N 

27.4 N 
26.6 N 

27.0 N 

27.2 N 

23.1 N 

23.1 N 

22.2 N 


o 
216.2 
212.7 
189.2 

167.0 

166.9 

190.2 
191.1 

222.6 

222.9 

194.1 
194.4 

233.2 

232.9 

216.6 
217.1 

144.7 

146.0 

169.5 
169.0 

199.1 

199.2 

134.4 
131.8 
222.2 

222.8 

190.2 
190.1 
207.4 


1907.6-1916.7 

1907.6-1916.7 

1915.5-1916.6 

f 1906.7-1915.6 

\ 1915.6-1916.6 

1906.7-1916.6 

( 1906.7-1915.6 

| 1915.6-1916.6 

{ 1906.7-1916.6 

1907.0-1915.5 

f 1906.7-1915.5 

\ 1907.5-1915.5 

[ 1907.6-1916.7 

\ 1916.7-1921.1 

1 1907.6-1921.1 

[ 1907.6-1916.7 

1916.7-1921.1 

[ 1907.6-1921.1 

1915.5-1921.1 

1915.5-1921.1 

1906.6-1916.8 

1916.8-1921.2 

1906.6-1921.2 

1905.7-1906.7 

1906.7-1908.4 

1908.4-1916.8 

1916.8-1921.2 

1905.7-1908.4 

] 1905.7-1916.8 

1905.7-1921.2 

1906.7-1916.8 

1906.7-1921.2 

1908.4-1921.2 

1907.6-1921.4 

1907.6-1921.4 

f 1906.6-1912.3 

1912.3-1916.6 

1906.6-1916.6 

1906.7-1912.3 

1912.3-1916.6 

[ 1906.7-1916.6 

1912.3-1915.6 

1912.3-1915.7 

f 1905.9-1915.5 

1915.5-1921.3 

I 1905.9-1921.3 

| 1905.9-1915.5 

1915.5-1921.3 

[ 1905.9-1921.3 

1907.4-1912.3 

1907.4-1912.3 

1906.4-1921.3 

f 1908.4-1921.3 

1905.7-1908.4 

1905.7-1921.3 

1 1906.2-1921.3 

( 1905.8-1907.7 

1907.7-1921.0 

1 1905.8-1921.0 

| 1905.8-1907.7 

1907.7-1921.0 

1 1905.8-1921.0 

| 1906.2-1915.4 

1915.4-1921.3 

[ 1906.2-1921.3 


years 

9.1 

9.1 

1.1 

8.9 

1.0 

9.9 

8.9 

1.0 

9.9 

8.5 

8.8 

8.0 

9.1 

4,4 

13.5 

9.1 

4.4 

13.5 

5.6 

5.6 

10.2 

4.4 

14.6 

1.0 

1.7 

8.4 

4.4 

2.7 

11.1 

15.5 

10.1 

14.5 

12.8 

13.7 

13.7 

5.7 

4.3 

10.0 

5.6 

4.3 

9.9 

3.3 

3.4 

9.6 

5.8 

15.4 

9.6 

5.8 

15.4 

4.9 

4.9 

14.9 

12.9 

2.7 

15.6 

15.1 

1.9 

13.3 

15.2 

1.9 

13.3 

15.2 

9.2 

5.9 

15.1 


7 E 


/ 


c. g. s. 


3 

3 

9 

7 

14 

7 

7 

9 

7 

9 

4 

5 

6 

17 

6 

6 

12 

6 

9 

6 

17 

15 

17 

12 

6 

4 

10 

12 

12 

12 

6 

6 

4 

6 

6 

13 

8 

13 

10 

6 

10 

7 

5 

15 

11 

15 

9 

6 

9 

9 

7 

10 

3 

5 

5 

3 

13 

6 

13 

6 

7 

6 

4 

9 

4 


6 
5 

7 

14 

15 

15 

9 

9 

9 

12 

7 

7 

17 

15 

15 

12 

10 

10 

14 

7 

15 

22 

22 

6 

4 

10 

12 

4 

10 

12 

10 

12 

12 

13 

8 

8 

9 

9 

6 

7 

7 

15 

8 

11 

15 

15 

6 

7 

7 

6 

8 

22 

14 

3 

14 

14 

6 

20 

20 

7 

11 

11 

9 

8 

8 


2 S 


. 0000 


6 W 

6 W 

12 W 

6 W 














4 S 
9 S 

1 s- 


.0000 

+ .0001 

.0000 






1 W 


2 S 
4 S 


- .0003 
+ .0002 




1 E 
3 E 

2 E 










1 S 
6 S 
3 S 


.0000 

- .0004 

- .0002 






1 W 


1 S 


- .0003 


5 E 
1 W 
3 E 










7 S 
9 S 
2 N 
4 S 
9 S 

1 S 

2 S 


1 s 




- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0002 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 




















1 E 


1 s 


- .0002 


2 W 
4 W 
2 W 










3 N 

2 S 
1 N 


- .0002 

- .0006 

- .0002 






4 W 


5 S 


- .0002 


2 E 
2 E 
2 E 










5 S 

3 S 


- .0009 

- .0003 

- .0002 






1 E 


2 N 


+ .0002 


4 E 




1 S 


2 S 


- .0002 

- .0001 

- .0002 

- .0002 





















13 S 

4 S 

5 S 


+ .0001 

- .0002 

- .0002 






2 E 

1 E 

2 E 















Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 

Table 32. — Average Annual Changes for the Pacific Ocean — Continued. 



189 



Latitude 



Longitude 
East of Gr. 



Approximate 
dates 



Time- 
interval 



Average annual change 



Declination 



Inclination 



Horizontal 
intensity 



Number of values 
utilized 



First 
date 



Second 
date 



22.4 N 

19.1 N 
19.0 N 
18.3 N 
18.0 N 

16.5 N 
17.0 N 

15.0 N 



14.9 N 

11.3 N 

11.4 N 

5.2 N 
5.1 N 

5.0 N 

4.9 N 

4.9 N 
4.9 N 

2.7 N 

2.8 N 
0.3 N 

1.0 N 

2.6 S 

3.5 S 

5.4 S 

5.4 S 

10.4 S 

10.2 S 

12.2 S 



12.9 S 



13.0 S 
12.9 S 
13.3 S 
14.3 S 



207.5 

217.7 
217.4 
222.2 
225.0 
145.3 
145.0 

172.8 



174.2 
244.6 

244.6 

200.2 
200.7 

165.7 

166.0 

232.5 
232.4 

275.4 
274.6 
246.6 

247.0 

178.9 
178.4 

258.0 

258.3 
217.4 
217.7 

191.4 



192.1 



273.3 
274.8 
246.2 
245.9 



1906 
1915 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1915 
1915 
1906 
1906 
1907 
1912 
1907 
1907 
1912 
1907 
1908 
1915 
1908 
1908 
1915 
1908 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1907. 
1906. 
1906. 
1907. 
1906. 
1907. 
1907. 
1915. 
1918. 
1915. 
1915. 
1918. 
1915. 
1908. 
1912. 
1908. 
1908. 
1912. 
1908. 
1906. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1908. 
1906. 
1907. 
1906. 
1916. 
1906. 
1907. 
1916. 
1906. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1908. 
1912. 
1912. 



.7-1915.4 
.4-1921.3 
.7-1921.3 
.2-1915.4 
.2-1915.4 
.4-1921.4 
.4-1921.4 
.6-1916.6 
.6-1916.6 
.8-1912.3 
.3-1916.5 
.8-1916.5 
.8-1912.3 
.3-1916.5 
.8-1916.5 
.3-1915.3 
.3-1916.9 
.3-1916.9 
.3-1915.3 
.3-1916.9 
.3-1916.9 
.9-1921.0 
.8-1921.0 
.3-1921.0 
.5-1907.8 
.8-1915.7 
.5-1915.7 
.5-1907.8 
.8-1915.7 
.5-1915.7 
.0-1912.6 
.0-1912.6 
.3-1918.3 
.3-1921.8 
.3-1921.8 
.3-1918.3 
.3-1921.8 
.3-1921.8 
.3-1912.6 
.6-1916.9 
.3-1916.9 
.3-1912.6 
.6-1916.9 
.3-1916.9 

7-1912. 

4-1912. 

2-1912. 

3-1921. 

3-1921. 

1-1912. 

1-1912. 

7-1916. 

5-1921. 

7-1921. 

2-1916. 

4-1921. 

3-1916.4 

3-1921.5 

2-1921.5 

2-1918.2 

2-1918.2 

6-1917.0 

6-1917.0 



years 
8.7 
5.9 
14.6 
9.2 
9.2 
6.0 
6.0 
10.0 
10.0 
4.5 
4.2 
8.7 
4.5 
4.2 
8.7 
7.0 
1.6 
8.6 
7.0 
1.6 
8.6 
15.1 
15.2 
14.7 
1.3 
7.9 
9.2 
1.3 
7.9 
9.2 



6.5 
3.0 



.5 
.5 
.3 
.3 

.fi 

.3 

.3 

8.6 

5.7 

6.0 



5 
13 
13 

6 



5.6 

9.8 

5.0 

14.8 

9.2 

5.1 

10.1 

15.2 

14.3 

10.0 

10.0 

4.4 

4.4 







6 


E 


1 


E 


2 


W 


3 
1 
1 


W 
E 
W 






4 
3 
4 


E 
E 
E 






2 


E 




3 
3 
3 


W 
W 

W 






7 


E 


4 
5 
4 


E 
E 
E 






4 
3 
4 


E 
E 
E 






1 


W 




4 


E 


7 


E 


3 
2 
2 


E 
E 

E 










2 


E 


2 


E 





6 S 
2 S 



4 N 
4S 

2 N 



6 S 
6 S 
6 S 



2 N 
4 N 
2 N 



6 S 
5 S 



3 N 
5 S 

4 S 



4 N 



19 N 

9 N 



7 N 
4 N 
6 N 



3 S 
1 N 



6 N 




5 S 

2 S 

2 S 

2 S 

4 S 



12 N 
3 N 



c. g. s. 
-0.0003 
+ .0002 
- .0001 



- .0002 

- .0003 

- .0001 



+ .0003 

- .0003 

.0000 



- .0003 
+ .0002 

- .0002 



- .0002 

- .0004 



+ .0006 

- .0002 

- .0001 



+ .0001 



+ .0005 

- .0010 

- .0003 



+ .0005 

- .0005 

.0000 



.0001 
.0005 



.0000 
.0002 



- .0004 

- .0002 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0003 



-I- .0001 
- .0006 



4 

4 

4 

9 

9 

12 

6 

5 

6 

4 

7 

4 

3 

5 

3 

7 

19 

7 

9 

10 

9 

27 

18 

5 

7 

5 

7 

7 

5 

7 

7 

7 

28 

17 

28 

15 

9 

15 

7 

15 

7 

9 

8 

9 

12 

10 

3 

5 

5 

7 

7 

12 

13 

12 

7 

7 

8 

8 

7 

14 

13 

13 

7 



4 

4 

4 

14 

7 

13 

7 

10 

8 

7 

16 

16 

5 

7 

7 

19 

35 

35 

10 

21 

21 

15 

7 

7 

5 

30 

30 

5 

15 

15 

19 

15 

17 

19 

19 

9 

11 

11 

15 

22 

22 

8 

15 

15 

18 

10 

10 

14 

7 

10 

6 

13 

21 

21 

7 

10 

7 

10 

10 

46 

24 

14 

7 



190 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 32. — Average Annual Changes in the Pacific Ocean — Continued. 



Latitude 



Longitude 
East of Gr. 



Approximate 
dates 



Time- 
interval 



Average annual change 



Declination 



Inclination 



Horizontal 
intensity 



Number of values 
utilized 



First 
date 



Second 
date 



16.2 S 
16.7 S 
21.0 S 

19.6 S 

23.9 S 
24.6 S 
26.2 S 
26.0 S 

28.2 S 



28.2 S 



28.6 S 



29.1 S 



29.5 S 

29.6 S 

30.1 S 



30.0 S 

30.6 S 
30.0 S 
34.4 S 
34.4 S 



40.0 S 



40.0 S 



41.4 S 
41.4 S 
45.4 S 

45.6 S 

48.7 S 
48.9 S 

58.1 S 



55.6 S 



210.6 
210.6 
174.1 

174.5 

202.0 
201.7 
269.2 
269.6 

189.3 



189.4 



223.1 



223.8 



258.7 
257.8 

241.6 



242.4 

279.2 
278.0 
260.4 
260.3 



222.4 



221.7 



281.2 
281.2 
175.0 
175.5 
159.4 
159.1 

289.6 



274.8 



1912 
1912 
1907 
1906 
1907 
1912 
1912 
1908 
1908 
1912 
1916 
1912 
1912 
1916 
1912 
1912 
1917 
1912 
1912 
1917 
1912 
1917 
1912 
1912 
1917 
1913 
1913 
1912 
1917 
1912 
1912 
1917 
1912 
1913 
1913 
1908 
1908 
1908 
1912 
1917 
1908 
1908 
1912 
1908 
1912 
1917 
1908 
1908 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1913 
1916 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1916 
1913 
1913 



.7-1921.0 

.7-1921.0 

.4-1912.4 

.4-1912.4 

.9-1912.4 

.8-1921.6 

.8-1921.6 

.2-1913.0 

.2-1913.0 

.5-1916.4 

.4-1921. 

.5-1921. 

.5-1916. 

.4-1921. 

.5-1921. 

.6-1917.0 

.0-1920.9 

.6-1920.9 

.6-1921.6 

.0-1921.6 

.6-1917.0 

.0-1920.9 

.6-1920.9 

.6-1921.6 

.0-1921.6 

.0-1921.7 

.0-1921.7 

.6-1917.0 

.0-1921.7 

.6-1921.7 

.6-1917.0 

.0-1921.7 

.6-1921.7 

.0-1918.1 

.0-1918.1 

.1-1912.9 

.1-1913.0 

.1-1912.8 

.8-1917.1 

.1-1920.9 

.1-1917.1 

.1-1920.9 

.8-1920.9 

.1-1912.8 

.8-1917.1 

.1-1920.9 

.1-1917.1 

.1-1920.9 

.8-1920.9 

.9-1918.0 

.9-1918.0 

.1-1920.8 

.2-1920.9 

.1-1920.8 

.1-1920.8 

.1-1916.0 

.0-1918.0 

.1-1917.1 

.1-1918.0 

.0-1916.0 

.0-1918.0 

.0-1917.1 

.0-1918.0 



years 
8.3 
8.3 
5.0 
6.0 
4.5 
8.8 
8.8 
4.8 
4.8 
3.9 
5 
9 
3 
5. 
9 
4 
3 
8 
9 
4 
4 
3.9 
8.3 
9.0 
4.6 
8.7 
8.7 
4.4 
4.7 
9.1 
4.4 
4.7 
9.1 
5.1 
5.1 
4.8 
4.9 
4.7 
4.3 
3.8 
9 

12.8 
8.1 
4.7 
4.3 
3.8 
9.0 

12.8 
8.1 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 







.1 
.1 

.7 
.7 
.7 
.7 
2.9 
2.0 
4.0 
4.9 
3.0 
2.0 
4.1 
5.0 



2 


E 


2 


W 




2 


E 


2 


E 


4 
2 
3 


E 
E 
E 







4 E 


2 E 
4 E 

3 E 



2 E 





2 E 
1 E 



5 W 

2 E 



8 E 

2 E 

4 E 

5 E 
5 E 

3 E 



6 W 



5 E 



3 E 



9 W 
3 W 



W 
W 

E 
W 

E 
E 



2 S 



8 S 
4 S 



2 S 
12 N 





2 S 
1 S 



6 N 

1 N 
4 N 
4 N 

2 N 



4 N 





3 N 

2 N 



4 N 
10 N 



2 S 

3 N 
1 S 

1 N 


1 N 



4 S 
3 S 
2 S 



c. g. s. 
-0.0003 



.0004 
.0001 



.0003 
.0003 



.0006 
.0003 
.0004 



.0000 
.0002 
.0001 
.0002 
.0004 



.0005 



.0002 
.0004 
.0003 



.0001 
.0006 



- .0008 
+ .0004 

- .0002 

- .0002 

- .0002 
+ .0001 



.0002 



- .0004 

- .0007 



11 

7 

12 

4 

9 

6 

5 

9 

8 

7 

11 

7 

7 

8 

7 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



6 

10 
6 
9 

29 
9 
5 

14 
5 
7 
6 

10 
9 
5 

13 

21 
5 
5 

13 
7 
8 

14 
7 
7 
8 
7 
6 

29 

15 

13 
7 
2 

10 
2 
2 
4 

11 
4 
4 



15 

8 
19 
15 
15 
12 

6 
11 

8 
11 
16 
16 

8 
11 
11 
10 
20 
20 
16 
16 

6 
12 
12 
10 
10 
10 

7 
29 

9 

9 
14 



37 

17 

24 

18 

13 

21 

14 

21 

14 

14 

8 

14 

7 

14 

7 

7 

10 

6 

14 

7 

6 

4 

10 

14 

12 

14 

11 

11 

8 

11 



Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 

Table 32. — Average Annual Changes in the Pacific Ocean — Concluded. 



191 



Latitude 


Longitude 
east of Gr. 


Approximate 
dates 


Time- 
interval 


Average annual change 


Number of values 
utilized 


Declination 


Inclination 


Horizontal 
intensity 


First 
date 


Second 
date 




55.9 S 
57.5 S 




275.3 

289.7 


f 1913.0-1916.0 
1 1916.0-1918.0 
] 1913.0-1917.1 
1 1913.0-1918.0 
f 1913.1-1916.0 
1916.0-1918.0 
] 1913.1-1917.1 
[ 1913.1-1918.0 


years 
3.0 
2.0 
4.1 
5.0 
2.9 
2.0 
4.0 
4.9 




/ 

4 S 
3 N 

5 N 
3 N 

1 S 

6 N 

2 N 
2 N 


c. g. s. 
+0.0001 

- .0009 
+ .0001 

- .0003 

- .0003 

- .0001 

- .0002 

- .0002 


5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
5 
4 
4 


5 

8 
4 
8 
5 
9 
4 
9 



















STATUS OF THE GENERAL MAGNETIC SURVEY OF OCEAN AREAS. 

On Plate 6, the cruises of the Galilee, 1905-1908, and the Carnegie, 1909-1921, are 
shown. The dots indicate the land magnetic stations (about 5,000) established by the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism from 1905 to 1924; they are distributed over 115 
different countries and island groups, being located especially in regions where no mag- 
netic results, or but an insufficient number, had been obtained previously. The dots in 
Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay represent the points at which magnetic observations were 
obtained by the Department in 1914 on the chartered gasoline schooner, the George B. 
Cluett, under the command of W. J. Peters, assisted by D. W. Berky (see pp. 289-313 for 
special report on this expedition). The dots in Baffin Land, on the Labrador coast, 
and on the west coast of Greenland represent the points at which magnetic obser- 
vations were obtained by the MacMillan Baffin Land Expedition and the North Greenland 
Expedition in cooperation with the Department, during 1921-1922 and 1923-1924. 
The dots on the northern coast of Siberia represent the points at which magnetic 
observations were made by the Maud Expedition, under the command of Captain Roald 
Amundsen, in cooperation with the Department, during 1918-1921. 

The directions in which the various passages were made are indicated by arrows. 
The Arabic numerals 1, 2, and 3 designate, respectively, the three cruises of the Galilee 
(August 1905 to May 1908); the Roman numerals, I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, refer to the 
six cruises of the Carnegie carried out from August 1909 to November 1921. Plate 6 
thus shows the status of the general magnetic survey of the ocean areas as represented by 
the cruises of the two vessels, the Galilee and the Carnegie, from August 1905 to November 
1921. 

Table 33 shows for each cruise of the Galilee and of the Carnegie the number of days 
at sea, 1 the length of the cruise in nautical miles, and the number of observed values of 
the magnetic declination, inclination, and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field. The 
subsequent columns give the average time-intervals, as well as the average distance apart, 
between the observations. The entries in the bottom row of the table summarize the 
work of the two vessels from August 1905 to November 1921. It will be seen that the 
aggregate length of all the cruises of the Galilee and Carnegie through November 1921 is 
316,536 nautical miles. 

Table 34 shows for each ocean the number of miles traversed, the number of observed 
values of the magnetic elements, and the number of cruise-intersections which have been 
utilized for the determination of the annual-change data (see pp. 185-191). 

1 In the case of the Galilee work, to the number of days at sea were added the days spent in harbor swings. 



192 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Table 33. — Summary of the Ocean Magnetic Work of the Galilee and the Carnegie, 1905-1921. 



Vessel and cruise 


Number 


Number of observed 
values 


Average time- 
interval 


Average distance 
apart 


Days 


Miles 


Decl'n 


Incl'n 


Hor. 
int. 


De- 
cl'n 


In- 
cl'n 


Hor. 
int. 


De- 
cl'n 


In- 
cl'n 


Hor. 
int. 


Galilee, Cruise I, 1905 


92 
168 
334 


10,571 
16,286 
36,977 


74 

95 

156 


58 

88 

169 


59 

91 

171 


days 
1.2 
1.8 
2.1 


days 
1.6 
1.9 
2.0 


days 
1.6 
1.8 
2.0 


miles 
143 
171 
237 


miles 
182 
185 
219 


miles 
179 
179 
216 


Galilee, Cruise II, 1906 


Galilee, Cruise III, 1906-08 


Totals for Galilee 


594 


63,834 


325 


315 


321 


1.8 


1.9 


1.9 


196 


203 


199 


Carnegie, Cruise I, 1909-10 


96 
798 

84 
487 
122 
487 


9,600 
92,829 

9,560 
63,400 
13,195 
64,118 


98 
858 
108 
869 
224 
834 


68 
648 

81 
480 
116 
439 


69 
643 

80 
479 
116 
439 


1.0 
0.9 
0.8 
6 
0.5 
0.6 


1.4 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.1 


1.4 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.1 


98 
108 
89 
73 
59 
77 


141 
143 
118 
132 
114 
146 


139 
144 
119 
132 
114 
146 


Carnegie, Cruise II, 1910-13 




Carnegie, Cruise IV, 1915-17 

Carnegie, Cruise V, 1917-18 

Carnegie, Cruise VI, 1919-21 

Totals for Carnegie 


2,074 


252,702 


2,991 


1,832 


1,826 


0.7 


1.1 


11 


84 


132 


132 


Totals for Galilee and Carnegie. . . 


2,668 


316,536 


3,316 


2,147 


2,147 


0.8 


1.2 


1.2 


96 


147 


147 



The total number of days the Galilee was in commission during the period August 1, 
1905, to May 31, 1908, counting out the two intervals between cruises 1 and 2 and 
between cruises 2 and 3, with the exception of the days spent in harbor swings, is 897. 
Since 594 days were spent at sea and in harbor swings, the remaining days, 303, are to 
be ascribed to the time spent in port, making shore observations and comparisons of 
instruments, computations, repairs, and outfitting. 

Table 34. — Summary of Ocean Magnetic Work, Galilee and Carnegie, 1905-1921. 



Ocean 


Number of 
nautical miles 


Number of observed values 


Cruise inter- 
sections used 
for annual- 
change data 


Declination 


Inclination 

and horizontal 

intensity 


Pacific 

Atlantic 

Indian 

Total 


181,423 
92,053 
43,060 


1,800 
1,039 

477 


1,183 

682 
282 


47 
27 

7 


316,536 


3,316 


2,147 


81 



The total number of days the Carnegie was in commission from September 1, 1909, 
to November 12, 1921, counting out the periods February 18 to June 19, 1910, December 
20, 1913, to June 7, 1914, October 22, 1914, to March 5, 1915, when the vessel was at 
Brooklyn, March 3, 1917, to December 4, 1917, when the vessel was at Buenos Aires, 
June 10, 1918, to October 9, 1919, when the vessel was at Washington and at Baltimore, 
is 3,267 days. Since 2,074 days were spent at sea, the remaining days, 1,193, are to be 
ascribed to the time consumed in ports in shore observations and comparisons of instru- 
ments, computations, repairs, and outfitting. 

It is thus seen that about two-thirds of the time the vessel was in commission were 
spent at sea, in the case of both the Galilee and the Carnegie. 

It is seen from Table 33 that the average time-intervals and the average distances 
apart for the Galilee work has been decreased by about 40 per cent in the Carnegie work. 
The increased efficiency, or productiveness, has resulted from the fact that the Carnegie 



PLATE 6 




Discussions of Ocean Magnetic Work 193 

is a nonmagnetic vessel and because of the steady improvement in the instrumental appli- 
ances and observational methods. 

Maps Showing Distribution of Ocean Magnetic Stations, 1905 to 1921. 

Plates 7 to 11 of the North Pacific, South Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, 
and Indian oceans on Mercator's projection show the locations of all the ocean magnetic 
stations occupied by the Galilee, 1905-1908, and by the Carnegie, 1909-1921. The sta- 
tions are joined to indicate the cruise to which they belong and the different cruises are 
designated as follows: The three cruises of the Galilee are marked by Arabic numerals 1, 
2, and 3; the six cruises of the Carnegie by Roman numerals I, II, III, IV, V, and VI. A 
station where the magnetic declination was determined is designated by a cross, and a 
station where the horizontal intensity and inclination were determined is designated 
by a circle. (Plates 7 to 11 will be found in the pocket at the back of this volume.) 

These maps are useful in showing the actual distribution of magnetic stations at sea, 
for grouping stations at cruise-intersections for the determination of secular variation, 
and in planning future cruises to fill in regions where stations are few and scattered and 
to reoccupy former stations as closely as possible to increase our information regarding 
secular change. 

Requirements for Future Ocean Work. 

The discussion of the secular variation of the magnetic elements at sea emphasized 
the need of securing additional information regarding these changes. Future cruises 
should be arranged to follow as closely as possible the tracks of former cruises, instead of 
placing dependence largely upon frequent track-intersections for secular-variation data. 
Thus the fullest possible information as to secular changes will be obtained. 

While more information on the distribution and the secular variation in the Earth's 
magnetism is required for practical purposes, yet future magnetic and electric work at 
sea is far more necessary for the advancement of theoretical studies. The fields of 
theoretical investigation for which additional data are needed include: 

1. Terrestrial Magnetism. 

(a) Determination of secular variations or progressive changes of the Earth's magnetic field 

involving particularly their accelerations, which the accumulated data indicate may not 
be extrapolated safely over periods as long as five years; accurate data for a number of 
epochs are necessary to advance the investigation of causes producing and governing 
these progressive changes. 

(b) The study of regions of local disturbance and particularly those indicated by the previous 
• work of the Carnegie over "deep-sea" areas, including accompanying determinations of 

gravity and of ocean depths. 

(c) The determination of additional distribution data in some large areas not already covered. 

2. Atmospheric Electricity. 

(a) Additional determinations of changes in the values of the atmospheric-electric elements 
with geographic position; such distribution data are needed in the further investigations 
of the origin and maintenance of the Earth's electric charge and of the relations to its 
magnetic condition. 

(6) Further widely distributed determinations of the diurnal variations in atmospheric elec- 
tricity particularly to confirm the discovery that such variations in the potential gradient 
progress with universal time, a deduction first indicated from results obtained on the 
Carnegie; sea conditions for such work are superior to those on land, where variable 
meteorological conditions and topography mask the true characteristics of the phe- 
nomena. 

(c) Determinations and investigations of Earth-currents. 

Since the future ocean magnetic work may be less intensive as regards the dis- 
tribution of magnetic data and attention may be directed more particularly to obtaining 
secular-variation information, more time will be available for atmospheric-electric work 
and for other oceanographic studies which may be undertaken with profit. 



ATMOSPHERIC - ELECTRIC RESULTS 
OBTAINED ABOARD THE CARNEGIE 

1915 - 1921 

By J. P. Ault AND S. J. Mauchly 



195 



ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC RESULTS OBTAINED ABOARD THE 

CARNEGIE, 1915-1921. 

Based on Observations and Reports by J. P. Ault, H. M. W. Edmonds, H. R. Grummann, H. F. 

Johnston, B. Jones, I. A. Luke, S. J. Mauchly, J. M. McFadden, A. D. Power, 

W. F. G. Swann, and A. Thomson. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The present report is concerned with the results of atmospheric-electric ob- 
servations made on the Carnegie during cruises IV, V, and VI, 1915 to 1921. It 
is a continuation of the report contained in Volume III, Researches of the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism (pp. 361-422), to which reference may be made 
for details of methods, instruments, and observational program. 

When Volume III was published, Cruise IV had not yet been completed, 
hence the results of this cruise were only partially reported. In order to include 
in one volume all the results of Cruise IV, those published in Volume III are 
repeated in the present report. This was advisable, also, because of certain numer- 
ical changes in the results arising from revisions and the adoption of final constants 
for the period 1915-1921 at the conclusion of Cruise VI, after final standardization 
observations and experimental laboratory investigations of the instruments and 
methods. 

During the period covered by this report there was a steady improvement 
in instruments and methods, as observers gained experience and as a result of 
discussions and analyses carried out at the office. Increasing attention was paid 
to securing diurnal-variation results, especially during Cruise VI, as the importance 
of this part of the observational program was recognized. 

In view of the difficulties of making atmospheric-electric observations at sea, 
on account of motion of vessel, dampness, flying spray, and the heavy seas which 
at times placed all the instruments out of commission, mention should be made 
of the zeal and persistence of the observers who had charge of the atmospheric- 
electric program. Special credit is due to H. F. Johnston, who was in charge of the 
atmospheric-electric work when the new instruments and methods were inaugurated 
during Cruise III, and during Cruise IV up to May 1916; he was assisted by I. A. 
Luke during all this time. Mr. Johnston was particularly successful in securing 
results during the abnormal conditions encountered on the cruise around the 
South Pole, when storms and gales occurred almost daily and there was some sort 
of precipitation, rain, snow, fog, or mist, during 100 out of 118 days. In May 
1916, B. Jones was placed in charge of the atmospheric-electric work and continued 
in charge during the remainder of Cruise IV and also during Cruise V. He was 
assisted by I. A. Luke to September 1916, A. D. Power from November 1916 to 
March 1917, and J. M. McFadden during Cruise V from December 1917 to June 
1918. During Cruise VI, A. Thomson was in charge of the atmospheric-electric 
work, assisted by H. R. Grummann; Captain Ault assisted Mr. Thomson in the 

197 



198 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



heavy diurnal-variation program from September 1920 to the end of Cruise VI, 
relieving Mr. Grummann of this feature of the work. 

The final results of the regular daily observations and of the special diurnal- 
variation observations are set forth in the Table of Results (pp. 212-265) in chrono- 
logical order, separated according to cruises and oceans. They were compiled by 
J. P. Ault and S. J. Mauchly, assisted by Miss Mary C. Parker. Reference should 
be made to the constructive aid rendered by those whose names do not appear 
specifically elsewhere: J. A. Fleming, assistant director; C. Huff, shop foreman; 
and C. A. Kotterman, laboratory aid. 

OUTLINE OF OBSERVATIONS ON CARNEGIE CRUISES, 1915-1921. 
OBSERVATIONS ON CRUISE IV, 1915-1917. 
J. P. Ault in Command. 

The Carnegie started from Brooklyn on her fourth cruise (see Fig. 4) March 6, 
1915, stopping first at Gardiners Bay until March 9, to make her usual "swinging- 
ship observations," and arrived at Cristobal, Canal Zone, on March 24, 1915. She 
next passed through the Panama Canal; leaving Balboa April 12, she sailed for Honolulu, 
arriving there May 21, 1915. She left Honolulu on July 3 and arrived at Dutch Harbor, 
Alaska, July 20, from which port she sailed August 4 for Lyttelton, New Zealand, 
arriving there November 3. Leaving Lyttelton December 6, 1915, a circumnavigation 
of the south polar regions was made, between the parallels 50° and 60° south, the Carnegie 




Fig. 4. — Cruises IV and V of the Carnegie, 1915-1918. 



Atmospheric-Electric Work of the Carnegie, 1915-21 199 

returning to Lyttelton April 1, 1916, her only stop during the trip around the world 
being at South Georgia, January 12-14, 1916. 

On May 17, 1916, the Carnegie again left Lyttelton, sailing for Pago Pago, Samoa, 
arriving there June 7. Sailing for Guam June 19, the latter place was reached July 17. 
On August 7 the vessel left Guam for San Francisco, where she arrived September 21. 
Leaving San Francisco November 1, Easter Island was reached December 24. After 
a stay of one week, the Carnegie sailed for Cape Horn and Buenos Aires January 2, 1917, 
the latter port being reached March 2, 1917. Here Cruise IV was concluded and, 
because of the entry of the United States in the world war, the vessel remained at Buenos 
Aires for nine months. Cruise IV is shown in Figure 4. 

On the completion of the work of Cruise III it was felt, as a result of the expe- 
rience gained, that the time had come when a more ambitious program of atmospheric- 
electric work could be undertaken with hope of success, and to this end the atmospheric- 
electric equipment was considerably increased. Also, a special atmospheric-electric 
house was built on the vessel for a more permanent installation of the instruments. 

The design of the methods of measurements and the organization of the general 
scheme of procedure in the atmospheric-electric work were initiated by W. F. G. Swann. 
In the work connected with the installation of the instruments, and in the experimental 
work prior thereto, he was assisted by S. J. Mauchly and H. F. Johnston, the observer 
to whom had been assigned the atmospheric-electric work on the cruise. Messrs. 
Swann and Mauchly accompanied the vessel from Brooklyn as far as Gardiners Bay, 
in order to complete the installations and tests of the new instruments. S. J. Mauchly 
continued with the Carnegie as far as Balboa to complete the remaining adjustments 
found necessary. 

The observations from New York to Cristobal were made by S. J. Mauchly and 
H. F. Johnston; from Balboa, April 12, 1915, until the return of the vessel to Lyttelton, 
New Zealand, April 1, 1916, after her sub-Antarctic circumnavigation cruise, they were 
made by Observer H. F. Johnston, assisted by Observer I. A. Luke; from Lyttelton, 
May 17, 1916, to San Francisco, September 21, 1916, they were made by Observer B. 
Jones, assisted by Observer I. A. Luke; from San Francisco, November 1, 1916, to Buenos 
Aires, March 2, 1917, they were made by Observer B. Jones, assisted by Observer A. D, 
Power. 

For a discussion of details of instruments and methods employed in the atmospheric- 
electric work during cruises IV, V, and VI, and for specimens of observations and com- 
putations, reference may be made to Volume III (pp. 377^01). 

OBSERVATIONS ON CRUISE V. 1917-1918. 

H. M. W. Edmonds in Command. 

The Carnegie started from Buenos Aires, Argentina, December 4, 1917, and, pro- 
ceeding by way of Cape Horn, reached Talcahuano, Chile, January 11, 1918. Sailing 
for Callao January 23, she reached the latter port February 22. Leaving Callao March 
29, Balboa, Canal Zone, was reached April 24. Passing through the Panama Canal 
May 2, the Carnegie remained at Cristobal until May 11, when she sailed for Newport 
News, arriving June 4. June 8 the vessel left Newport News, and, after "swinging- 
ship operations" in Chesapeake Bay, arrived at Washington June 10, 1918. Cruise V 
is shown in Figure 4. 

The atmospheric-electric observations during this cruise were made by Observer B. 
Jones, assisted by Observer J. M. McFadden. The methods and instrumental equip- 
ment remained the same as those in use during Cruise IV. 



200 



Ocean Magnetic and Eleciric Observations, 1915-21 



OBSERVATIONS ON CRUISE VI. 1919-1921. 

J. P. Ault in Command. 

At the close of the world war plans were made to continue the ocean work of the 
Carnegie and, after being repaired and outfitted, the vessel sailed from Washington 
October 9, 1919, on Cruise VI. After "swinging-ship operations" in Chesapeake Bay 
and at Solomons Island, Old Point Comfort was reached October 15. Sailing from 
Old Point Comfort October 19, the following ports were visited, with the dates of ar- 
rival and departure as indicated: Dakar, November 22-26, 1919; Buenos Aires, Jan- 
uary 19-February 21, 1920; St. Helena, March 27-April 3, 1920; Cape Town, April 
24-May 20, 1920; Colombo, June 30-July 24, 1920; Fremantle, September 1-October 
1, 1920; Lyttelton, October 21-November 19, 1920; Papeete, Tahiti, December 24, 
1920-January 3, 1921; Fanning Island, January 14, 1921; San Francisco, February 19- 
March 28, 1921; Honolulu, April 12-28, 1921; Penrhyn Island, June 12, 1921; 
Manihiki Island, June 15, 1921; Pago Pago, Samoa, June 20-28, 1921; Apia, Samoa, 
June 29-July 25, 1921; Rarotonga, August 14-15, 1921; Balboa, Canal Zone, October 
7-20, 1921; Old Point Comfort, November 6, 1921; Washington, November 10, 1921. 
Cruise VI is shown in Figure 5. 




Fig. 5.— Cruise VI of the Carnegie, 1919-1921. 



The observations during Cruise VI were made by Observer Thomson, assisted by 
Observer Grummann; after September 1920 Captain Ault took part in the diurnal- 
variation observations in place of the latter. 

During this cruise the radioactive content of sea-water was not determined and 
the diurnal-variation observations included measurements of the conductivity as well 
as of the potential gradient, ionic numbers, and penetrating radiation. 



INSTRUMENTS, OBSERVATIONAL PROCEDURE, AND CONSTANTS, 191 5- 192 1. 

The instrumental equipment and observational procedure throughout the 
period 1915-1921 were essentially as described and discussed by W. F. G. Swann 
in Volume III (pp. 377-401). Similarly, the forms for recording both the ob- 
servations and computations remained throughout cruises IV, V, and VI as shown 
in the above reference from Volume III. 

The instruments designed and constructed by the Department, unless other- 
wise noted, and used on cruises IV, V, and VI (see Plates 12 and 13) were the same 
throughout, except for modifications made from time to time as the work pro- 
gressed (see pp. 202-204). They were as follows: (1) Conductivity apparatus 3 
(designation CA3) with gimbal rings and mounting and direct-current motor; 

(2) ion counter 1 (IC1) with gimbal rings and mounting and appurtenances; 

(3) penetrating-radiation apparatus 1 (PRA1) with gimbal rings and mounting, 
and appurtenances; (4) potential-gradient apparatus 2 (PG2) complete with ap- 
purtenances and mounting; (5) radioactive-content apparatus 4 (RCA4) with 
gimbal rings and mounting, water-dropping apparatus, direct-current motor, 
ionizing chamber, anemometer, and other appurtenances; (6) accessories manu- 
factured by Weston Electrical Instrument Company, Glinther and Tegetmeyer, 
Spindler and Hoyer, Cambridge Instrument Company, Gambrell Brothers, Pyro- 
lectric Instrument Company, Chloride of Silver Dry Cell Battery Company, and 
others; Gerdien condensers 4 (until April 1915 and from April to October 1916) 
and 5 (from October 1916 to end of cruise) ; C. I. W. single-fiber electrometers 12, 
14, and 15; Braun electroscope 1437; Wulf bifilar electrometers 3537 (to July 1921), 
3995 (repaired in instrument shop of the Department during October 1916), and 
4357 (to July 1921); various high-resistance rheostats; batteries of Cadmium 
and Eveready dry-cells during cruises IV and V, and of silver-chloride dry-cells 
during 1919-1921; voltmeters; volt-ammeters; potentiometers: radium and ionium 
collectors; miscellaneous equipment including nonmagnetic clamps, special insu- 
lators, small tools, and stock of pure sulphur. 

Before the Carnegie started on her sixth cruise, a careful study was made of 
the various official reports and correspondence relating to the atmospheric-electric 
work of cruises IV and V to determine what repairs were needed and what im- 
provements could be made in the time available. An attempt was made to elimi- 
nate all avoidable difficulties to the end that the observer should have more of 
his time and energy available to cope with the inherent and unavoidable difficulties 
attending observations at sea. 

A great advance in this direction resulted from the installation of a storage 
battery which furnished the power for driving the fans of the conductivity apparatus 
and the radioactive-content apparatus. This eliminated the periodic and trouble- 
some renewals which it had been necessary to make during cruises IV and V, when 
primary batteries were used to operate the fan motors. 

201 



202 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Another significant improvement consisted in the adoption and use of improved 
potential batteries. The experience of the earlier cruises had shown that one of 
the most troublesome problems associated with atmospheric-electric work on 
shipboard was that of suitable potential batteries for the various instruments. 
This is especially true where the observations between ports extend over several 
months, as is sometimes the case on the Carnegie. For reasons pointed out by 
Swann (Vol. Ill, p. 378), the Kriiger type of batteries was not found satisfactory. 
Consequently, potential batteries composed of ordinary flashlight cells were used 
throughout most of cruises IV and V. These proved to be much superior to bat- 
teries of the Kriiger type, but for the work under consideration they are open to 
the serious objection that their internal resistance increases rather rapidly with 
age, thus introducing the very difficulties which render the Kriiger type unsatis- 
factory. Further, experience both on the Carnegie and in the atmospheric-electric 
observatory of the Department at Washington has shown that such batteries 
required rather frequent renewals for satisfactory service on account of the cor- 
rosion of the zinc element even when they are on open circuit. In fact, it was 
found necessary during the fourth and fifth cruises to send renewals direct from 
America to most of the Carnegie's ports of call, and even with this precaution some 
cells were in poor condition by the time they reached the vessel. Laboratory 
experiments and actual use in the Department's field work and in the atmospheric- 
electric observatory at Washington had shown chloride-of-silver dry cells to be 
free from both of the objections just cited. Hence it was decided to use chloride- 
of-silver dry-cell batteries with the atmospheric-electric apparatus aboard the 
Carnegie during her sixth cruise. 

As supplied to the vessel for this purpose, each battery unit consisted of 50 
cells connected in series and mounted in a suitable box. As a precaution against 
accidental short-circuit, each 50-cell unit was placed in series with a built-in 
resistance coil of 10,000 ohms, and the entire unit embedded in paraffin for protec- 
tion against moisture. The performance of these batteries proved to be very satis- 
factory, and the original supply served throughout the 25 months of Cruise VI. 

While, as already stated, the atmospheric-electric equipment aboard the 
Carnegie was essentially the same for the fourth, fifth, and sixth cruises, all the 
instruments were thoroughly overhauled and put in good repair prior to the 
beginning of Cruise VI. During this work advantage was taken of the opportunity 
for incorporating various improvements suggested by the atmospheric-electric 
observers of the two preceding cruises, together with certain modifications sug- 
gested by the general progress in instrument construction. 

instrument improvements for cruise VI. 

A brief summary of the more important changes introduced in the several 
instruments follows: 

Potential-gradient apparatus 2. — By the end of Cruise V the parasol-shaped prime 
conductor had become considerably corroded by the action of salt spray, and also some- 
what distorted. Since experience had shown the main supporting rod to be rather 
too light, this part of the apparatus was entirely rebuilt, using a thicker walled tube of 



PLATE 12 






ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC INSTRUMENTS USED ON THE CARNEGIE, CRUISE VI. 



1. Potential-gradient electrometer, showing handle for raising 
prime conductor. 

3. Improved type of bifilar electrometer with appurten- 
ances. 



2. Potential-gradient electrometer with cover removed and 
showing insulated mountings for prime-conductor handle. 

4. Observer using potential-gradient apparatus, mounted on 
stern rail, with prime conductor raised. 



Electric Instruments and Methods 203 

somewhat larger diameter. All essential dimensions were, however, retained as they 
had been during cruises IV and V in order that the reduction-factor of the apparatus 
might not be appreciably altered. Minor changes were also made to facilitate the 
removal of the electrometer and for the more adequate safeguarding of the insulation 
against moisture (see PL 12, Figs. 1, 2, and 4). 

Conductivity apparatus 3. — This apparatus, too, was almost entirely rebuilt, partly 
because its original wooden case had begun to deteriorate and because it was desired 
to provide a more rigid mounting for the motor and gears which operate the fan. To 
this end there was constructed a new housing of sheet aluminum (see PL 13, Fig. 1), 
which proved to be a great advantage over the original wooden housing. Although 
the bifilar electrometer associated with this apparatus was originally provided with a 
gimbal system, as described in Volume III, this was removed about the middle of Cruise 
IV, as it was thought by the observer to be an unnecessary complication. Since the 
observers of cruises IV and V were agreed on the point that a gimbal system was 
unnecessary with the Wulf bifilar electrometer, no such mounting was provided for the 
apparatus as used on the sixth cruise. 

Similarly the two guard-ring insulators described in Volume III (pp. 386-387) were 
found by the observers to be less satisfactory than had been anticipated, and on their 
suggestion were not included in the arrangement used during the sixth cruise. 

However, the air-flow tube, central cylinder, and electrometer were not altered, 
and the apparatus, therefore, remained in all essentials as on cruises IV and V, as 
regards its fundamental dimensions. The tube leading from the electrometer to the air- 
flow tube was replaced by a new tube which provided a better support for the central 
cylinder, better protection for the insulators mounted therein, and greatly facilitated 
removal of the electrometer for such adjustments as are necessary from time to time. 
While the introduction of this new tube and insulator system somewhat increased the 
total capacity of the apparatus, this disadvantage was more than offset by the advan- 
tages secured. 

Ion counter 1. — Certain slight changes were made within the air-flow tube of the 
ion counter in order to secure better protection for the essential insulators, and a new 
funnel was supplied which could always be turned to receive the wind in order to pre- 
vent aspiration up the tube during moderate and heavy winds. Figure 4 of Plate 13 
shows the ion counter and its supporting gimbal system. 

Radioactive-content apparatus 4- — The entire central cylinder of the collecting sys- 
tem was reconstructed to provide better insulation and to expedite the mounting and 
removal of the copper foil upon which the radioactive deposits are collected. Figure 
2 of Plate 13 shows the central cylinder of the collecting system as used on the sixth 
cruise. The ionization apparatus (see PL 13, Fig. 5) for the decay-curve observations 
gave some trouble in the earlier cruises because of insufficient clearance between the 
upper part of the electrometer and the gimbal rings which support the electrometer 
and chamber. In order to improve this condition the length of electrometer cap or 
section of tube connecting the ionization chamber to the electrometer was increased 
by 2.5 cm. to give adequate clearance between electrometer and gimbals during rolling 
of the ship. 

Penetrating-radiation apparatus 1. — The only change of importance here was the 
lengthening of the electrometer cap similar to that described in the preceding paragraph 
for the ionization chamber of the radioactive-content apparatus. Special provision 
was also made to insure more adequate sealing of the ionization chamber against air 
leakage. Figure 3 of Plate 13 shows this instrument. 

General remarks. — For all instruments advantage was taken, wherever possible, 
of opportunity to improve convenience of operation and to provide more adequate 
means of maintaining good insulation. 



204 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



The system for calibrating the single-fiber electrometers has been essentially the 
same throughout the three cruises under discussion, except that the use of the three 
separate potentiometers described in Volume III was discontinued after the fifth cruise. 
During all of Cruise VI only one potentiometer-system was used, this being connected 
to the observatory voltmeter and to all three electrometers by a suitable set of revers- 
ing switches. 

CONCERNING THE METHOD OF APPLYING THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 
THE PLATES OF THE EINTHOVEN ELECTROMETERS. 

During the first half of Cruise IV the Einthoven single-fiber electrometers of ion 
counter 1, penetrating-radiation apparatus 1, and the ionization chamber of radioactive- 
content apparatus 4 were each provided with a separate battery of Kriiger and, later, 
flashlight cells for supplying the required plate-potentials and for maintaining the air- 
flow tube of the ion counter and the walls of the ionization chambers at suitable poten- 
tials. The poles of each battery were connected to the potential-plates of the corre- 
sponding electrometer and its midpoint to the earthed case of the electrometer. Under 
these conditions, if one-half of the battery suffers a fluctuation which is not experienced 
by the other half, a movement of the fiber will result. Also, unless considerable care 
was taken to insure that both plates were connected simultaneously to the poles of the 
battery, the fiber was sometimes deflected so vigorously that it would adhere to one of 
the plates. To eliminate these difficulties, the arrangement represented in Figure 6 




Fig. 6. — Battery Circuit in Atmospheric-Electric Observing-House. 

was devised by Swann for use during the latter part of Cruise IV and on Cruise V. 
The same principle was employed throughout Cruise VI and may be briefly described 
as follows: 

A battery of at least 200 volts is connected to the terminals A and B of a well- 
insulated megohm whose midpoint is connected to the earthed cases of the three electro- 
meters to be served. Two distributing wires MQ and NR are connected to A and B, 
respectively, and serve to maintain the plates of all the electrometers at the potential 
differences existing between the terminals of the megohm. Under these conditions the 
difference in potential between one plate and the case of its electrometer must always 
be equal to the difference in potential between the case and the other plate, even though 
the terminal potential-difference of the battery may fluctuate. Further, with this 
arrangement, when the electrometers are once adjusted so that the fibers do not move 
when the potential difference is applied to the plates, this adjustment will be approxi- 
mately preserved for all applied potentials. Whenever either key of the battery cir- 
cuit is open all plates are at the same potential and, therefore, earthed, since they are 
connected together through the megohm. When the battery circuit is closed, all plates 
immediately assume their proper potentials and the fiber shows no movement if it has 
been properly adjusted. The potentials required for the air-flow cylinder of the ion 



Instrumental Constants and Standardizations 205 

counter and for the ionization chambers connected to the two other electrometers are 
also supplied by the same distribution wires as are used for the plate-potential. 

It is to be noted that all battery terminals, switches, and insulating supports are 
sulphur-insulated, since sulphur has been found by far the most satisfactory insulating 
substance for use where spray is encountered or where the air is unusually humid. 

INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS AND STANDARDIZATIONS. 

Electrical capacities. — To a large extent the atmospheric-electric observations made 
over the oceans prior to the Carnegie's fourth cruise were capable of giving relative 
values only. This was especially true for observations of potential gradient and radio- 
active content. At the beginning of the fourth cruise plans and preparations were 
made for the reduction of all atmospheric-electric data obtained to their respective 
absolute values in order to facilitate the intercomparison of data and meet the require- 
ments of quantitative investigations. In accordance with this plan, numerous deter- 
minations of the electrical capacities of the conductivity apparatus, ion counter, 
penetrating-radiation apparatus, and radioactive-content apparatus used aboard the 
Carnegie were made from time to time during the three cruises under consideration. 
However, an examination of the accumulated data showed for each instrument a con- 
siderable variation in the results obtained for identical conditions, not only between ob- 
servations made by different observers, but also between those of the same observer. After 
a careful consideration of the methods used and all the data available regarding the 
observations in question, the conclusion was reached that the importance of eliminating 
the effects of contact potentials and the adequate screening of all connections against 
inductive effects had not, in most cases, been fully appreciated. Thus one was not 
justified in taking mean values of all determinations for the respective capacities, since 
this might lead to results which were considerably in error. 

Accordingly, after the completion of the sixth cruise, the matter of making reliable 
measurements of capacities ranging from 10 to 25 electrostatic units was taken up as a 
laboratory problem. Since the observations on the ship were made in the customary 
manner by means of a Gerdien variable air-condenser, the problem resolved itself into 
a study of the precautions necessary for obtaining, by this method, capacity determina- 
tions of the desired precision and accuracy for the small capacities here involved. It 
was found that accurate and verifiable results are obtainable by the variable-condenser 
method provided: (1) that the variable condenser and the apparatus whose capacity 
is to be measured be rigidly mounted close together in such a manner as to prevent 
any relative motion whatever between them during the observations for a given deter- 
mination; (2) that the connection between the condenser and apparatus be as short as 
practicable and thoroughly protected by earthed metal screens against possible 
inductive effects due to the proximity of the observer or charged conductors ; (3) that a 
form of contactor be employed which eliminates the possibility of bound charges 
remaining on the system to be earthed and enables one to make the necessary operations 
without any displacement of the connection between condenser and apparatus; (4) 
that determinations be made with both signs to eliminate contact effects in either the 
condenser or the apparatus; and (5) that all condenser adjustments be made by means 
of a low-pitch adjusting screw and the initial and final condenser adjustments be both 
made in the same direction so as to avoid backlash. A special contactor was designed 
to meet the third requirement, after which it was found possible to determine capacities 
of the order of 10 centimeters with accuracy better than 5 per cent with ordinary pre- 
cautions. However, with an electrometer of suitable sensitivity and with a more- 
highly-refined technique 10-observation means may be obtained whose probable error 
is of the order of 1 per cent. 



206 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Following the development of the equipment and technique required for capacity 
determinations of the desired accuracy, the capacity of each apparatus was carefully 
determined for each of the different arrangements in which it was used during the years 
1915-1921. Thus, so far as the capacity values are concerned, all results given in the 
table of "Final Results of Ocean Atmospheric-Electric Observations on the Carnegie, 
1915-1921" for any given atmospheric-electric element are on the same absolute basis 
throughout the period covered by the table, and the different atmospheric-electric 
quantities measured are given on the same absolute-value standard with an accuracy 
of about 2 or 3 per cent. This, of course, does not take into account the accidental 
errors of the atmospheric-electric observations which were often made under trying 
and unfavorable conditions. 

The capacity of the central cylinder of Gerdien conductivity apparatus 3 and that 
part of its supporting rod which is exposed to air-flow during conductivity observations 
was redetermined by S. J. Mauchly in 1924, employing the method used by Hewlett 1 
in 1914 with improvements as to insulation, experimental arrangement, and tech- 
nique. For example, as in Hewlett's experiment, the supporting rod of the central cylin- 
der was replaced by a duplicate which was cut off at the exact level at which it passed 
through the wall of the air-flow cylinder. But the silk fibers used by Hewlett for sup- 
porting the central cylinder were replaced by two fine quartz fibers which were attached 
to the ends of the cylinder by small bits of sealing wax and passed vertically through 
two small holes drilled through the upper part of the air-flow tube to a supporting 
device. By means of this device the central cylinder could be raised to a height of several 
centimeters above its normal position and again definitely placed in its normal posi- 
tion coaxial with the outer cylinder and in contact with the electrometer after the lat- 
ter had been earthed, or vice versa. Thus practically all difficulty and uncertainty 
was eliminated from the necessary manipulations of the experiment. The insulation 
provided by the quartz fibers, too, was exceptionally good. The mean of 20 well- 
controlled observations gave a value of 6.14 e. s. u., the maximum departure of any 
one measurement from this mean amounting to less than 3.0 per cent. This is in good 
agreement with Hewlett's result, which was 5.94 for a mean of six results, the maximum 
departure of any one determination from this mean amounting to 4.5 per cent. Since 
the 1924 observations were carried out under more favorable conditions and in a man- 
ner capable of giving a somewhat greater accuracy than those of 1914, the value of C 2 , 
the part of the insulated system exposed to the air-flow, has been taken as 6.14 e. s. u. 
throughout cruises IV to VI. 

Summary of results of capacity determinations for Cruise VI. — The capacities adopted 
for the several instruments as used for Cruise VI were as follows: Conductivity ap- 
paratus 3, d = 14.55 e. s. u. and C 2 = 6.14 e. s. tj. ; ion counter 1, C = 23.5 e. s. u. ; 
penetrating-radiation apparatus 1, C = 9.3 e. s. u. ; and radioactive-content apparatus 
4, C = 8.7 e. s. u. 

Corrections to be applied to atmospheric-electric data of Volume III.— The prelimi- 
nary values for the first year of Cruise IV as given in Tables 79 to 83 of Volume III 
may be reduced to absolute values on the finally adopted standards by the applica- 
tion of the following factors to the tabulated values: For X+ and X_ multiply by 0.804; 
for n f and n_ multiply by 0.717; for R ("penetrating radiation") multiply by 0.889; 
and for Q (radium-emanation content) multiply by 0.669. It should be noted that 
during the recomputation of the values of Q advantage was taken of the opportunity 
to change slightly the grouping of data entering into certain of the means published in 
Volume III in order that the new values might conform in somewhat greater detail 

1 Hewlett, C. W. Investigation of certain causes responsible for uncertainty in the measurement of atmospheric 
conductivity by the Gerdien conductivity apparatus. Terr. Mag., vol. 19, pp. 219-233, 1914. 



Instrumental Constants and Standardizations 



207 



to such conditions as wind direction and distance from land. For corrections to the 
potential-gradient results of Volume III see page 209. The results during 1915 to April 
1916 as published in Volume III have been included in the final Table of Results (see 
pp. 212-265), corrections as above indicated having been made. 

Rates of air-flow. — For the ion counter and the radioactive-content apparatus it 
is necessary to know the volume of air passing through the apparatus. 

The meter for the ion counter was originally provided with a calibration curve by 
the makers (Gunther and Tegetmeyer). At the end of Cruise V it was tested in the 
gas laboratory of the United States Bureau of Standards prior to general cleaning and 
overhauling in preparation for the work of Cruise VI. After this reconditioning the 
meter was again tested by the Bureau of Standards, and a third time after the conclu- 
sion of Cruise VI. All tests by the Bureau of Standards gave results in practical agree- 
ment with each other and in fair agreement with the original curve of the makers, the 
agreement being especially good for that part of the curve used in the reduction of ob- 
servations. A summary of the results of these various tests is given in Table 35, and 
shows the approximate constancy of the correction-factors for this meter over that part 
of the range most used during the period 1915-1921. 

Table 35. — Summary of Calibrations of Air-Flow Meter of Ion Counter No. 1. 



Indicated flow in liters per second 


0.8 


1.0 


1.4 


2.0 


Remarks 




Calibration 


Correction-factor to be applied 




1.08 
1.24 


1.10 
1.11 


1.12 
1.00 




End of Cruise V. 

Beginning of Cruise VI. 
End of Cruise VI. 


Bureau of Standards (1) 


0.95 


Mean for cruises IV-V 


1.16 


1.10 


1.06 




Bureau of Standards (2) 




1.24 
1.19 


1.15 
1.12 


1.08 
1.05 


1.08 
1.04 


Bureau of Standards (3) 


Mean for Cruise VI 


1.22 


1.14 


1.06 


1.06 





The anemometer for giving the flow of air through the collecting tube of the radio- 
active-content apparatus was calibrated in the laboratory of the Department by D. M. 
Wise under direction of Dr. Swann by a method described in Volume III (p. 392). 
Since then it has been compared several times with a similar anemometer kept in the 
laboratory as a standard for such comparisons. By this means it was ascertained that 
the correction for the anemometer used at sea had changed very little, certainly less 
than 5 per cent during the six years in question. Thus, the average uncertainty in the 
radioactive-content results due to changes in the correction-factor of the anemometer 
can not exceed several per cent. 

Reduction-factors for potential-gradient observations. — Potential-gradient observa- 
tions were made aboard the Carnegie only when the mainsail was up and the boom to 
port or starboard, or when the mainsail was down and the boom some 2 feet over the 
port crutch. The first determinations of the approximate factors for reducing volts 
observed on potential-gradient apparatus 2 to volts per meter in the open were made 
in Colon Harbor April 2, 1915, and the potential-gradient values given in Volume III 
for the first year's work of Cruise IV were based on the factors resulting from these 
observations. It was stated (p. 407), however, that "the absolute values may be 
liable to some clmnge as the accumulation of other determinations renders available 
more reliable determination of the reduction-factors." 

Additional observations for this purpose were made at Solomons Island in Chesa- 
peake Bay at the beginning of Cruise VI, at Apia (Samoa) in July 1921, and again at 



208 Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 

Solomons Island at the end of Cruise VI. Special observations were also made at 
Washington after the conclusion of Cruise VI to determine whether the reduction- 
factor depended in any way upon the value of the intensity of the measured field. Tests 
on three different days with favorable meteorological conditions showed that the 
reduction-factor for potential-gradient apparatus 2 as mounted on the Carnegie remains 
practically constant, at least for gradients ranging from 120 volts per meter to 480 volts 
per meter, which were the extreme gradients encountered during the tests. Other 
observations at Washington yielded important information regarding the effect of vari- 
ous kinds of disturbances, such as passing launches, steamboats, and smoke clouds, 
on the gradient observed on the Carnegie. Following these experiments a study and 
analysis were made of all the standardization data available for the period 1915-1921. 

Various matters entering into the selection of a suitable site for standardization 
or reduction-factor observations have been discussed by Swann in Volume III (p. 382). 
The method which has been used for the shore observations is that described by Simp- 
son and Wright. 1 In this method, it will be recalled, a wire some 15 or 20 meters long 
is suspended horizontally from two posts by suitable insulators and a collector is 
attached to its mid-point, at a height of 1 meter above ground. The wire is connected 
to an electrometer at one end and simultaneous readings are then made with this 
apparatus and with that on the ship. 

The practice of finding a factor for reducing atmospheric potentials recorded at 
an observatory or on a ship to the corresponding gradient "in the open" or "over an 
infinite plane" assumes a close approach to simultaneity of variations at the observa- 
tory and field stations and, also for both stations, the prevalence of normal values at 
the time of the observations. Now, it is usually difficult to find an area of sufficient 
size that is practically on a level with the sea and free from trees. And it is seldom 
possible, when such a site is found, to bring the ship nearer to the shore station than 
half a mile. Various observers have shown that the progress of the potential gradient 
may be considerably different even at stations not more than several hundred meters 
apart. Sometimes this difference is manifested by the occurence of either a stationary 
or rising gradient at one station simultaneous with a falling gradient at the other. At 
other times, however, there may be almost perfect simultaneity of variations at two 
stations at one of which the absolute value of the gradient may be perfectly normal 
while at the other it may be very considerably above or below the normal value cor- 
responding to the time of the observations. 

It is obvious that under such a variety of possible combinations of phenomena 
the reduction-factors as deduced from all the observations as they are made from time 
to time will have rather widely scattering values. From the experience of the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism with potential-gradient control observations, it 
appears to be more desirable to make somewhat extended control observations (ex- 
tending over say two or three hours) rather than more numerous short series covering 
only a few minutes of actual observation. The data from these longer periods are much 
more favorable to the detection and elimination of abnormal results caused by tempo- 
rary local disturbances and will enable one, therefore, to arrive at a better approxima- 
tion of the undisturbed reduction-factor than could otherwise be obtained. 

No series of control observations have been used for computation of reduction- 
factors for the Carnegie unless the simultaneous variations are practically the same 
on the ship as at the shore station. (Whether or not this condition is satisfied is deter- 
mined by plotting the simultaneous values on coordinate paper.) Only when this 
procedure is followed do the results from a number of successive series show a decided 
tendency toward a fixed value of the factor for a given position of sails. It is probably 

1 Simpson, G. C, and C. S. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. A, vol, 85, p. 182, 1911. 



PLATE 13 







T 



ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC INSTRUMENTS USED ON THE CARNEGIE DURING CRUISE VI 
1. Conductivity apparatus, side view. 

3. Penetrating-radiation apparatus. 



2. Radioactive-content apparatus, collecting system. 
4. Ion counter, microscope removed. 

5. Radioactive-content apparatus, ionizing chamber. 



Instrumental Constants and Standardizations 209 

safe to assume that the large departures from the respective means when this selective 
procedure is not followed are mainly due to disturbing conditions that are not common 
to both stations and which tend, during their continuance, to increase or decrease the 
factors with respect to their normal values. 

From a careful evaluation, along the above lines, of all reduction-factor observa- 
tions made for the potential-gradient apparatus used aboard the Carnegie during the 
years 1915 to 1921, the following mean results have been obtained and adopted in 
the computation of the final values given in the Table of Results: 

(a) Mainsail up and boom to port or starboard, factor designated as A — 2.85 
(6) Mainsail down and boom 2 feet over port crutch, factor designated as B = 3.77 

That is, with mainsail up and boom to port or starboard one volt observed on potential- 
gradient apparatus 2 corresponds to a gradient of 2.85 volts per meter in the open, 
and with mainsail down and boom 2 feet over port crutch 1 volt observed on 
potential-gradient apparatus 2 corresponds to a gradient of 3.77 volts per meter in the 
open. These values of the reduction-factors A and B are, respectively, 1.24 and 1.35 
times those used in the original computations for the results as published in Volume 
III; the final potential-gradient values in the Table of Results have been corrected 
accordingly and supersede the preliminary values given in Volume III for Cruise IV to 
April 1916. 



OCEAN ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS ON THE CARNEGIE, 1915-1921. 
EXPLANATORY REMARKS FOR FINAL RESULTS. 1915-1921. 

The following definitions will explain the meanings to be attached to the 

symbols at the heads of the tables: 

P = potential gradient in volts per meter; 
n + and n_ = respectively, the number of positive and negative ions per cubic centimeter; 
X+ and A_ = unipolar conductivities in e. s. u. X 10 -4 , for positive and negative ions respectively (e = 

4.8X10- X »E. s.u.); 
k + and fc_ = ionic mobilities, in centimeters per second per volt per centimeter, for positive and 
negative ions respectively; 
i = air-earth current-density in e. s. u. XlO -7 in the first column and in amperesXlO -16 per 

square centimeter in the second column ; 
R = rate of production of pairs of ions per cubic centimeter per second in a closed copper 

vessel of 21.6 liters capacity; 
ijo = number of pairs of ions produced per second in the ionization chamber of the radioactive- 
content apparatus corresponding to the active material which would be deposited in 
an air-flow of 1 c. c. per second, the interval from the completion of the deposition to 
the mean time of the first determination of 77 in each series of observations being given 
in the column headed At; and 
Q = radium-emanation content in curie X 10 -18 per cubic centimeter. Values of Q less than 
0.05 are recorded as 0.0. There is, of course, no proportionality between tj and Q, 
since the latter quantity involves the shapes of the experimental decay-curve. 

In view of the relatively large changes which P and X sometimes undergo in 
the course of a rather short time, no values of current density are entered where 
the mean time of the potential-gradient observations differs by more than one- 
half hour from the corresponding mean time for the conductivity observations. 

The values given for Vo are the results of the first determination in each series 
of observations; this is a departure from the method of tabulation used in Volume 
III, where the values designated v» represent the number of pairs of ions produced 
per second three minutes after the completion of deposition. 

The quantities under the heading Q have been calculated as explained on 
pages 393-396, Volume III. The decay curves for the sets of daily observations 
have been divided, in general, into groups of about 10, and the mean curve has 
been constructed for each group. Usually the curves resulting from observations 
near land show marked differences from those obtained over the ocean, and, 
accordingly, these have been grouped separately or analyzed individually. These 
mean curves, or individual curves, as the case may be, have then been used for the 
calculation of the corresponding values of Q. The braces under Q in the tables 
indicate the observations used in determining the values given. 

Under the heading " Meteorological data" is given the atmospheric pressure 
in millimeters of mercury, corrected for zero-error of barometer, temperature, 
and latitude; temperature of the air in degrees centigrade; relative humidity ex- 
pressed as a percentage; the true direction of the wind, given in degrees, reckoned 

from 0° at north through 90° at east, 180° at south and 270° at west. 

210 



Atmospheric-Electric Observations 211 

The force of the wind is indicated according to the Beaufort scale, the figures having 
the following significance: 

0. Calm. 5. Fresh wind. 9. Strong gale. 

1. Light air. 6. Strong wind. 10. Whole gale. 

2. Light breeze. 7. Moderate gale. 11. Storm. 

3. Gentle breeze. 8. Fresh gale. 12. Hurricane. 

4. Moderate breeze. 

The estimated velocity of the wind in statute miles per hour may be obtained approxi- 
mately by multiplying the force by 6, except for forces 11 and 12, where the estimated 
velocities are 75 and 90 statute miles per hour, respectively. 

The character of clouds indicated is based on the international system of classifica- 
tion; the amount of cloudiness is given on a scale of 10. The abbreviations and descrip- 
tions of the various forms, according to the international classification of 1905 as fur- 
nished by the United States Weather Bureau, are as follows: 

Ci (cirrus) . — Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, often showing a feather-like struc- 
ture, generally of a whitish color. 

Ci-St (cirro-stratus). — A thin, whitish sheet of clouds. 

Ci-Cu (cirro-cumulus, mackerel sky). — Small globular masses or white flakes without shadows, or 
showing very slight shadows, arranged in groups and often in lines. 

A -St (alto-stratus). — A thick sheet of gray or bluish color, sometimes forming a compact mass of 
dark-gray color and fibrous structure. 

A-Cu (alto-cumulus). — Largish globular masses, white or grayish, partly shaded, arranged in 
groups or lines, and often so closely packed that their edges appear confused. 

St-Ca (strato-cumulus). — Large globular masses or rolls of dark cloud often covering the whole sky, 
especially in winter. 

Cu (cumulus, woolpack clouds). — Thick clouds of which the upper surface is dome-shaped and exhibits 
protuberances while the base is horizontal. 

Fr-Cu (fracto-cumulus). — A broken cloud resembling cumulus in which the detached portions under- 
go continual change in strong winds. 

Cu-Nb (cumulo-nimbus, thunder cloud, shower cloud). — Heavy masses of cloud rising in the form 
of mountains, turrets, or anvils, generally surmounted by a sheet or screen of fibrous appear- 
ance (false cirrus), and having at its base a mass of cloud similar to nimbus. 

Nb (nimbus, rain clouds). — A thick layer of dark clouds without shape and with ragged edges. 

St (stratus). — A uniform layer of cloud resembling a fog but not resting on the ground. 

Fr-St (fracto-stratus). — -Stratus cloud broken up into irregular shreds in a wind or by summits of 
mountains. 

The state of the weather is given in accordance with the following conventions which 
are in general use: 



b. Clear, blue sky. 


m. 


Misty. 


t. 


Thunder. 


c. Clouds. 


0. 


Overcast. 


u. 


Ugly appearances, 


d. Drizzling or light rain. 


V- 


Passing showers. 




threatening weather. 


/. Fog or foggy weather. 


<?• 


Squally. 


V. 


Variable weather. 


g. Gloomy, dark, stormy. 


r. 


Rain. 


w. 


Wet or heavy dew. 


h. Hail. 


s. 


Snow. 


z. 


Hazy weather. 


1. Lightning. 








\ 



During cruises IV and V the geographical position given at the commencement of a 
24-hour series applies to the mean time of the entire series, while for Cruise VI two posi- 
tions are given, the first applying to the mean time of the series from the beginning up 
to 18 h and the second applying to the mean time of the series from 18 h to the end. 

The results of some studies by Louis A. Bauer and S. J. Mauchly of the material 
given in the Table of Results will be found on pages 359 to 424 of this volume. 



212 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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214 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Electric Observations, 1915-21 



217 



o* cr o* o* c 



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218 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Electric Observations, 1915-21 



219 



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Final Results of Ocean Electric Observations, 1915-21 223 



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13.7 

14.7 

15 7 

16.7 

17.7 

18.7 

19.7 

20.7 

21.7 

22.7 

23.7 

0.7 

17 

2.7 

3.7 

4.7 

5.7 

6.7 

7.7 

10.2 

10.2 

10 1 

10.2 

9.2 

10.4 

10.9 

11.9 

12.9 

13.9 

14.9 

15.9 

16.9 

17.9 

18.9 

19 9 

20.9 

21.9 

22.9 

23.9 

0.9 

1.9 

2.9 

6.9 

10.8 

11.0 

9.8 

10.2 

9.3 

9.6 

8.2 

9.2 

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3.14 

3.26 

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3.10 
3.41 
3.35 
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3.41 
3.40 
3.41 
3.13 
3.29 
3.29 
3.45 
3.47 
3.47 
3.50 
3.50 
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3.60 
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3.51 
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14.5 
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19.5 
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1.60 
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13.4 

14.4 

15.4 

16.4 

17.4 

18.4 

19.4 

20.4 

21.4 

22.4 

23.4 

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2.3 

3.3 

4.3 

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9.7 

9.7 

9.8 

9.8 

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13.5 

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107.6 
109.9 
112.4 
113.7 
115.8 
126.6 
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36.2 S 
37.2 S 

39.7 S 

42.0 S 

47.8 S 

48.2 S 

54.3 S 

59.1 S 

57.2 S 
54.0 S 

51.6 S 

44.4 S 

40.7 S 



224 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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Final Results of Ocean Electric Observations, 1915-21 



225 



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229 



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16.5 
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17.8 
17.0 
16.8 
17.8 
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17.9 
17.8 
17.3 
17.1 
16.8 
16.5 
16.3 
16.3 
16.4 
16.2 
16.2 
16.3 
16.2 
16.1 
16.5 
16.5 
16.5 
16.5 
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17.8 
16.8 
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16.0 
16.8 
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20.6 
19.6 
19.5 
19.7 
20.2 
21.2 
21.3 
20.7 
20.0 
19.6 
19.6 
19.4 
19.4 
19.4 




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20.7 
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22.7 
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218.7 
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224.6 
228.8 
230.6 
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235.5 
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236.7 
236.0 
236.4 
237.1 
238.3 
240.0 
241.7 
243.4 




47.3 N 
45.5 N 

43.4 N 
41.2 N 
40.9 N 

40.7 N 

40.2 N 

39.5 N 

38.6 N 

38.3 N 
San Fran 
35.9 N 

35.3 N 
34.2 N 

31.8 N 

29.4 N 
26.8 N 
23.8 N 

20.7 N 



230 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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231 



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Final Results of Ocean Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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22.7 
22.7 
22.6 
22.5 
22.4 
22.5 
22.3 
22.3 
22.4 
23.2 
24.2 
24.5 
25.4 


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25.6 
25.3 
27.0 
27.0 
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27.2 
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27.2 
26.7 
26.6 
26.0 
25.8 
25.5 
25.4 
25.3 
25.5 
25.5 
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25.2 
24.5 
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25.0 
24.8 
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22.5 

23.5 

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2.5 

3.5 

4.5 

5.5 

6.5 

7.5 

10.7 

11.4 


11.4 

11.7 

10.9 

11.3 

11.9 

8.6 

9.6 

10.6 

11.6 

12.6 

13.6 

14.6 

15.6 

16.6 

17.6 

18.6 

19.6 

20.6 

21.6 

22.6 

23.6 

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2.6 

3.6 

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6.6 

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2.75 

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21.2 

22.3 

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21.8 

22.8 

23.8 

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1.8 

2.8 

3.8 

4.8 

5.8 

6.8 

7.8 

10.3 

10.8 

11.2 

11.8 

11.2 

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11.7 

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10.9 

11.9 

12.9 

13.9 

14.9 

15 9 

16.9 

17.9 

18.9 

19.9 

20.9 

21.9 

22.9 

23.9 

0.9 

1.9 

2.9 

3 9 

4.9 

5.9 

6.9 

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237.0 
234.6 

232.9 
231.6 
229.8 
229.1 
226.3 

223.7 
221.3 
220.5 
220.1 
215.6 
217.3 
220.2 
222.0 




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12.6 S 

12.7 S 

14.4 S 

16.0 S 
17.2 S 
19.7 S 

20.1 S 

22.2 S 

26.5 S 
29.4 S 
32.1 S 
34.7 S 
37.9 S 
37.9 S 

38.4 S 

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234 



Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-21 



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